The goal of this special volume is to provide veterinary scientists with state-of-the art reviews in animal health and to inform human health scientists of the various challenges and collaborative opportunities associated with their animal health counterparts. The contributors are highly respected experts, providing invaluable insights into current issues and state-of-the-art advances within veterinary medicine.
Veterinary medicine; harmonization
The purpose of this study was to construct a pharmacokinetic (PK) model and to determine PK parameters of 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) after application of TMP transdermal delivery system. Data were obtained in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats following a single dose of TMP transdermal delivery system. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 16, and 24 hours after the transdermal application. In the brain level study, 18 SD rats were divided into 6 groups. Three SD rats before and after transdermal application were culled and sacrificed at each of the following time intervals: 2, 4, 6, 16, and 24 hours after the TMP-TTS application. TMP concentrations in plasma and brain tissues were determined using high performance liquid chromatography and data were fitted using a zero-order absorption and a firstorder-elimination 3-compartment PK model. Fitted parameters included 2 volumes of distribution (V1, V2) and 2 elimination rate constants (k10, k20). The elimination half-life for TMP in plasma and brain was 26.5 and 31.2 minutes, respectively. The proposed PK model fit observed concentrations of TMP very well. This model is useful for predicting drug concentrations in plasma and brain and for assisting in the development of transdermal systems.
tetramethylpyrazine; percutaneous absorption; transdermal drug delivery system; in vitro/in vivo; pharmacokinetic model
Four non-polymeric plasticizers, propylene glycol, diethyl phthalate, triacetin, and glycerin have been subjected to rising temperature thermogravimetry for kinetic analysis and vaporization-based thermal stability evaluation. Since volatile loss of a substance is a function of its vapor pressure, the thermal stability of these plasticizers has been analyzed by generating vapor pressure curves using the Antoine and Langmuir equations. Unknown Antoine constants for the sample compounds, triacetin and glycerin have been derived by subjecting the vapor pressure curves to nonlinear regression. For the first time, the entire process of obtaining the unknown Antoine constants through thermogravimetry has been validated by developing an approach called the double reference method. Based on this method, it has been possible to show that this technique is accurate even for structurally diverse compounds. Kinetic analysis on the volatilization of compounds revealed a predominant zero order process. The activation energy values for vaporization of propylene glycol, diethyl phthalate, triacetin, and glycerin, as deduced from the Arrhenius plots, have been determined to be 55.80, 66.45, 65.12, and 67.54 kJ/mol, respectively. The enthalpies of vaporization of the compounds have been determined from the Clausius-Clapeyron plots. Rising temperature thermogravimetry coupled with nonlinear regression analysis has been shown to be an effective and rapid technique for accurately predicting the vapor pressure behavior and thermal stability evaluation of valatile compounds.
plasticizers, vapor pressure plots; thermal stability; Antoine and Langmuir equations; thermogravimetry
Metronidazole was formulated in mucoadhesive vaginal tablets by directly compressing the natural cationic polymer chitosan, loosely cross-linked with glutaraldehyde, together with sodium alginate with or ine cellulose (MCC). Sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was added to some of the formulations. The drug content in tablets was 20%. Drug dissolution rate studies from tablets were carried out in buffer pH 4.8 and distilled water. Swelling indices and adhesion forces were also measured for all formulations. The formula (FIII) containing 6% chitosan, 24% sodium alginate, 30% sodium CMC, and 20% MCC showed adequate release properties in both media and gave lower values of swelling index compared with the other examined formulations. FIII also proved to have good adhesion properties with minimum applied weights. Moreover, its release properties (% dissolution efficiency, DE) in buffer pH 4.8, as well as release mechanism (n values), were negligibly affected by aging. Thus, this formula may be considered a good candidate for vaginal mucoadhesive dosage forms.
metronidazole; chitosan; sodium alginate; mucoadhesion; swelling; release study
The time course of chemotherapeutic effect is often delayed relative to the time course of chemotherapeutic exposure. In many cases, this delay is difficult to characterize mathematically through the use of standard pharmacodynamic models. In the present work, we investigated the relationship between methotrexate (MTX) exposure and the time course of MTX effects on tumor cell growth in culture. Two cancer cell lines, Ehrlich ascites cells and sarcoma 180 cells, were exposed for 24 hours to MTX concentrations that varied more than 700-fold (0.19–140 μg/mL). Viable cells were counted on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 20, 22, and 24 for Ehrlich ascites cells and on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, and 21 for sarcoma 180 cells, through the use of a tetrazolium assay. Although MTX was removed 24 hours after application, cell numbers reached nadir values more than 100 hours after MTX exposure. Data from each cell line were fitted to 3 pharmacodynamic models of chemotherapeutic cell killing: a cell cycle phase-specific model, a phase-nonspecific model, and a transit compartment model (based on the general model recently reported by Mager and Jusko, Clin Pharmacol Ther. 70:210–216, 2001). The transit compartment model captured the data much more accurately than the standard pharmacodynamic models, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.86 to 0.999. This report shows the successful application of a transit compartment model for characterization of the complex time course of chemotherapeutic effects; such models may be very useful in the development of optimization strategies for cancer chemotherapy.
methotrexate; cell growth inhibition; modeling; chemotherapeutic effect; transit compartment model
Restenosis remains the major limitation of percutaneous transluminal angloplasty (PTA) and stenting in the treatment of patients with atherosclerotic disease. Catheter-based local delivery of pharmacologic agents offers a potential therapeutic approach to reducing restenosis and minimizing undesirable systemic side effects. However, the intramural retention of liquid agents is low. Therefore, to achieve a sustained and regional release of the therapeutic agent it must be encapsulated in nanoparticle carrier systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the size dependence of the penetration of nanoparticles after local delivery into the vessel wall of the aorta abdominalis of New Zealand white rabbits. Two milliliters of a 0.025% fluorescence-labeled polystyrene nanoparticle suspension with diameters ranging from 110 to 514 nm were infused at 2 atm and at constant PTA pressure of 8 atm into the aorta abdominalis. After the infused segments were removed, the location of nanoparticles was visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The study demonstrates a size-dependent nanoparticle penetration into the intact vessel wall. While nanoparticles of about 100 and 200 nm were deposited in the inner regions of the vessel wall, 514-nm nanoparticles accumulated primarily at the luminal surgace of the aorta. The observations confirm that size plays a critical role in the distribution of particles in the arterial vessel wall. It is additionally influenced by the formation of pressure-induced infusion channels, as well as by the existence of anatomic barriers, such as plaques, at the luminal surface of the aorta or the connective elastic tissue.
angioplasty; restenosis; local deposition; nanoparticles
The potential inhibitory effects of 3 excipients (polyethylene glycol [PEG] 400, Pluronic P85, and vitamin E d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate [TPGS]) on the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux of digoxin (DIG) and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A)-mediated metabolism of verapamil (VRP) have been examined in an in vitro permeability model.
Experiments were conducted utilizing rat jejunal tissue mounted in diffusion chambers and included assessment of the serosal to mucosal (s to m) transport of DIG and the formation of norverapamil (NOR) during the mucosal to serosal transport of VRP, as measures of P-gp efflux and CYP3A metabolism, respectively.
The presence of PEG at 1%, 5%, and 20% (wt/vol) reduced both the s to m flux of DIG (by 47%, 57%, and 64%, respectively, when compared to control) and the metabolism of VRP (by 54%, 78%, and 100%) in a concentration-dependent manner. P85 (0.1% wt/vol) significantly reduced s to m DIG flux by 47% and inhibited VRP metabolism by 42%. TPGS had insignificant effects on both metabolism and efflux at a concentration of 0.01% (wt/vol). The P-gp inhibitory effects of PEG and P85 were evident regardless of whether the excipient was added to the mucosal side, the serosal side, or both sides of the tissue.
The current data suggest that inclusion of PEG and P85 as solubilizing agents during in vitro permeability assessment may have a significant impact on both drug metabolism and efflux processes. These compounds appear to exert their effects on P-gp primarily via direct transporter inhibition-or indirectly, through effects on buffer osmolarity, membrane fluidity, and/or mitochondrial toxicity and subsequent adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion.
P-glycoprotein; CYP3A; intestinal; metabolism; permeability; PEG
Increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents is of growing concern to public health officials worldwide. The concern includes infections acquired in hospitals, community infections acquired in outpatient care settings, and resistant foodborne disease associated with drug use in food-producing animals. In the United States, a significant source of antimicrobial-resistant foodborne infections in humans is the acquisition of resistant bacteria originating from animals. The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) goal in resolving the public health impact arising from the use of antimicrobial drugs in food-producing animals is to ensure that significant human antimicrobial therapies are not compromised or lost while providing for the safe use of antimicrobials in food animals. The FDA's approach to the problem is multipronged and innovative. The strategy includes revision of the pre-approval safety assessment for new animal drug applications, use of risk assessment to determine the human health effect resulting from the use of antimicrobials in food animals, robust monitoring for changes in susceptibilities among foodborne pathogens to drugs that are important both in human and veterinary medicine, research, and risk management.
Antimicrobial resistance; animal drugs; foodborne disease; veterinary medicine
Like most scientific disciplines, pharmacology is replete with subspecialties. Certainly most scientists recognize the value of animal studies in drug development for human pharmaceuticals. However, animals as the target species also represent a major focus of investigation. According to recent estimates, in the United States for the year 2000, 98.1 million cattle, 59.8 million pigs, and 1.5 billion chickens existed. Added to that estimate were companion animals, including 4 million horses, 59 million cats, and 52.9 million dogs1,2. The estimate does not include the so?called “minor” species, such as 7 million sheep and 320 000 acres of freshwater fish production1,3. In most respects, the medical needs of these animals are addressed in a manner parallel to that of human medicine. One such parallel, with certain distinct differences from its human counterpart, is veterinary clinical pharmacology.
veterinary clinical; pharmacology; species differences; industry; academia; regulatory
Fundamental aspects of electrolyte chemistry were used to design an appropriate dissolution medium with the capacity to maintain sink conditions throughout the test. Dissolution of various bolus dosage forms was studied using USP Apparatus II at various stirring speeds. Complete dissolution of each drug in the designed medium was achieved, and there is evidence that such a dissolution test could be discriminating. This review details the development of potentially discriminating in vitro dissolution tests for veterinary boluses using USP Apparatus II and examines the potential role of such testing during product quality assessments, in the evaluation of postapproval manufacturing changes and for the establishment of the generic equivalence of veterinary products.
dissolution; veterinary products; bolus
Residues are composed of the parent drug and metabolites, and therefore interspecies comparisons must involve a consideration of comparative xenobiotic metabolism. The focus of this article will be the residue studies that are required to establish human food safety, and the interspecies pharmacokinetic differences and similarities that impact drug residues in animal- derived foods. To illustrate the factors that can complicate and assist these comparisons, 2 drugs will be examined in detail: ivermectin and fenbendazole. In addition, the activities of 2 US programs, the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD) and the NRSP-7 (National Research Support Project Number 7) Minor Use Animal Drug Program will be presented, along with strategies that may be employed in the study of species differences.
food safety; residues; comparative metabolism
Methods to control infectious diseases in livestock are growing in importance. As the size of the average farm increases-for poultry, dairy and beef cattle, swine, and fish-the risk of rapid spread of infectious diseases increases as well. This increases the need for alternative methods of control of infectious agents. Improvements in specific immunogens, adjuvants, and delivery systems are needed to meet the demand for vaccines to ensure a healthy and safe meat supply. This article explores the challenges, trends, and recent advances in the control of infectious diseases through the use of biologics.
biologics; vaccines; animal health; novel delivery systems
The objective of this brief article is to provide an overview of some of the important harmonization efforts that are currently under way within the animal health community. Topics include: scientific networks and interdisciplinary communication: organizations that address animal-related public health concerns; the role of the veterinary pharmaceutical scientist within human health-oriented professional organizations; recent publications pertaining to veterinary pharmacology, pharmaceutics and therapeutics; and the role of global networking in veterinary product research and development.
communication; globalization; veterinary medicine
The purpose of this study was to test whether screening at dopamine receptors performed with a recently described functional assay for G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) provides data that correlate significantly with radioligand binding data in the literature, thus possibly allowing researchers to replace radioligand binding with nonradioactive functional screening. Human dopamine receptors hD1 and hD2L (representing Gs [hD1] or G [hD2L] coupled GPCRs) were recombinantly expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Cells were loaded with Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1/AM and evenly distributed in 384 well plates. Seventeen test compounds were screened for agonistic activity by injection into the cell suspension and monitoringH of intracellular Ca2+ with a fluorescence microplate reader. Then, standard agonists (100nM SKF38393 for hD1, 30nM quinpirole for hD2L) were injected into wells preincubated with test compounds (screening for antagonism). Injection of various agonists resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in fluorescence. Further, preincubation of antagonists with dopamine receptor expressing cells inhibits concentration-dependent the agonist-induced increase in fluorescence. Calculated apparent functional Ki values correlate with radioligand binding data in the literature (r2=0.7796 for D1, r2=0.7743 for D2). The correlation between apparent functional K values and radioligand binding data for the 17 tested compounds suggests that screening of test compounds at dopamine receptors with the functional Ca2+ assay can replace radioligand binding studies. Furthermore, besides apparent K values, information about agonistic or antagonistic properties of a test compound can be obtained with the functional Ca2+ assay.
dopamine receptor; functional screening; Ca2+ assay; microplate reader; radioligand binding
Lipoproteins are a heterogeneous population of macromolecular aggregates of lipids and proteins that are responsible for the transport of lipids through the vascular and extravascular fluids from their site of synthesis or absorption to peripheral tissues. Lipoproteins are involved in other biological processes as well, including coagulation and tissue repair, and serve as carriers of a number of hydrophobic compounds within the systemic circulation. It has been well documented that disease states (eg, AIDS, diabetes, cancer) significantly influence circulating lipoprotein content and composition. Therefore, it appears possible that changes in the lipoprotein profile would affect not only the ability of a compound to associate with lipoproteins but also the distribution of the compound within the lipoprotein subclasses. Such an effect could alter the pharmacokinetics and pharmacological action of the drug. This paper reviews the factors that influence the interaction of one model hydrophobic compound, cyclosporine A, with lipoproteins and the implications of altered plasma lipoprotein concentrations on the pharmacological behavior of this compound.
Literature reports have suggested that hemodynamic response toward organic nitrates may be reduced in obese patients, but this effect has not been studied. We compared the mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses toward single doses of nitroglycerin (NTG), 0.5–50μg) in conscious Zucker obese (ZOB), Zucker lean (ZL), and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. NTG tolerance development in these animal groups was separately examined. Rats received 1 and 10μg/min of NTG or vehicle infusion, and the maximal MAP response to an hourly 30μg NTG IVchallenge dose (CD) was measured. Steady-state NTG plasma concentrations were measured during 10μg/min NTG infusion. The Emax and ED50 values obtained were 33.9± 3.6 and 3.5±1.7μg for SD rats, 33.2±4.1 and 3.0±1.4μg for ZL rats, and 34.8±3.9 and 5.3±2.8μg for ZOB rats, respectively. No difference was found in the dose-response curves among these 3 groups (p>.05, 2-way ANOVA). Neither the dynamics of NTG tolerance development, nor the steady-state NTG plasma concentrations, were found to differ among these 3 animal groups. These results showed that ZOB rats are not more resistant to the hemodynamic effects of organic nitrates compared with their lean controls. Thus, the acute and chronic hemodynamic effects by the presence of obesity in a conscious animal model of genetic obesity.
nitrate tolerance; Zucker; noninsulin dependent diabetes; mellitus; nitric oxide; obesity
The aim of this study was to compare 2 stepwise covariate model-building strategies, frequently used in the analysis of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) data using nonlinear mixed-effects models, with respect to included covariates and predictive performance. In addition, the effects of stepwise regression on the estimated covariate coefficients wise regression on the estimated covariate coefficients were assessed. Using simulated and real PK data, covariate models were built applying (1) stepwise generalized additive models (GAM) for identifying potential covariates, followed by backward elimination in the computer program NONMEM, and (2) stepwise forward inclusion and backward elimination in NONMEM. Different versions of these procedures were tried (eg, treating different study occasions as separate individuals in the GAM, or fixing a part of the parameters when the NONMEM procedure was used). The final covariate models were compared, including their ability to predict a separate data set or their performance in cross-validation. The bias in the estimated coefficients (selection bias) was assessed. The model-building procedures performed similarly in the data sets explored. No major differences in the resulting covariate models were seen, and the predictive performances overlapped. Therefore, the choice of model-building procedure in these examples could be based on other aspects such as analyst-and computer-time efficiency. There was a tendency to selection bias in the estimates, although this was small relative to the overall variability in the estimates. The predictive performances of the stepwise models were also reasonably good. Thus, selection bias seems to be a minor problem in this typical PK covariate analysis.
stepwise model building; covariate analysis; GAM; NONMEM; selection bias
When the metabolism of a drug is competitively or noncompetitively inhibited by another drug, the degree of in vivo interaction can be evaluated from the [I]u/Ki ratio, where [I]u is the unbound concentration around the enzyme and Ki is the inhibition constant of the inhibitor. In the present study, we evaluated the metabolic inhibition potential of drugs known to be inhibitors or substrates of cytochrome P450 by estimating their [I]u/Ki ratio using literature data.
The maximum concentration of the inhibitor in the circulating blood ([I]max), its maximum unbound concentration in the circulating blood ([I]max,u), and its maximum unbound concentration at the inlet to the liver ([I]in,max,u) were used as [I]u, and the results were compared with each other. In order to calculate the [I]u/Ki ratios, the pharmacokinetic parameters of each drug were obtained from the literature, together with their reported Ki values determined in in vitro studies using human liver microsomes.
For most of the drugs with a calculated [I]in,max,u/Ki ratio less than 0.25, which applied to about half of the drugs investigated, no in vivo interactions had been reported or “no interaction” was reported in clinical studies. In contrast, the [I]max,u/Ki and [I]max/Ki ratio was calculated to be less than 0.25 for about 90% and 65% of the drugs, respectively, and more than a 1.25-fold increase was reported in the area under the concentration-time curve of the co-administered drug for about 30% of such drugs. These findings indicate that the possibility of underestimation of in vivo interactions (possibility of false-negative prediction) is greater when [I]max,u or [I]max values are used compared with using [I]in,max,u values.
Drug interaction; metabolism; quantitative prediction
VNP40101M (1,2-Bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)-2-[(2 methylamino)carbonyl] hydrazine), a novel DNA alkylating agent, is currently under clinical development for the treatment of cancer in Phase I clinical trials. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics, mass balance, and tissue distribution of [14C]-VNP40101M in rats following a single intravenous dose of 10 mg/kg. After 7 days, the total recovery of radioactivity was 85% for males and 79% for females. Most of the radioactivity was eliminated within 48 hours through urine (70%), with less excreted in feces (6%). Tissue contained relatively high radioactive residues with the highest concentrations in kidneys, liver, lung, and spleen. After 7 days, tissue still contained 9% of the dose. At both 5 minutes and 1 hour post-dose, brain contained relatively high radioactivity (5.9 and 3.3 μg equivalence/g and 50% and 30% of the blood concentration, respectively), suggesting that VNP40101M penetrated the blood-brain barrier. The elimination half-life of VNP40101M was approximately 20 minutes, the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) averaged 11.3 μg/mL, the volume of distribution (Vss) averaged 0.91 L/kg, and the total body clearance (CI) averaged 33.5 mL/min/kg. The metabolite profile in urine was complex, indicating VNP40101M was extensively metabolized. There were no apparent sex differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of VNP40101M in the rat.
VNP40101M; Mass balance; Pharmacokinetics; Tissue distribution
Pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling is a scientific tool to help developers select a rational dosage regimen for confirmatory clinical testing. This article describes some of the limitations associated with traditional dose-titration designs (parallel and crossover designs) for determining an appropriate dosage regimen. It also explains how a PK/PD model integrates the PK model (describing the relationship between dose, systemic drug concentrations, and time) with the PD model (describing the relationship between systemic drug concentration and the effect vs time profile) and a statistical model (particularly, the intra- and interindividual variability of PK and/or PD origin). Of equal importance is the utility of these models for promoting rational drug selection on the basis of effectiveness and selectivity. PK/PD modeling can be executed using various approaches, such as direct versus indirect response models and parametric versus nonparametric models. PK/PD concepts can be applied to individual dose optimization. Examples of the application of PK/PD approaches in veterinary drug development are provided, with particular emphasis given to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The limits of PK/PD approaches include the development of appropriate models, the validity of surrogate endpoints, and the acceptance of these models in a regulatory environment.
Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic modeling; veterinary drug; dosage regimen; interspecies extrapolation; potency; efficacy
The objective of this study was to develop a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to detect MDR1 (human multidrug resistance gene) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) C3435T and G2677T. C3435T and G2677T are linked to MDR1*2, which is associated with enhanced efflux activity in vitro. Using the Smart Cycler, an allele-specific real-time PCR-based genotyping method was developed to detect C3435T and G2677T. The MDR1 genotype of human genomic DNA templates was determined by direct DNA sequencing. PCR reactions for genotyping C3435T and G2677T by using allele-specific primers were conducted in separate tubes. An additional nucleotide mismatch at the third position from the 3′ end of each allele-specific primer was used to abrogate nonspecific PCR amplification. The fluorescence emitted by SYBR Green I was monitored to detect formation of specific PCRproducts. PCR growth curves exceeding the threshold cycle were considered positive. Fluorescence melt-curve analysis was used to corroborate results from PCR growth curves. Using PCR growth curves, our assay accurately determined hetero- and homozygosity for C3435T and G2677T. Genotype assignments based on PCR growth curve, melt-curve analysis, agarose gel electrophoresis, and direct DNA sequencing results of PCR products were in perfect agreement. We have developed a rapid MDR1 genotyping method that can be used to assess the contribution of MDR1*2 to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability of P-glycoprotein substrates.
P-glycoprotein; single nucleotide polymorphism; real-time polymerase chain reaction
Mu opioid receptor (OPRM1), a member of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, mediates the analgesic and euphoric effects of opioid drugs. The sequences of OPRM1 cDNA and reported splice variants were used to search the public and Celera genomic databases. The matched sequences were analyzed to assemble an OPRM1 genomic contig. Human OPRM1 gene was estimated to span at least 90 kb in the chromosome 6q24–25 region. Four coding exons are separated by 3 introns. While intron 2 has only 773 bp, these databases for the first time provide the precise length of and other information about long introns 1 and 3, containing 50 and 27 kb, respectively. When a consensus exon/intron splice junction at the end of the coding exon 3 was not utilized, it may have resulted in continuous translation of the exon to yield the splice variant OPRM1A. The study did not identify human orthologs of other OPRM1 variants that had been reported for mouse OPRM1, although several proposed exons were found to be included in mouse genomic clones. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the OPRM1 gene were also analyzed and summarized, which could provide potential polymorphic markers for molecular genetic studies.
OPRM1; MOR1; opioid receptor; ortholog; splice; variant; polymorphism
Our objective was to assess the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of RWJ-270201 (BCX-1812), an oral neuraminidase inibitor for the treatment of influenza A and B virus in healthy volunteers.
This was a double-blind, randomized, placebocontrolled, parallel group study. A total of 80 adult male and female subjects were enrolled for the influenza A challenge study. This was a 5arm study (100 mg/qd, 200 mg/qd, 200 mg/bid, 400 mg/qd, and placebo). In the challenge B virus model, 60 subjects were enrolled for a 3-arm study (800 mg on Day 1 followed by 400 mg on Days 2–5; 800 mg on Days 1–5; and placebo). The pharmacokinetics of RWJ-270201 (BCX-1812) were characterized with the use of a population approach and were described by a 2-compartmental model with first-order absorption and elimination. The pharmacodynamic data, mean log viral titers, were described with the use of an empirical equation relating the viral growth and the effect of drug on changes in viral titers.
Pharmacokinetic analyses show that weight was the most significant covariate for all estimated pharmacokinetic parameters. The pharmacodynamic data, mean log viral titers showed a decrease in viral titers with increase in plasma exposure. The decrease in viral titer started to occur 12 hours following the drug dosing, and viral suppression lasted 72 hours to 96 hours. The exposures associated with a 50% decrease in viral titers were 1089 ng-h/mL and 1898 ng-h/mL, respectively.
A PK/PD model was well utilized to characterize the effect of RWJ-270201 (BCX-1812) on the influenza A and B virus. The results from this model showed that both the loading dose and the standard dose regimens are efficacious against A and B virus.
RWJ-270201 (BCX-1812) is under clinical development for the treatment of influenza A and B infections in adult and high-risk populations. It is a potent and selective inhibitor of both influenza A and B virus neuraminidases and inhibits the viral cleavage of sialic acid from cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids. Consequently, RWJ-270201 (BCX-1812) prevents infection by stopping the release of newly formed virus from the surface of infected cells and preventing viral spread across the mucous lining of the respiratory tract. It therefore represents an attractive agent for antiviral therapy.
Population; pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics; Influenza virus; RWJ-270201
Intracellular free H+ concentration (pHi) responds to numerous extracellular stimuli. The use of fluorescent indicator dyes to measure pHi is strongly influenced by the ability of target cells to retain activated dye within the cytoplasmic compartment. Here, 3 pH-sensitive indicator dyes—acetoxymethyl (AM) esters of SNARF-1 and BCECF, and the thiol-reactive 5-chloromethyfluorescein (CMFDA)—were examined for monitoring pHi. The stability of pH measurements was strongly affected by temperature, cell type, indicator dye, and use of transport inhibitors to prevent dye export. Cellular retention of CMFDA, which forms covalent complexes, was sufficient to permit monitoring of transient pHi changes over extended time periods in a multi-well plate assay format. In human embryonic kidney (HEK293) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, increasing osmotic pressure caused a significant rise in pHi. In contrast, activation of native or transfected β-adrenergic, cholinergic, and d and m opioid receptors did not measurably affect pHi in HEK293 cells. Decreases in pHi were observed in CHO cells expressing the human H+/peptide transporter PEPT1 upon addition of dipeptide substrates. The use of CMFDA in multi-well formats should facilitate study of osmotic and transport activity and screening for drugs that affect pHi.
intracellular pH; fluorescent pH-sensitive; dyes; Chinese hamster ovary cells; human embryonic; kidney cells; human colon adrenocarcinoma cells; hypertonic stress