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1.  AAPS pharmSci: An advanced publication forum has matured 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(2):86-87.
doi:10.1208/ps050216
PMCID: PMC2751524  PMID: 12866943
2.  High glucose concentration in isotonic media alters Caco-2 cell permeability 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(3):17-25.
Caco-2 cell permeability was evaluated in isotonic media containing high (25mM) or physiological (5.5mM) glucose concentrations. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and membrane fluidity were measured to assess glucose-induced alterations in physical barrier properties. In parallel, distribution of the actin filament (F-actin) and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) proteins was assessed by confocal microscopy. Transepithelial fluxes of mannitol, hydrocortisone, digoxin, and glycyl sarcosine (Gly-Sar) that permeate the intestinal mucosa by various pathways were measured to quantify the effect of glucose-induced changes on Caco-2 cell permeability. High glucose decreased maximum TEER of cell monolayers by 47%, whereas membrane fluidity at the hydrophobic core and lipid/polar head interphase was significantly increased. F-actin distribution in high glucose cells appeared more diffuse while ZO-1 was unchanged. Mannitol and hydrocortisone fluxes across Caco-2 cells cultured in high glucose increased by 65% and 24%, respectively. In addition, high glucose decreased the maximum transport capacity (Vmax) of PepT-1. P-glycoprotein activity, however, was unchanged. In conclusion, high extracellular glucose concentration in isotonic media significantly alters physical barrier properties of Caco-2 cell monolayers, which predominantly affects transepithelial transport of solutes permeating the cell barrier by paracellular and transcellular passive diffusion and facilitated transport mediated by the proton-dependent oligopeptide transporter (PepT-1).
doi:10.1208/ps050324
PMCID: PMC2750934  PMID: 14621959
Caco-2; glucose; tight junctions; TEER; membrane fluidity; solute flux
3.  Influence of solvents on the variety of crystalline forms of erythromycin 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(2):39-47.
The influence of the organic solvents widely used in the pharmaceutical industry (acetone, methylethylketone, ethanol, and isopropanol) both in the presence and in the absence of water on the crystallization behavior of erythromycin (Em), a clinically relevant antibiotic of the macrolide group, was investigated. It was observed that despite a high preference for water as a guest molecule, Em rather easily forms solvates with the organic solvents studied. Consequently, 4 distinct solvates of Em have been isolated by recrystallization: acetonate, methylethylketonate, ethanolate, and isopropanolate. It was established that in a pure organic solvent, or 1∶9 or 1∶1 water-organic solvent mixtures, the corresponding solvate is always crystallized. However, the recrystallization of erythromycin from 2∶1 water-organic solvent (excluding methylethylketone) mixture results in the formation of a crystal hydrate form. X-ray powder diffraction revealed the isostructurality of the solvates with acetone and methylethylketone. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the loss of volatiles by all of the solvated crystals is nonstoichiometric. The desolvation behavior of the solvates with the organic solvents studied by means of variable-temperature x-ray powder diffraction indicates that in contrast to erythromycin dihydrate, they belong to a different class of solvates—those that produce an amorphous material upon desolvation.
doi:10.1208/ps050212
PMCID: PMC2751520  PMID: 12866939
erythromycin; crystallization; solvated crystals; isostructurality; clathrate; x-ray diffraction
4.  The composite solubility versus pH profile and its role in intestinal absorption prediction 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(1):35-49.
The purpose of this study was to examine absorption of basic drugs as a function of the composite solubility curve and intestinally relevant pH by using a gastrointestinal tract (GIT) absorption simulation based on the advanced compartmental absorption and transit model. Absorption simulations were carried out for virtual monobasic drugs having a range of pKa, log D, and dose values as a function of presumed solubility and permeability. Results were normally expressed as the combination that resulted in 25% absorption. Absorption of basic drugs was found to be a function of the whole solubility/pH relationship rather than a single solubility value at pH 7. In addition, the parameter spaces of greatest sensitivity were identified. We compared 3 theoretical scenarios: the GIT pH range overlapping (1) only the salt solubility curve, (2) the salt and base solubility curves, or (3) only the base curve. Experimental solubilities of 32 compounds were determined at pHs of 2.2 and 7.4, and they nearly all fitted into 2 of the postulated scenarios. Typically, base solubilities can be simulated in silico, but salt solubilities at low pH can only be measured. We concluded that quality absorption simulations of candidate drugs in most cases require experimental solubility determination at 2 pHs, to permit calculation of the whole solubility/pH profile.
doi:10.1208/ps050104
PMCID: PMC2751472  PMID: 12713276
GIT; absorption simulation; pH solubility curve; BCS; solid-state properties; solubility screening
5.  Properties of microcrystalline cellulose and powder cellulose after extrusion/spheronization as studied by fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(4):77-89.
In this study, the effect of powder cellulose (PC) and 2 types of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC 101 and MCC 301) on pellet properties produced by an extrusion/spheronization process was investigated. The different investigated types of cellulose displayed different behavior during the extrusion/spheronization process. Pure PC was unsuitable for extrusion, because too much water was required and the added water was partly squeezed during the extrusion process. In contrast, MCC 101 and MCC 301 were extrudable at a wide range of water content, but the quality of the resulting products varied. In the extrusion/spheronization process, MCC 101 was the best substance, with easy handling and acceptable product properties. The properties of the extrudates and pellets were determined by Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). FT-Raman spectroscopy was able to distinguish between the original substances and also between the wet and dried extrudates. The particle sizes of the raw material and of the extrudates were determined by ESEM without additional preparation. For MCC, the size of the resulting particles within the extrudate or pellet was smaller. However, in the extrudates of PC, changes in particle size could not be observed.
doi:10.1208/ps050431
PMCID: PMC2750993  PMID: 15198519
powder cellulose; microcrystalline cellulose; pellet; Raman spectroscopy; environmental scanning electron microscopy; extrusion/spheronization
6.  Evaluation of sucrose esters as alternative surfactants in microencapsulation of proteins by the solvent evaporation method 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(2):123-131.
Sucrose esters (SE) are surfactants with potential pharmaceutical applications because of their low toxicity, biocompatibility, and excellent biodegradability. The objective of the study was to investigate SE as alternative surfactants in stabilizing emulsions for the preparation of protein-loaded microparticles. To achieve this goal, using bovine serum albumin as model protein and 75/25 poly(d,1-lactide-co-glycolide) as polymer carrier, we have investigated the influence of the following formulation variables on particle characteristics: (1) SE concentration from 0.01% to 1% (wt/vol), (2) hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) value of SE from 6 to 15, and (3) the nature of emulsion stabilizer. The formulations were characterized using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, bicinchoninic acid protein assay, optical microscopy and SDS-PAGE. Results showed that at 0.05% (wt/vol) surfactant concentration, SE with HLB of 6 to 15 provided discrete and spherical microparticles with the highest encapsulation efficiency compared with controls polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poloxamer 188. These results may be explained by the difference in critical micelle concentration, diffusion, and partition coefficient among the tested surfactants. HLB values were consistent with SE spectral data. The protein molecular weight was preserved after the encapsulation process. The effective SE concentration was far less (20-to 200-fold) than that is usually required for PVA in microencapsulation of proteins. However, the encapsulation efficiency was relatively lower (∼13.5%). These preliminary results suggest that it may be desirable to optimize such formulations in vitro and in vivo for SE to be eventually used as altermative surfactants in the development of microparticulate systems for parenteral delivery of protein and gene medicines.
doi:10.1208/ps050222
PMCID: PMC2751529  PMID: 12866947
proteins; microencapsulation; solvent evaporation; sucrose ester; surfactants
7.  Mechanisms of aggregate formation and carbohydrate excipient stabilization of lyophilized humanized monoclonal antibody formulations 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(2):21-31.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms of aggregate formation and excipient stabilization in freeze-dried formulations of a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody. Protein degradation was measured using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) and native size exclusion chromatography, and protein structure was studied using Fourier transform-infrared spectrometry and circular dichroism. The results showed that protein aggregates present following reconstitution were composed of native antibody structure and a reduced amount of free thiol when compared to protein monomer, which implied that intermolecular disulfides were involved in the aggregation mechanism. An excipient-free formulation resulted in reversible solid-state protein structural alteration and increased aggregation during storage. This correlated with dehydration to an extent that the amount of water was less than the estimated number of surface-accessible hydrogen-bonding sites on the protein. Improved native-like solid-state protein structure and reduced aggregation were obtained by formulation with enough carbohydrate to fulfill the hydrogen-bonding sites on the surface of the protein. Carbohydrate in excess of this concentration has less of an influence on protein aggregation. Reduced aggregation during storage was obtained by the addition of sufficient excipient to both stabilized solid-state protein structure and provide an environment that consisted of an amorphous glassy state matrix.
doi:10.1208/ps050210
PMCID: PMC2751518  PMID: 12866937
protein formulation; protein stability; recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody; aggregation; FT-IR spectrometry
8.  Effects of disodium ascorbyl phytostanol phosphates (FM-VP4) on cholesterol accumulation within rat intestinal cells 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(1):55-61.
The objective of this study was to determine whether FM-VP4, a novel compound derived from plant sterols, can effectively reduce cholesterol accumulation within rat intestinal epithelial crypt (IEC-6) cells. IEC-6 cells were cultured in Dulbeccos minimal essential medium (DMEM) containing 5% fetal bovine serum, 100 U/mL penicillin, 100 μg/mL streptomycin, and 0.1 units/mL insulin at 37°C under a humidified 5% CO2 atmosphere and seeded at 6.4×104 cells/well in 48-well plates. Experiments were initiated 14 days postconfluence. IEC-6 cells were exposed to [3H]cholesterol micelles (containing oleic and taurcholic acids), co-incubated with FM-VP4 (0, 10, 50, and 100 μM) in Hepes Buffered Sterile Saline (HBSS). Cells were also preincubated with FM-VP4 prior to [3H]cholesterol micelle incubation to determine whether its effects are elicited intracellularly. The cellular localization of cholesterol was determined using digitonin. To determine the effects of cholesterol on the extent of FM-VP4 accumulation within IEC-6 cells, [3H]FM-VP4 was incubated with IEC-6 cells in the presence of unlabeled cholesterol micelles (0, 10, and 50 μM). The extent of [3H]cholesterol or [3H]FM-VP4 associated with cell monolayers was determined after cell lysis using liquid scintillation counting in a Beckman LS6500 Scintillation Counter. Dose-response and time course studies were performed in which control (no FM-VP4 treatment) and FM-VP4 (10–100 μM) were co-incubated with 50-μM [3H]cholesterol micelles from 1 minute to 24 hours. Incubation with only 50-μM FM-VP4 for less than 24 hours resulted in a 50% to 60% reduction (n=6, P<.05) in [3H]cholesterol associated with the monolayer compared with control (n=6). Preincubation of FM-VP4 did not elicit a significant reduction in cholesterol accumulation compared with control (n=6). Approximately 25% of the total [3H]cholesterol associated with the cells was determined to be cytosolic, while 75% was noncytosolic in the presence and/or absence of FM-VP4. [3H]FM-VP4 was also shown to associate with IEC-6 cells at similar concentrations to cholesterol with the most pronounced inhibition of FM-VP4 accumulation occurring at a cholesterol concentration of 50 μM. However, cholesterol-induced inhibition was detectable only after 1 hour of incubation. FM-VP4 inhibits cholesterol accumulation within IEC-6 cells and is most effective at equimolar concentrations with cholesterol. Our findings further suggest that the action of FM-VP4 is likely at the cell surface and not elicited intracellularly.
doi:10.1208/ps050106
PMCID: PMC2751474  PMID: 12713278
IEC-6 cells; phytostanols; cholesterol accumulation; cytotoxicity
9.  Hydroxyzine from topical phospholipid liposomal formulations: Evaluation of peripheral antihistaminic activity and systemic absorption in a rabbit model 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(4):41-48.
Hydroxyzine, an effective but sedating H1-antihistamine is given orally to treat allergic skin disorders. This study was performed to assess the peripheral H1-antihistaminic activity and extent of systemic absorption of hydroxyzine from liposomes applied to the skin. Using L-α-phosphatidylcholine (PC), small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) and multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) containing hydroxyzine were prepared. Hydroxyzine in Glaxal Base (GB) was used as the control. Using a randomized, crossover design, each formulation, containing 10 mg of hydroxyzine, was applied to the shaved backs of 6 rabbits (3.08±0.05 kg). Histamine-induced wheal tests and blood sampling were performed at designated time intervals up to 24 hours. Compared with baseline, hydroxyzine from all formulations significantly suppressed histamine-induced wheal formation by 75% to 95% for up to 24 hours. Mean maximum suppression, 85% to 94%, occurred from 2 to 6 hours, with no differences among the formulations. The areas of plasma hydroxyzine concentration versus time area under the curve (AUCs) from PC-SUV and PC-MLV, 80.1±20.8 and 78.4±33.9 ng/mL/h, respectively, were lower than that from GB, 492±141 ng/mL/h (P<.05) over 24 hours. Plasma concentrations of cetirizine arising in-vivo as the active metabolite of hydroxyzine, from PC-SUV, PC-MLV, and GB, were similar with AUCs of 765±50, 1035±202, and 957±227 ng/mL/h, respectively (P<.05). Only 0.02% to 0.06% of the initial hydroxyzine dose remained on the skin after 24 hours. In this model, hydroxyzine from SUV and MLV had excellent topical H1-antihistaminic activity, and minimal systemic exposure occurred. Cetirizine formed in-vivo contributed to some of H1-antihistaminic activity.
doi:10.1208/ps050428
PMCID: PMC2750990  PMID: 15198516
hydroxyzine; L-α-phosphatidylcholine; liposomes; antihistamine; skin; rabbit
10.  Amphiphilic star-like macromolecules as novel carriers for topical delivery of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(4):1-12.
The objective of this study was to evaluate amphiphilic star-like macromolecules (ASMs) as a topical drug delivery system. Indomethacin, piroxicam, and ketoprofen were individually encapsulated into the ASMs using coprecipitation. The effects of the ASMs on percutaneous permeation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) across full thickness, hairless mouse skin were evaluated in vitro using modified Franz diffusion cells. In addition, solubility and in vitro release experiments were performed to characterize ASMs behavior in aqueous media. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and Pluronic P-85 were used as polymer controls to compare the role of PEG and amphiphilic behavior in the ASMs. In vitro release experiments indicated that ASMs can delay drug release (P⋖05), whereas solubility measurements showed that ASMs can increase NSAIDs aqueous solubility (P⋖05). Percutaneous permeation studies revealed that ASMs decreased both flux and Q24 of drugs compared with the control (P⋖10). Skin pretreatment studies with ASM-containing solution before drug application demonstrated that pretreatment similarly influenced NSAID percutaneous permeation. In conclusion, ASMs likely slow drug permeation through 2 mechanisms, delayed drug diffusion from its core and skin dehydration by its shell. Thus, ASMs may be useful for delayed dermal delivery or prevention of compound permeation through the skin (eg, sunscreens, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide [DEET]) from aqueous formulations.
doi:10.1208/ps050426
PMCID: PMC2750988  PMID: 15198514
topical drug delivery; NSAIDs; polymeric micelle; permeation; drug release
11.  Wet granulation fine particle ethylcellulose tablets: Effect of production variables and mathematical modeling of drug release 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(2):48-60.
In the present study, the applicability of fine particle ethylcellulose (FPEC) to produce matrix tablets by a wet granulation technique was evaluated. The effect of various formulation and process variables, such as FPEC content, hardness of the tablet, and solubility of the drug, on the release of drug from these tablets was examined. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation of drug and FPEC in an appropriate mass ratio. Theophylline, caffeine, and dyphylline were selected as nonionizable model drugs with solubilities from 8.3 to 330 mg/mL at 25°C. Ibuprofen, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride, and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride were selected as ionizable drugs with solubilities from 0.1 to 2000 mg/mL at 25°C. Drug release studies were conducted in 37°C water with UV detection. As the FPEC content and the hardness of the tablets increased, the release rate of the drug decreased. The drug release rate increased with an increase in the solubility of the drug. Model equations, intended to elucidate the drug release mechanism, were fitted to the release data. Parameters were generated and data presented by SAS software. The Akaike Information Criterion was also considered to ascertain the best-fit equation. Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation were the release mechanisms for nonionizable and ionizable drugs.
doi:10.1208/ps050213
PMCID: PMC2751521  PMID: 12866940
fine particle ethylcellulose; wet granulation; ionizable drugs; nonionizable drugs; Fickian diffusion; polymer relaxation
12.  Evaluation of novel particles as pulmonary delivery systems for insulin in rats 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(2):10-20.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of calcium phosphate (CAP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) particles on the systemic delivery of insulin administered by the pulmonary route. Two methods of pulmonary delivery were employed: intratracheal instillation and spray instillation. Insulin-CAP-PEG particles in suspension (1.2 U/kg, 110–140 μL) were administered to the lungs of fasted rats by intratracheal instillation (INCAPEG) or spray instillation (SINCAPEG). Control treatments consisted of insulin solution (1.2 U/kg) by intratracheal instillation, spray instillation, and subcutaneous administration (SC). Plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose were determined by chemiluminescence and colorimetric methods, respectively. Data were analyzed by compartmental and non-compartmental methods, and pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters of insulin disposition were determined. PK analysis suggested that insulin administered in particles had a longer half-life, a longer mean residence time, and a smaller rate of elimination than insulin in solution. In addition, insulin bioavailability after SINCAPEG was 1.8-fold that of insulin solution administered SC. PD analysis showed that smaller areas under the effect curve and, conversely, larger areas above the effect curve were obtained after INCAPEG in comparison to insulin solution. The magnitude of this effect was increased after SINCAPEG. The presence of CAP-PEG particles appears to positively influence the disposition of insulin administered to the lungs of Sprague-Dawley rats. Spray instillation appears to be a more efficient method of delivering insulin to the lungs of rats than intratracheal instillation.
doi:10.1208/ps050209
PMCID: PMC2751517  PMID: 12866936
pulmonary delivery; insulin; CAP-PEG particles; pharmacokinetics; pharmacodynamics
13.  Development of a multidose formulation for a humanized monoclonal antibody using experimental design techniques 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(2):1-9.
The purpose of this study was to identify optimal preservatives for a multidose formulation of a humanized monoclonal antibody using experimental design techniques. The effect of antimicrobial parenteral preservatives (benzyl alcohol, chlorobutanol, methyl paraben, propylparaben, phenol, and m-cresol) on protein stability was assessed using size-exclusion chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, right-angle light scattering, UV spectroscopy, and potency testing using a cell-based fluorescence-activated cell sorting method. A quick, cost-effective preservative screening test was designed. Combinations of preservatives were examined using an I-optimal experimental design. The protein was most stable in the presence of methylparaben and propylparaben, and was compatible with benzyl alcohol and chlorobutanol at low concentrations. Phenol and m-cresol were not compatible with the protein. The I-optimal experimental design indicated that as an individual preservative, benzyl alcohol was promising. The model also indicated several effective combinations of preservatives that satisfied the antimicrobial efficacy and physical stability constraints. The preservative screening test and the experimental design approach were effective in identifying optimal concentrations of antimicrobial preservatives for a multidose protein formulation; (1) benzyl alcohol, and (2) the combination of methylparaben and chlorobutanol were screened as potential candidates to satisfy the regulatory requirements of various preservative efficacy tests.
doi:10.1208/ps050208
PMCID: PMC2751516  PMID: 12866935
multidose formulation; preservative; experimental design; monoclonal antibody; protein
14.  A mucoadhesive, cyclodextrin-based vaginal cream formulation of itraconazole 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(1):50-54.
The development of vaginal medications, especially antifungal medications, requires that the drug is solubilized as well as retained at or near the mucosa for sufficient periods of time to ensure adequate bioavailability. Itraconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent, which has been used for some time orally and intravenously but for which a vaginal formulation has not yet been developed. We present here a novel itraconazole formulation intended for vaginal use based on hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), a functional excipient that increases drug solubility and generates a mucoadhesive system in the presence of other ingredients. An aqueous phase was prepared by solubilizing itraconazole with HCl in the presence of propylene glycol and then adding an aqueous solution of HPβCD. After pH adjustment, the itraconazole/HPβCD solution was added to the oil phase (paraffin oil, trihydroxystearate, and cetyl dimethicon copolyol) and the desired cream containing 1%, 2%, and 2.5% drug obtained by homogenization. Primary irritation studies and subchronic toxicity studies using a rabbit vaginal model indicated that the formulation was safe, well tolerated, and retained in the vaginal space. Clinical investigations indicated that application of 5 g of a 2% cream was very well tolerated and itraconazole was not systemically absorbed. Additional studies in women found that the itraconazole cream was highly effective in reducing or eliminating fungal cultures with few adverse effects. These studies suggested that an HPβCD-based, emulsified wax cream formulation was a useful and effective dosage form for treating vaginal candidiasis.
doi:10.1208/ps050105
PMCID: PMC2751473  PMID: 12713277
Itraconazole; vaginal; cyclodextrin; mucoadhesive; toxicity; clinical investigation; candidiasis
15.  Lipid-based supramolecular systems for topical application: A preformulatory study 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(4):62-76.
This article describes the production and characterization of monoglyceride-based supramolecular systems by a simple processing technique, avoiding time-consuming procedures, high energy input, and the use of organic solvents. A preformulatory study was performed to study the influence of the experimental parameters on the production of monoglyceride-based disperse systems. In particular the effects of (1) stirring speed, (2) type and concentration of monoglyceride mixture, and (3) type and concentration of surfactant were investigated on the recovery, fraction of larger particles, mean diameter, and shape of smaller particles (so called nanosomes). Dispersions were first characterized by optical microscopy and freeze-fracture electron microscopy. The mean diameter of standard nanosomes, analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) after elimination of larger particles by filtration, was 193.5 nm. Cryotransmission electron microscopy studies, conducted in order to investigate the structure of dispersions, showed the coexistence of vesicles and particles characterized by a cubic organization. X-ray diffraction data revealed the coexistence of 2 different cubic phases, the first being a bicontinuous cubic phase of spatial symmetry Im3m (Q229) and the second belonging to the Pn3m spatial symmetry. A study on the stability of monoglyceride-based dispersions based on macroscopical analysis of organoleptic properties and dimensional analysis by time was performed after elimination of larger particles by filtration. Organoleptic and morphological features do not change by time, appearing free from phase-separation phenomena for almost 1 year from production. PCS studies showed that nanosomes undergo an initial increase in mean diameter within the first month following production; afterwards they generally maintain their dimensions for the next 4 months.
doi:10.1208/ps050430
PMCID: PMC2750992  PMID: 15198518
monoglycerides; nanosome dispersions; photon correlation spectroscopy
16.  Atenolol quantification in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography: Application to bioequivalence study 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(2):116-122.
An accurate, precise, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay was developed for the determination of atenolol in human plasma samples to compare the bioavailability of 2 atenolol tablet (50 mg) formulations in 24 volunteers of both sexes. The study had an open, randomized, 2-period crossover design with a 1-week washout period. Plasma samples were obtained over a 24-hour interval. Atenolol concentrations were analyzed by combined reversed phase liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection (λEX = 258 nm, λEM = 300 nm). From the atenolol plasma concentration versus time curves, the following pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained: AUC0–24h, AUC0–∞, and Cmax. The geometric mean of test/reference 50-mg tablets individual percent ratio was 102.2% for AUC0–24h, and 101.6% for Cmax. The 90% confidence intervals (CI) were 100.2% to 105.4% and 100.9% to 103.5%, respectively. Since the 90% CI for both Cmax and AUC0–24h were within the 80% to 125% interval proposed by the Food and Drug Administration, it was concluded that atenolol (50-mg tablets) test formulation was bioequivalent to the reference formulation, with regard to both the rate and extent of absorption.
doi:10.1208/ps050221
PMCID: PMC2751528  PMID: 12866946
atenolol; bioequivalence; HPLC; plasma; determination
17.  Iontophoretic transdermal delivery of buspirone hydrochloride in hairless mouse skin 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(2):61-71.
The transdermal delivery of buspirone hydrochloride across hairless mouse skin and the combined effect of iontophoresis and terpene enhancers were evaluated in vitro using Franz diffusion cells. Iontophoretic delivery was optimized by evaluating the effect of drug concentration, current density, and pH of the vehicle solution. Increasing the current density from 0.05 to 0.1 mA/cm2 resulted in doubling of the iontophoretic flux of buspirone hydrochloride, while increasing drug concentration from 1% to 2% had no effect on flux. Using phosphate buffer to adjust the pH of the drug solution decreased the buspirone hydrochloride iontophoretic flux relative to water solutions. Incorporating buspirone hydrochloride into ethanol:water (50:50 vol/vol) based gel formulations using carboxymethylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose had no effect on iontophoretic delivery. Incorporation of three terpene enhancers (menthol, cineole, and terpineol) into the gel and when combined with iontophoresis it was possible to deliver 10 mg/cm2/day of buspirone hydrochloride.
doi:10.1208/ps050214
PMCID: PMC2751522  PMID: 12866941
iontophoresis; terpene; buspirone hydrochloride; gel; transdermal
18.  Skin oxygenation after topical application of liposome-entrapped benzyl nicotinate as measured by EPR oximetry in vivo: Influence of composition and size 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(1):19-27.
New and improved drug delivery systems are the important subject of much scientific research. The development of formulations that increase skin oxygenation and of methods for measuring oxygen levels in skin are important for dealing with healing processes affected by the level of oxygen. We have use EPR oximetry in vivo to compare the influence of liposomal formulations of different size and composition with that of hydrogel with respect to the action of the entrapped benzyl nicotinate (BN). Following the topical application of BN onto the skin of mice, pO2 increase was measured by low-frequency EPR as a function of time. The effect of BN was evaluated by 3 different parameters: lag-time, time needed for maximum pO2 increase, and overall effectiveness expressed by the area under the response-time curve. An increase in skin oxygenation was observed after BN application. The results show that the effect of BN incorporated in liposomes is achieved more rapidly than the effect from hydrophilic gel. The composition of the liposomes significantly affects the time at which BN starts to act and, to a lesser extent, the maximum increase of pO2 in skin and the effectiveness of BN action. However, the size of the liposomes influences both the effectiveness of BN action and the time at which BN starts to act. After repeated application of liposomes, the pO2 baseline increased and the response of the skin tissue was faster. Our results demonstrate that EPR oximetry is a useful method for evaluating oxygen changes after drug application and for following the time course of their action.
doi:10.1208/ps050102
PMCID: PMC2751470  PMID: 12713274
skin; liposome; benzyl nicotinate; oxygenation; EPR in vivo
19.  Functional differences in nucleoside and nucleobase transporters expressed on the rabbit corneal epithelial cell line (SIRC) and isolated rabbit cornea 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(2):72-85.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of nucleoside/nucleobase transporters on the Statens Seruminstitut rabbit corneal (SIRC) epithelial cell line and to evaluate SIRC as an in vitro screening tool for delineating the mechanism of corneal permeation of nucleoside analogs. SIRC cells (passages 410–425) were used to study uptake of [3H]thymidine, [3H]adenine, and [3H]ganciclovir. Transport of [3H]adenine and [3H]ganciclovir was studied across isolated rabbit cornea. Uptake and transport studies were performed for 2 minutes and 120 minutes, respectively, at 34°C. Thymidine uptake by SIRC displayed saturable kinetics (Km=595.9±80.4μM, and Vmax=289.5±17.2 pmol/min/mg protein). Uptake was inhibited by both purine and pyrimidine nucleosides but not by nucleobases. [3H]thymidine uptake was sodium and energy independent but was inhibited by nitrobenzylthioinosine at nanomolar concentrations. Adenine uptake by SIRC consisted of a saturable component (Km=14.4±2.3μM, Vmax=0.4±0.04 nmol/min/mg protein) and a nonsaturable component. Uptake of adenine was inhibited by purine nucleobases but not by the nucleosides or pyrimidine nucleobases and was independent of sodium, energy, and nitrobenzylthioinosine. [3H]ganciclovir uptake involved a carrier-mediated component and was inhibited by the purine nucleobases but not by the nucleosides or pyrimidine nucleobases. However, transport of [3H]adenine across the isolated rabbit cornea was not inhibited by unlabeled adenine. Further, corneal permeability of ganciclovir across a 100-fold concentration range remained constant, indicating that ganciclovir permeates the cornea primarily by passive diffusion. Nucleoside and nucleobase transporters on rabbit cornea and corneal epithelial cell line, SIRC, are functionally different, undermining the utility of the SIRC cell line as an in vitro screening tool for elucidating the corneal permeation mechanism of nucleoside analogs.
doi:10.1208/ps050215
PMCID: PMC2751523  PMID: 12866942
nucleoside; nucleobase; cornea; SIRC; transport; antiviral agent
20.  A photo-crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel growth factor release vehicle for wound healing applications 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(4):101-111.
The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a hydrogel vehicle for sustained release of growth factors for wound healing applications. Hydrogels were fabricated using ultraviolet photo-crosslinking of acrylamide-functionalized nondegradable poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Protein permeability was initially assessed using trypsin inhibitor (TI), a 21 000 MW model protein drug. TI permeability was altered by changing the solids content of the gel and by adding hydrophilic PVA fillers. As the PVA content increased from 10% to 20%, protein flux decreased, with no TI permeating through 20% PVA hydrogels. Further increase in model drug release was achieved by incorporating hydrophilic PVA fillers into the hydrogel. As filler molecular weight increased, TI flux increased. The mechanism for this is most likely an alteration in protein/gel interactions and transient variations in water content. The percent protein released was also altered by varying protein loading concentration. Release studies conducted using growth factor in vehicles with hydrophilic filler showed sustained release of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-β,β) for up to 3 days compared with less than 24 hours in the controls. In vitro bioactivity was demonstrated by doubling of normal human dermal fibroblas numbers when exposed to growth factor-loaded vehicle compared to control. The release vehicle developed in this study uses a rapid and simple fabrication method, and protein release can be tailored by modifying solid content, incorporating biocompatible hydrophilic fillers, and varying protein loading concentration.
doi:10.1208/ps050433
PMCID: PMC2750995  PMID: 15198521
photo-crosslinkable hydrogel; poly(vinyl alcohol); platelet-derived growth factor; bioactivity; sustained release
21.  Pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel-containing liposomes in rats 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(4):90-100.
In animal models, liposomal formulations of paclitaxel possess lower toxicity and equal antitumor efficacy compared with the clinical formulation, Taxol. The goal of this study was to determine the formulation dependence of paclitaxel pharmacokinetics in rats, in order to test the hypothesis that altered biodistribution of paclitaxel modifies the exposure of critical normal tissues. Paclitaxel was administered intravenously in either multilamellar (MLV) liposomes composed of phosphatidylglycerol/phosphatidylcholine (L-pac) or in the Cremophor EL/ethanol vehicle used for the Taxol formulation (Cre-pac). The dose was 40 mg/kg, and the infusion time was 8 to 9 minutes. Animals were killed at various times, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from the blood and tissue distribution of paclitaxel. The area under the concentration vs time curve (AUC) for blood was similar for the 2 formulations (L-pac: 38.1±3.32 μg-h/mL; Cre-pac: 34.5±0.994 μg-h/mL), however, the AUC for various tissues was formulation-dependent. For bone marrow, skin, kidney, brain, adipose, and muscle tissue, the AUC was statistically higher for Cre-pac. For spleen, a tissue of the reticuloendothelial system that is important in the clearance of liposomes, the AUC was statistically higher for L-pac. Apparent tissue partition coefficients (Kp) also were calculated. For bone marrow, a tissue in which paclitaxel exerts significant toxicity, Kp was 5-fold greater for paclitaxel in Cre-pac. The data are consistent with paclitaxel release from circulating liposomes, but with efflux delayed sufficiently to retain drug to a greater extent in the central (blood) compartment and reduce penetration into peripheral tissues. These effects may contribute to the reduced toxicity of liposomal formulations of paclitaxel.
doi:10.1208/ps050432
PMCID: PMC2750994  PMID: 15198520
drug delivery; paclitaxel; liposomes; physiological modeling; cancer chemotherapy
22.  Pharmacogenomics of multigenic diseases: Sex-specific differences in disease and treatment outcome 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(4):49-61.
Numerous genetic variations have been shown to affect disease susceptibility and drug response. Pharmacogenomics aims at improving therapy on the basis of genetic information for each individual patient. Furthermore, sex chromosomes broadly determine biological differences between males and females. Consequently, substantial sex differences exist in phenotypic manifestation of disease and treatment response. This review discusses the role of sex in coronary artery disease, schizophrenia, and depression—complex multigenic disorders with considerable sex differences in frequency and presentation. Moreover, genetic factors underlying disease and drug response appear to differ between male and female patients. This appears to result at least in part from different physiological effects exerted by sex hormones such that polymorphisms in susceptibility genes may have physiological relevance only in males or females. However, few examples have been discovered to play a role in complex multigenic diseases, and the mechanistic basis of genetic variants as sex-dependent susceptibility factors has yet to be explored. Therefore, pharmacogenomic studies must consider sex differences in an effort to optimize individual drug therapy.
doi:10.1208/ps050429
PMCID: PMC2750991  PMID: 15198517
pharmacogenomics; sex differences; multigenic disease; candidate genes; coronary artery disease; depression; schizophrenia
23.  AAPS/RAPS/CAPRA collaborative program: Exploring the challenges of drug regulation in a global environment: Clinical concerns 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(4):13-40.
Globalization of the pharmaceutical industry has led to a need to harmonize the regulatory requirements governing the marketing of medicinal products. To minimize the barriers impeding global drug product registration, the International Conference on the Harmonization of Technical Requirements of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) was established in 1990. The ICH has developed a series of guidelines that reflect agreements reached by participating nations on aspects of the chemistry and clinical technical sections that will fulfill the regulatory requirements of these various jurisdications. Nevertheless, there continue to be points of divergent perspectives and barriers that can impede the use of foreign clinical data. Given the importance of these issues, the Regulatory Science (RS) section of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS), in conjunction with the Regulatory Affairs Professional Society (RAPS) and the Canadian Association of Professional Regulatory Affairs (CAPRA) cosponsored a public forum on this topic. This manuscript provides a summary of the speaker presentations and audience discussions regarding the design of clinical trials and the extrapolation of results from these trials to support international drug registration.
doi:10.1208/ps050427
PMCID: PMC2750989  PMID: 15198515
clinical trials; regulatory requirements; international harmonization; foreign clinical data
24.  Nutraceutical-definition and introduction 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(3):27-28.
Dr Stephen DeFelice coined the term “Nutraceutical” from “Nutrition” and “Pharmaceutical” in 1989. The term nutraceutical is being commonly used in marketing but has no regulatory definition. An attempt to redefine nutraceuticals and functional foods is made in this article. The proposed definitions can help distinguish between functional foods, nutraceuticals, and dietary supplements. The advantages and disadvantages of nutraceuticals are also briefly discussed.
doi:10.1208/ps050325
PMCID: PMC2750935  PMID: 14621960
nutraceutical; functional food; dietary supplement
25.  Quantitation of motexafin lutetium in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(3):1-16.
Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) methods were developed and validated for the evaluation of motexafin lutetium (MLu, lutetium texaphyrin, PCI-0123) pharmacokinetics in human plasma. The LC-MS/MS method was specific for MLu, whereas the ICP-AES method measured total elemental lutetium. Both methods were fast, simple, precise, and accurate. For the LC-MS/MS method, a closely related analogue (PCI-0353) was used as the internal standard (IS). MLu and the IS were extracted from plasma by protein precipitation and injected onto and LC-MS/MS system configured with a C18 column and an electrospray interface. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.05 μg MLu mL−1, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 15∶1. The response was linear from 0.05 to 5.0 μg MLu mL−1. For the ICP-AES method, indium was used as the IS. The sample was digested with nitric acid, diluted, filtered, and then injected onto the ICP-AES system. Two standard curve ranges were validated to meet the expected range of sample concentrations: 0.5 to 50, and 0.1 to 10 μg Lu mL−1. The LC-MS/MS and ICP-AES methods were validated to establish accuracy, precision, analyte stability, and assay robustness. Interday precision and accuracy of quality control samples were ≤6.3% coefficient of variation (CV) and within 2.2% relative error (RE) for the LC-MS/MS method, and ≤8.7% CV and within 4.9% RE for the ICP-AES method. Plasma samples from a subset of patients in a clinical study were analyzed using both methods. For a representative patient, over 90% of the elemental lutetium in plasma could be ascribed to intact MLu at early time points. This percentage decreased to 59% at 48 hours after dosing, suggesting that some degradation and/or metabolism of the drug may have occurred.
doi:10.1208/ps050323
PMCID: PMC2750933  PMID: 14621958
motexafin lutetium; LC-MS/MS; ICP-AES; pharmacokinetics; lutetium texaphyrin

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