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1.  Is antisense an appropriate nomenclature or design for oligodeoxynucleotides aimed at the inhibition of HIV-1 replication? 
AAPS PharmSci  2002;4(2):34-44.
We have evaluated the specificity and the variation in activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) with regard to factors such as dose-response range, number and choice of experimental controls, backbone modifications of the ODNs, type of cell infection, length of assays, and delivery approach. The highest level of inhibition was achieved in our long-term assay with MOLT-3 cells acutely infected with HIV-1 (IIIB0 and treated with free phosphorothioate-modified ODNs (PS-ODNs). The highest level of specificity was observed in our short-term assay with MOLT-3 cells acutely infected with HIV-1 (IIIB) and treated with free PS-ODNs. the highest potency (IC50 level) was observed in our short-term chronic-infection model with (DLS)-delivered ODNs in which the DLS delivery improved the ODN activity up to 106 times compared to the activity of free ODNs. Thus, the near blocking of HIV replication obtained when using PS-ODNs appears because of the addition of extracellular and/or membranar effects. The higher efficacy of PS-ODNs compared to unmodified ODNs, when both are delivered with the DLS system, was demonstrated solely in our short-term assay with MOLT-3 cells. Important variations in the level of sequence specificity were observed and depended on the type of control used and the type of cell assay employed. It seems that all 3 groups of control-tested, random, sense sequence, and non-antisense T30177 ODNs might have distinct activity and, consequently, different modes of action in inhibiting HIV replication. Our data buttress the notion that the contribution of the sequence-specific mediated mode of action is minor compared to the other mechanisms involved in ODN antiviral activity.
PMCID: PMC2751294
fibroblast growth factor; keratinocyte growth factor; pharmacology; pharmacokinetics clinical trial
2.  Lipid-based delivery of combinations of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides for the in vitro inhibition of HIV-1 replication 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(1):80-91.
We evaluated a new approach to AIDS therapy by using combinations of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), delivered with a lipid-based carrier system, that target different HIV viral genome sites. We identified some of the factors that seem to influence the effectiveness of a combination strategy in cell cultures including ODN concentrations, type of infection (acute vs chronic), backbone modification of the ODN, and the number of sequences. When delivered by the DLS carrier system, some advantages of using a combination of ODNs over treatment with only one ODN could be observed in acute infection assays but not in the chronic infection model. These results suggest that in the acute infection model, the 3 different antisense ODNs in the “cocktail” might block an early step of virus replication by combined inhibitory effects. Various combinations of phosphorothioate-modified (PS) and unmodified oligonucleotides delivered by the DLS system were compared for their antiviral activity in a long-term acute assay using HIV-1 (IIIB strain)-infected MOLT-3 cells. The most effective combination had 3 phosphorothioate antisense ODNs: Srev, SDIS, and SPac (>99% inhibition at 100 pM). However, the additive effect determined when using ODN combinations was rather low, revealing the high level of nonsequence specificity in HIV-1 cell culture models. Data illustrated the high sequence nonspecific activity of ODNs, especially when comparing activity of antisense ODNs with activity of random control sequence ODNs. The latter exhibited an inhibitory effect similar to that of antisense ODNs under our experimental conditions. Nevertheless, we demonstrated that it is possible to achieve high anti-HIV activity by using, in combination, picomolar range concentrations of antisense oligonucleotides complexed to a lipid-based carrier system such as the DLS system, without increasing cell toxicity.
PMCID: PMC2751239  PMID: 11741258
antisense; oligonucleotides; HIV; drug delivery

Results 1-2 (2)