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1.  A national survey of U.S. pharmacists in 2000: Assessing nonresponse bias of a survey methodology 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(4):76-86.
The first objective of this study was to assess the existence of nonresponse bias to a national survey of licensed pharmacists conducted in 2000. Three methods were used to assess nonresponse bias. The second objective of the study was to examine reasons why sampled licensed pharmacists did not respond to the national survey of licensed pharmacists. We used data from 2204 respondents to a national survey of pharmacists and from 521 respondents to a survey of nonrespondents to the national survey. We made comparisons between respondents for 5 variables: employment status, gender, age, highest academic degree, and year of initial licensure. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in the 5 variables between respondents to the first mailing and second mailing of the survey, early and late respondents to the survey, and respondents to the survey and respondents to the nonrespondent survey. There were no significant differences between first mailing and second mailing respondents, but there were differences in each variable except year of licensure between early and late respondents. These differences likely were due to regional bias possibly related to differences in mailing times. There were differences between respondents and nonrespondents in terms of employment status and year of licensure. The main reasons for not responding to the survey were that it was too long or that it was too intrusive. Overall, the survey methodology resulted in a valid sample of licensed pharmacists. Nonresponse bias should be assessed by surveying nonrespondents. Future surveys of pharmacists should consider the length of the survey and the address where it is sent.
doi:10.1208/ps030433
PMCID: PMC2751222  PMID: 12049496
Pharmacy Workforce; Survey Methods; Nonresponse Bias
2.  An experimental approach for investigating consumers evaluation of pharmacist consultation services 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(2):53-75.
The goal of this study was to investigate factors that influence consumers’ perceptions of service encounter satisfaction, overall service quality, and trust in the service provider for pharmacist consultation services. We used the Dynamic Process Model of Service Quality as the framework for investigating the formation of these evaluations. Consumers’ prior expectations of what should and will transpire during the service episode(s) and the performance level of the actual delivered service during the service encounter(s) were hypothesized to affect satisfaction, quality, and trust. Two experiments using a 2x2x2 fully-crossed factorial design were used for collecting and analyzing data. The results showed that normative (should) and predictive (will) expectations play differential roles in consumers’ evaluation of satisfaction, perception of quality, and trust in the service provider. Also, there appeared to be differential roles that a particular type of expectation will serve depending upon the level of service performance.
doi:10.1208/ps020215
PMCID: PMC2751029  PMID: 11741231

Results 1-2 (2)