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1.  Exploring the demand for a voluntary medicare prescription drug benefit 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(2):99-110.
The purposes of this study were (1) to assess the utility of the economic theory of demand for insurance for modeling voluntary Medicare drug benefit enrollment decisions and (2) to explore the degree of adverse selection and crowd-out that might occur under a voluntary enrollment Medicare prescription benefit. Data were collected using a cross-sectional, mail survey of 2,100 community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older in Wisconsin. Respondents were asked to evaluate their likelihood of enrollment in any of 4 hypothetical drug benefit plans under the assumption that they could enroll in one of the hypothetical plans or maintain their current coverage. Data analyses included bivariate comparisons across enrollment likelihood categories and logit analysis of enrollment likelihood as a function of respondent characteristics. 1041 usable survey forms were returned for an adjusted response rate of 51.5%. Older adults with 4 or more chronic conditions were most likely to report that they were “very likely” to enroll in one of the hypothetical drug plans, as were those with the highest out-of-pocket drug spending in the previous 30 days. Respondents with no or self-purchased drug benefits were more likely than those with employer-based plans to express a higher likelihood of enrollment in one of the hypothetical plans. Adverse selection may be problematic for a voluntary enrollment Medicare drug benefit. Given that high out-of-pocket drug spending (secondary to drug coverage source) was a consistent predictor of enrollment likelihood, demand-side factors affecting the crowding out of employer-based drug coverage sources by a voluntary enrollment drug benefit appear minimal. However, the availability of a Medicare prescription benefit may still lead to crowd-out through employer incentives.
doi:10.1208/ps050219
PMCID: PMC2751526  PMID: 12866945
prescription drug coverage; Medicare; older adults
2.  A national survey of U.S. pharmacists in 2000: Assessing nonresponse bias of a survey methodology 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(4):76-86.
The first objective of this study was to assess the existence of nonresponse bias to a national survey of licensed pharmacists conducted in 2000. Three methods were used to assess nonresponse bias. The second objective of the study was to examine reasons why sampled licensed pharmacists did not respond to the national survey of licensed pharmacists. We used data from 2204 respondents to a national survey of pharmacists and from 521 respondents to a survey of nonrespondents to the national survey. We made comparisons between respondents for 5 variables: employment status, gender, age, highest academic degree, and year of initial licensure. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in the 5 variables between respondents to the first mailing and second mailing of the survey, early and late respondents to the survey, and respondents to the survey and respondents to the nonrespondent survey. There were no significant differences between first mailing and second mailing respondents, but there were differences in each variable except year of licensure between early and late respondents. These differences likely were due to regional bias possibly related to differences in mailing times. There were differences between respondents and nonrespondents in terms of employment status and year of licensure. The main reasons for not responding to the survey were that it was too long or that it was too intrusive. Overall, the survey methodology resulted in a valid sample of licensed pharmacists. Nonresponse bias should be assessed by surveying nonrespondents. Future surveys of pharmacists should consider the length of the survey and the address where it is sent.
doi:10.1208/ps030433
PMCID: PMC2751222  PMID: 12049496
Pharmacy Workforce; Survey Methods; Nonresponse Bias

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