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1.  pH-Dependent dissolving nano- and microparticles for improved peroral delivery of a highly lipophilic compound in dogs 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(1):92-99.
RR01, a new highly lipophilic drug showing extremely low water solubility and poor oral bioavailability, has been incorporated into pH-dependent dissolving particles made of a poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylacrylate) copolymer. The physicochemical properties of the particles were determined using laser-light-scattering techniques, scanning electron microscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, and x-ray powder diffraction. Suspension of the free drug in a solution of hydroxypropylcellulose (reference formulation) and aqueous dispersions of pH-sensitive RR01-loaded nanoparticles or microparticles were administered orally to Beagle dogs according to a 2-block Latin square design (n =6). Plasma samples were obtained over the course of 48 hours and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The administration of the reference formulation resulted in a particularly high interindividual variability of pharmacokinetic parameters, with low exposure to compound RR01 (AUC0–48h of 6.5 μg.h/mL and coefficient of variation (CV) of 116%) and much higher Tmax, as compared to both pH-sensitive formulations. With respect to exposure and interindividual variability, nanoparticles were superior to microparticles (AUC0–48h of 27.1 μg.h/mL versus 17.7 μg.h/mL with CV of 19% and 40%, respectively), indicating that the particle size may play an important role in the absorption of compound RR01. The performance of pH-sensitive particles is attributed to their ability to release the drug selectively in the upper part of the intestine in a molecular or amorphous form. In conclusion, pH-dependent dissolving particles have a great potential as oral delivery systems for drugs with low water solubility and acceptable permeation properties.
doi:10.1208/ps030108
PMCID: PMC2751240  PMID: 11741259
Nanoparticles; Microparticles; Oral Administration; Poor Water Solubility; pH-Sensitive Polymer
2.  Bioerodible injectable poly(ortho ester) for tetracycline controlled delivery to periodontal pockets: Preliminary trial in humans 
AAPS PharmSci  2002;4(4):14-20.
The semisolid consistency of poly(ortho esters) (POEs) containing tetracycline free base allows direct injection in the periodontal pocket and shows sustained and almost constant in vitro release in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 at 37°C, for up to 14 days. Total polymer degradation concomitant with drug release was obtained. Formulations containing 10% or 20% (wt/wt) tetracycline were evaluated in a panel of 12 patients suffering from severe and recurrent periodontitis. In the first trial including 6 patients, single-rooted teeth and molar teeth with furcations were treated immediately after scaling and root planing. Patients tolerated both formulations well, experienced no pain during application, and showed no signs of irritation or discomfort during the observation period. However, retention of the formulation was minimal in this first study. An improved clinical protocol followed in the second study (stopping bleeding after scaling and root planning) prolonged the retention of the formulations in the inflamed periodontal pockets. For up to 11 days, tetracycline concentrations in the gingival crevicular fluid were higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration of tetracycline against most periodontal pathogens.
doi:10.1208/ps040420
PMCID: PMC2751309  PMID: 12645992
Periodontitis; poly(ortho esters); bicerodible polymers; tetracycline; controlled release; sustained delivery system
3.  Delivery of antibiotics to the eye using a positively charged polysaccharide as vehicle 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(4):87-93.
The positively charged polysaccharide chitosan is able to increase precorneal residence time of ophthalmic formulations containing active compounds when compared with simple aqueous solutions. The purpose of the study was to evaluate tear concentration of tobramycin and ofloxacin after topical application of chitosan-based formulations containing 0.3% wt/vol of antibiotic and to compare them with 2 commercial solutions: Tobrex® and Floxal®, respectively. The influence of the molecular weight, deacetylation degree, and concentration of 4 different samples of chitosan on pharmacokinetic parameters (area under the curve values [AUCeff] and time of efficacy [teff]) of tobramycin and ofloxacin in tears was investigated over time. It was demonstrated that the 2 chitosan products of high molecular weight (1350 and 1930 kd) and low deacetylation degree (50%) significantly increased antibiotic availability when compared to the controls, with AUCeff showing a 2-to 3-fold improvement. The time of efficacy of ofloxacin was significantly increased from about 25 minutes to 46 minutes by the chitosan of higher Mw (1930 kd) at a concentration of 0.5% wt/vol, whereas a similar performance was achieved by a chitosan of low Mw (580 kd) at a concentration of 1.5% wt/vol in the case of tobramycin.
doi:10.1208/ps030434
PMCID: PMC2751223  PMID: 12066799
Chitosan; hydrogel; ophthalmic application; antibiotic; pharmacokinetics

Results 1-3 (3)