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1.  Mathematical modeling of surface-active and non-surface-active drug transport in emulsion systems 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(3):102-113.
Mathematical models were developed for the prediction of surface-active and non- surface-active drug transport in triphasic (oil, water, and micellar) emulsion systems as a function of micellar concentration. These models were evaluated by comparing experimental and simulated data. Fick's first law of diffusion with association of the surface-active or complexation nature of the drug with the surfactant was used to derive a transport model for surface-active drugs. This transport model assumes that the oil/water (O/W) partitioning process was fast compared with membrane transport and therefore drug transport was limited by the membrane. Consecutive rate equations were used to model transport of non- surface-active drugs in emulsion systems assuming that the O/W interface acts as a barrier to drug transport. Phenobarbital (PB) and barbital (B) were selected as surface-active model drugs. Phenylazoaniline (PAA) and enzocaine (BZ) were selected as non- surface-active model drugs. Transport studies at pH 7.0 were conducted using side-by-side diffusion cells and bulk equilibrium reverse dialysis bag techniques. According to the surface-active drug model, an increase in micellar concentration is expected to decrease drug-transport rates. Using the Microft EXCEL program, the non- surface-active drug model was fitted to the experimental data for the cumulative amount of the model drug that disappeared from the donor chamber. The oil/continuous phase partitioning rates (k1) and the membrane transport rates (k2) were estimated. The predicted data were consistent with the experimental data for both the surface-active and non- surface-active models.
doi:10.1208/ps020331
PMCID: PMC2761141  PMID: 11741247
2.  Assuring quality and performance of sustained and controlled release parenterals: EUFEPS workshop report 
AAPS PharmSci  2004;6(1):100-111.
This is a summary report of the workshop, organized by the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Scientists in association with the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products, the European Pharmacopoeia, the US Food and Drug Administration and the United States Pharmacopoeia, on “Assuring Quality and Performance of Sustained and Controlled Release Parenterals” held in Basel, Switzerland, February 2003. Experts from the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory authorities and academia participated in this workshop to review, discuss and debate formulation, processing and manufacture of sustained and controlled release parenterals, and identify critical process parameters and their control. This workshop was a follow-up workshop to a previous workshop on Assuring Quality and Performance of Sustained and Controlled Release Parenterals that was held in Washington, DC in April 2001. This report reflects the outcome of the Basel 2003 meeting and the advances in the field since the Washington, DC meeting in 2001. As necessary, the reader is referred to the report on the 2001 meeting. Areas were identified at the 2003 Basel meeting where research is needed in order to understand the performance of these drug delivery systems and to assist in the development of appropriate testing procedures. Recommendations were made for future workshops and meetings.
doi:10.1208/ps060111
PMCID: PMC2750946  PMID: 18465263
3.  Preparation and characterization of gelatin surface modified PLGA microspheres 
AAPS PharmSci  2001;3(2):14-24.
This study optimized conditions for preparing and characterizing gelatin surface modified poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) copolymer microspheres and determined this systems interaction with fibronectin. Some gelatin microspheres have an affinity for fibronectin-bearing surfaces; these miscrospheres exploit the interaction between gelatin and fibronectin. PLGA copolymer microspheres were selected because they have reproducible and slowrelease characteristics in vivo. The PLGA microspheres were surface modified with gelatin to impart fibronectin recognition. Dexamethasone was incorporated into these microspheres because dexamethasone is beneficial in chronic human diseases associated with extra fibronectin expression (eg, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory disorders, rheumatoid arthritis). The gelatin surface modified PLGA microspheres (prepared by adsorption, conjugation, and spray coating) were investigated and characterized by encapsulation efficiency, particle size, in vitro release, and affinity for fibronectin. The gelatincoated PLGA microspheres had higher interaction with fibronectin compared with the other gelatin surface modified PLGA microspheres (adsorption and conjugation). Dexamethasone was released slowly (over 21 days) from gelatin surface modified PLGA microspheres.
doi:10.1208/ps030211
PMCID: PMC2779555  PMID: 11741261
Microspheres; Surface Modification; Gelatin; Fibronectin; PLGA; Dexamethasone
4.  Rheology and stability of water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsions containing Span 83 and Tween 80 
AAPS PharmSci  2003;5(1):62-73.
Multiple emulsions are often stabilized using a combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfactants. The ratio of these surfactants is important in achieving stable multiple emulsions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term stability of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsions with respect to the concentrations of Span 83 and Tween 80. In addition, the effect of surfactant and electrolyte concentration on emulsion bulk rheological properties was investigated. Light microscopy, creaming volume, and rheological properties were used to assess emulsion stability. It was observed that the optimal surfactant concentrations for W/O/W emulsion long-term stability were 20% wt/vol Span 83 in the oil phase and 0.1% wt/vol Tween 80 in the continuous phase. Higher concentrations of Tween 80 had a destructive effect on W/O/W emulsion stability, which correlated with the observation that interfacial film strength at the oil/water interface decreased as the Tween 80 concentration increased. High Span 83 concentrations increased the storage modulus G′ (solidlike) values and hence enhanced multiple emulsion stability. However, when 30% wt/vol Span 83 was incorporated, the viscosity of the primary W/O emulsion increased considerably and the emulsion droplets lost their shape. Salt added to the inner aqueous phase exerted an osmotic pressure that caused diffusion of water into the inner aqueous phase and increased W/O/W emulsion viscosity through an increase in the volume fraction of the primary W/O emulsion. This type of viscosity increase imposed a destabilizing effect because of the likelihood of rupture of the inner and multiple droplets.
doi:10.1208/ps050107
PMCID: PMC2751475  PMID: 12713279
multiple emulsions; stability; rheology; surfactant
5.  Assuring quality and performance of sustained and controlled release parenterals: Workshop report 
AAPS PharmSci  2002;4(2):13-23.
This is a summary report of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, the Food and Drug Administration and the United States Pharmacopoeia cosponsored workshop on “Assuring Quality and Performance of Sustained and Controlled Release Parenterals.” Experts from the pharmaceutical industry, the regulatory authorities and academia participated in this workshop to review, discuss and debate formulation, processing and manufacture of sustained and controlled release parenterals and identify critical process parameters and their control. Areas were identified where research is needed in order to understand the performance of these drug delivery systems and to assist in the development of appropriate testing procedures. Recommendations were made for future workshops, meetings and working groups in this area.
doi:10.1208/ps040205
PMCID: PMC2751292  PMID: 12141269

Results 1-5 (5)