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1.  Effect of nonionic surfactant on transport of surface-active and non-surface-active model drugs and emulsion stability in triphasic systems 
AAPS PharmSci  2000;2(3):91-101.
The effect of surfactant concentration on transport kinetics in emulsions using surface-active (phenobarbital, barbital) and non- surface-active is determined. Mineral oil was chosen as the oil phase and the nonionic surfactant polyoxyethylene-10-oleyl-ether (Brij 97) was chosen as the emulsifier. Model drug transport in the triphasic systems was investigated using side-by-side diffusion cells mounted with hydrophilic dialysis membranes (molecular weight cutoffs 1 kd and 50 kd) and a novel bulk equilibrium reverse dialysis bag technique. Emulsion stability was determined by droplet size analysis as a function of time, temperature, and the presence of model drugs, using photon correlation spectroscopy. Mineral oil/water (O/W) partition coefficients and aqueous solubilities were determined in the presence of surfactant. The transport rates of model drugs in emulsions increased with an increase in Brij 97 micellar concentrations up to 1.0% wt/vol and then decreased at higher surfactant concentrations. The transport profiles of the model drugs appeared to be governed by model drug O/W partition coefficient values and by micellar shape changes at higher surfactant concentrations.
Total transport rates of phenobarbital and barbital were faster than those of phenylazoaniline and benzocaine. Excess surfactant affected the transport rates of the model drugs in the emulsions depending on drug surface activity and lipophilicity.
doi:10.1208/ps020330
PMCID: PMC2761140  PMID: 11741246
2.  A novel in vitro release method for submicron-sized dispersed systems 
AAPS PharmSci  1999;1(3):32-40.
Sink conditions are often violated when using conventional release methods for dispersed systems. A novel reverse dialysis bag method was designed to overcome this problem. Model drug transport rates from submicron emulsions obtained using the conventional diffusion cell method and this novel method were compared. In the side-by-side diffusion cell method, emulsions were placed in the donor chamber and surfactant/buffer solutions in the receiver chamber. In the novel dialysis bag method, emulsions were diluted infinitely in the donor phase and surfactant/buffer solutions were placed in the receiver phase (dialysis bags). Slow release rates and linear release profiles were obtained using the side-by-side diffusion cell method apparently due to limited model drug solubility in the donor chamber resulting in violation of sink conditions. Biphasic release profiles were obtained using the dialysis bag method apparently due to an initial rapid release of free and micellar solubilized model drug from the donor to the receiver chambers followed by slow release from the oil droplets. Using both release methods, an initial increase and latter decrease in release rates were observed with increase in surfactant concentration. The initial increase was considered to be due to a decrease in the model drug oil-in-water partition coefficients and the subsequent decrease in release rates was due to micellar shape change (spheres to rods) causing a decrease in diffusion rates. Sink conditions were violated using the side-by-side diffusion cell method but were maintained in the dialysis bag method since emulsions were diluted infinitely in the donor phase.
doi:10.1208/ps010311
PMCID: PMC2761125  PMID: 11741207
dialysis bag; submicron emulsions; in vitro release; dispersed systems; sink conditions

Results 1-2 (2)