Two microparticle systems containing disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) alone or with polyvinyl alcohol (DSCG/PVA) were produced via spray drying and compared in terms of their physicochemical characteristics, aerosol performance and drug uptake across a pulmonary epithelial cell line (Calu-3), cultured under air interface conditions. The particle size distribution of DSCG and DSCG/PVA were similar, of spherical geometry, amorphous and suitable for inhalation purposes. Aerosolisation studies using a modified twin-stage impinger showed the DSCG/PVA to have greater aerosol performance than that of DSCG alone. Aerosol particles of DSCG and DSCG/PVA were deposited onto the surface of the Calu-3 air interface epithelium monolayer and the drug uptake from apical to basal directions measured over time. Drug uptake was measured across a range of doses to allow comparison of equivalent drug and powder mass deposition. Analysis of the data indicated that the percentage cumulative drug uptake was independent of the mass of powder deposited, but dependent on the formulation. Specifically, with the formulation containing DSCG, the diffusion rate was observed to change with respect to time (indicative of a concentration-dependent diffusion process), whilst DSCG/PVA showed a time-independent drug uptake (suggesting a zero-order depot release).
Calu-3; controlled release; disodium cromoglycate; dry powder inhaler; DSCG
Methamphetamine interacts with sigma receptors at physiologically relevant concentrations suggesting a potential site for pharmacologic intervention. In the present study, a previous sigma receptor ligand, CM156, was optimized for metabolic stability, and the lead analog was evaluated against the behavioral effects of methamphetamine. Radioligand binding studies demonstrated that the lead analog, AZ66, displayed high nanomolar affinity for both sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors (2.4 ± 0.63 and 0.51 ± 0.15, respectively). In addition, AZ66 had preferential affinity for sigma receptors compared to seven other sites and a significantly longer half-life than its predecessor, CM156, in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment of male, Swiss Webster mice with intraperitoneal (10–20 mg/kg) or oral (20–30 mg/kg) dosing of AZ66 significantly attenuated the acute locomotor stimulatory effects of methamphetamine. Additionally, AZ66 (10–20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced the expression and development of behavioral sensitization induced by repeated methamphetamine administration. Taken together, these data indicate that sigma receptors can be targeted to mitigate the acute and subchronic behavioral effects of methamphetamine and AZ66 represents a viable lead compound in the development of novel therapeutics against methamphetamine-induced behaviors.
locomotor activity; methamphetamine; pharmacokinetics; sensitization; sigma receptors
CYP2D6 plays a major role in the metabolism of tamoxifen, and polymorphism of P-glycoprotein has been associated with resistance of many drug therapies. This study investigates the clinical impact of genetic variants of CYP2D6 and ABCB1 in breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen. Blood samples from 95 breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen were collected and genotyped for CYP2D6 and ABCB1 variants using allele-specific PCR method. Recurrence risks were calculated using Kaplan–Meier analysis and compared using the log-rank test. Patients carrying CYP2D6*10/*10 and heterozygous null allele (IM) showed higher risks of developing recurrence and metastasis (OR 13.14; 95% CI 1.57–109.94; P = 0.004) than patients with CYP2D6*1/*1 and *1/*10 genotypes. Patients with homozygous CC genotypes of ABCB1 C3435T showed a shorter time to recurrence. Patients who were CYP2D6 IM and homozygous CC genotype of C3435T have statistically significant higher risks of recurrence (P = 0.002). Similarly, median time to recurrence in these patients was only 12 months (95% CI = 0.79–23.2) compared to those without this combination which was 48 months (95% CI = 14.7–81.2). Patients with CYP2D6 IM and homozygous CC genotype of ABCB1 C3435T have shorter times to recurrence. The results confirmed the findings of previous studies and support FDA recommendation to perform pre-genotyping in patients before the choice of therapy is determined in breast cancer patients.
ABCB1; breast cancer; CYP2D6; recurrence and metastasis; tamoxifen
Hemophilia A is an X-linked bleeding disorder caused by the deficiency of factor VIII (FVIII). Exogenous FVIII is administered therapeutically, and due to a short half-life, frequent infusions are often required. Fifteen to thirty-five percent of severe hemophilia A patients develop inhibitory antibodies toward FVIII that complicate clinical management of the disease. Previously, we used phosphatidylinositol (PI) containing lipidic nanoparticles to improve the therapeutic efficacy of recombinant FVIII by reducing immunogenicity and prolonging the circulating half-life. The objective of this study is to investigate further improvements in the FVIII–PI formulation resulting from the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the particle. PEGylation was achieved by passive transfer of PEG conjugated lipid into the FVIII–PI complex. PEGylated FVIII–PI (FVIII–PI/PEG) was generated with high association efficiency. Reduced activity in vitro and improved retention of activity in the presence of antibodies suggested strong shielding of FVIII by the particle; thus, in vivo studies were conducted in hemophilia A mice. Following intravenous administration, the apparent terminal half-life was improved versus both free FVIII and FVIII–PI, but exposure determined by area under the curve was reduced. The formation of inhibitory antibodies after subcutaneous immunization with FVIII–PI/PEG was lower than free FVIII but resulted in a significant increase in inhibitors following intravenous administration. Passive transfer of PEG onto the FVIII–PI complex does not provide any therapeutic benefit.
factor VIII; hemophilia A; immunogenicity; inhibitor development; PEGylation
Radix Scutellariae is a commonly used herbal medicine. Baicalein, wogonin, and oroxylin A are three major bioactive flavones in Radix Scutellariae and share similar chemical structures. The intestinal absorption and disposition of baicalein have been systematically investigated by our group before. In this study, the intestinal absorption and disposition of wogonin and oroxylin A were further explored and compared with the profiles of baicalein to find potential structure–activity relationship. Absorptive models including Caco-2 cell monolayer model and rat in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion model as well as in vitro enzymatic kinetic study were employed in the current study. The absorption of baicalein, wogonin, and oroxylin A were favorable with wogonin showing the highest permeability based on two absorptive models. However, three flavones underwent a fast and extensive phase II metabolism. The intestinal metabolism of three flavones exhibited species difference between human and rat. Oroxylin A demonstrated the highest intrinsic clearance of glucuronidation among three flavones. The multidrug resistance proteins might be involved in the efflux of their intracellularly formed conjugated metabolites. The pathway of intestinal absorption and disposition of B, W, and OA was similar. However, the extent of permeability and metabolism was different among three flavones which might be due to the number and position of the hydroxyl group.
absorption; baicalein; disposition; oroxylin A; wogonin
A generic product must meet the standards established by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be approved for marketing in the USA. FDA approves a generic product for marketing if it is proved to be therapeutically equivalent to the reference product. Bioequivalence (BE) between a proposed generic product and its corresponding reference product is one of the major components of therapeutic equivalence. These approvals may be delayed if the BE portion of the submission is determined to be deficient. Many of these BE deficiencies recur commonly and can be avoided.
We conducted a survey of the BE submissions to abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) over years 2001 to 2008 to identify the most commonly occurring BE deficiencies.
Recurring deficiencies are found in a majority of the ANDAs reviewed by FDA’s Division of Bioequivalence. The most common deficiencies were the two deficiencies related to dissolution (method and specifications) found in 23.3% of the applications and analytical method validation and/or report found in 16.5% of the applications. The approval of generic drugs would be greatly accelerated if these deficiencies could be avoided.
ANDA; bioequivalence; common deficiency; FDA
Absorption enhancers are functional excipients included in formulations to improve the absorption of a pharmacologically active drug. The term absorption enhancer usually refers to an agent whose function is to increase absorption by enhancing membrane permeation, rather than increasing solubility, so such agents are sometimes more specifically termed permeation enhancers. Absorption enhancers have been investigated for at least two decades, particularly in efforts to develop non-injection formulations for peptides, proteins, and other pharmacologically active compounds that have poor membrane permeability. While at least one product utilizing an absorption enhancer for transdermal use has reached the market, quite a few more appear to be at the threshold of becoming products, and these include oral and transmucosal applications. This paper will review some of the most advanced absorption enhancers currently in development and the formulation technologies employed that have led to their success. In addition, a more basic review of the barriers to absorption and the mechanisms by which those barriers can be surmounted is presented. Factors influencing the success of absorption-enhancing formulations are discussed. If ultimately successful, the products now in development should offer non-injection alternatives for several peptide or protein drugs currently only administered by injection. The introduction of new absorption enhancers as accepted pharmaceutical excipients, and the development of formulation technologies that afford the greatest benefit/risk ratio for their use, may create opportunities to apply these enabling technologies more broadly to existing drugs with non-optimal delivery properties.
absorption; bioavailability; enhancer; permeability
Agents that block insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling are under investigation in clinical trials. Antitumor effects are likely to be enhanced when combined with other agents, but administration sequence effects on activity are not well-described. Three breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and Hs-578T) were treated with Gemcitabine and small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor cis-3-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin-l-yl)-cyclobutyl]1-(2-phenyl-quinolin-7-yl)-imidazo [1,5-a]pyrazin-8-ylamine (PQIP) as single agents and then in combination in the forward (Gemcitabine followed by PQIP) and reverse (PQIP followed by Gemcitabine) sequences. Antitumor effects were assessed longitudinally by Bayesian analysis using WinBUGS. The pharmacodynamic model adequately predicted the observed data. The differences in the cell-kill rate constants for the forward vs. reverse sequence ranged from 0.11 to 0.64 (day−1), and statistical significance was generally dependent on cell line and PQIP concentration. These data indicate that treatment with Gemcitabine first, followed by PQIP is superior to the reverse sequence in vitro.
Electronic supplementary material
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breast cancer; Gemcitabine; insulin-like growth factor; pharmacodynamic model; PQIP
pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics; pharmacometrics
Prolonged time delay in response to drug action is a common feature of hematological responses to pharmacotherapy such as erythropoiesis. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of two competing modeling approaches for delayed drug effects, mechanistic cell life span models, and semi-mechanistic cell transit models. The comparison was performed with an experimental dataset from multiple dose administrations of an erythropoietin mimetic to Cynomolgus monkeys. Comparative performance measures include visual predictive checks, goodness-of-fit plots, model estimation time, estimation status, and estimation error. The analysis revealed that both models resulted in a similarly good description of the erythropoietic drug effect, with precision and bias of the model-based predictions of red blood cell counts of less than 11%. The cell transit model needed slightly longer time to converge compared to the cell life span model. The system and drug effect parameters were similar in both models indicating that the models can be interchangeably used to describe the current data. Thus, model selection would be dependent on the purpose of the modeling exercise, the available data, and the time allocated for model development.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1208/s12248-011-9302-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
cell life span model; cell transit model; delayed response; pharmacodynamics; PK/PD modeling
Depending upon the drug and drug delivery platform, species-specific physiological differences can lead to errors in the interspecies extrapolation of drug performance. This manuscript provides an overview of the species-specific physiological variables that can influence the performance of parenteral dosage forms such as in situ forming delivery systems, nanoparticles, microspheres, liposomes, targeted delivery systems, lipophilic solutions, and aqueous suspensions. Also discussed are those factors that can influence the partitioning of therapeutic compounds into tumors, the central nervous system and the lymphatics. Understanding interspecies differences in the movement and absorption of molecules is important to the interpretation of data generated through the use of animal models when studying parenteral drug delivery.
animal model; interspecies differences; parenteral drug delivery; pharmacokinetics
The detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) and the monitoring of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming more important in industrialized countries. Because of the direct relation of kidney damage to the increasing age of the population, as well as the connection to other diseases like diabetes mellitus and congestive heart failure, renal diseases/failure has increased in the last decades. In addition, drug-induced kidney injury, especially of patients in intensive care units, is very often a cause of AKI. The need for diagnostic tools to identify drug-induced nephrotoxicity has been emphasized by the ICH-regulated agencies. This has lead to multiple national and international projects focusing on the identification of novel biomarkers to enhance drug development. Several parameters related to AKI or CKD are known and have been used for several decades. Most of these markers deliver information only when renal damage is well established, as is the case for serum creatinine. The field of molecular toxicology has spawned new options of the detection of nephrotoxicity. These new developments lead to the identification of urinary protein biomarkers, including Kim-1, clusterin, osteopontin or RPA-1, and other transcriptional biomarkers which enable the earlier detection of AKI and deliver further information about the area of nephron damage or the underlying mechanism. These biomarkers were mainly identified and qualified in rat but also for humans, several biomarkers have been described and now have to be validated. This review will give an overview of traditional and novel tools for the detection of renal damage.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1208/s12248-011-9301-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Kim-1; nephrotoxicity; Predictive Safety Testing Consortium (PSTC); toxicogenomics; urinary protein biomarkers
Curcumin (CUR), a major bioactive polyphenolic component from turmeric curry, Curcuma longa, has been shown to be a potent anti-cancer phytochemical with well-established anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effects. Chromatin remodeling-related epigenetic regulation has emerged as an important mechanism of carcinogenesis, chemoprevention, and chemotherapy. CUR has been found to inhibit histone acetyltransferase activity, and it was also postulated to be a potential DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. In this study, we show that when human prostate LNCaP cells were treated with CUR, it led to demethylation of the first 14 CpG sites of the CpG island of the Neurog1 gene and restored the expression of this cancer-related CpG-methylation epigenome marker gene. At the protein level, CUR treatment had limited effects on the expression of epigenetic modifying proteins MBD2, MeCP2, DNMT1, and DNMT3a. Using ChIP assay, CUR decreased MeCP2 binding to the promoter of Neurog1 dramatically. CUR treatment showed different effects on the protein expression of HDACs, increasing the expression of HDAC1, 4, 5, and 8 but decreasing HDAC3. However, the total HDAC activity was decreased upon CUR treatment. Further analysis of the tri-methylation of histone 3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) showed that CUR decreased the enrichment of H3K27me3 at the Neurog1 promoter region as well as at the global level. Taken together, our present study provides evidence on the CpG demethylation ability of CUR on Neurog1 while activating its expression, suggesting a potential epigenetic modifying role for this phytochemical compound in human prostate cancer cells.
curcumin; demethylation; hypermethylation; LNCaP; Neurog1
The objective of this work was to examine the atazanavir–bilirubin relationship using a population-based approach and to assess the possible application of bilirubin as a readily available marker of atazanavir exposure. A model of atazanavir exposure and its concentration-dependent effect on bilirubin levels was developed based on 200 atazanavir and 361 bilirubin samples from 82 patients receiving atazanavir in the NORTHIV trial. The pharmacokinetics was adequately described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and lag-time. The maximum inhibition of bilirubin elimination rate constant (Imax) was estimated at 91% (95% CI, 87–94) and the atazanavir concentration resulting in half of Imax (IC50) was 0.30 μmol/L (95% CI, 0.24–0.37). At an atazanavir/ritonavir dose of 300/100 mg given once daily, the bilirubin half-life was on average increased from 1.6 to 8.1 h. A nomogram, which can be used to indicate suboptimal atazanavir exposure and non-adherence, was constructed based on model simulations.
atazanavir; bilirubin; HIV/AIDS; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics
Positive surface charge enhances liposome uptake into cells. Pegylation, used to confer stealth properties to enable in vivo applications of cationic liposomes, compromises internalization. The goal of this study was to determine the quantitative relationships between these two liposome properties (separately and jointly), liposomes binding to cell membrane, and the subsequent internalization and residence in intracellular space (referred to as intracellular bioavailability). The results, obtained in pancreatic Hs-766T cancer cells, revealed nonlinear and inter-dependent relationships, as well as substantial qualitative and quantitative differences. The proportionality constant K of intracellular and membrane-bound liposomes at equilibrium (i.e., Ieq and Beq) showed a positive triphasic relationship with surface charge and a negative biphasic relationship with pegylation. Near-neutral liposomes showed little internalization of the membrane-bound moiety, increasing to a constant K value for medium charge liposomes (+15 to +35 mV zeta potential), followed by a further increase for highly charged liposomes (greater than or equal to +46 mV). The decline of pegylation with K value showed a breakpoint at 2%. The negative consequences of pegylation (%PEG) were partially offset by increasing charge (ZP). The best-fitting regression equations are: Beq = −1.36 × %PEG + 0.33 × ZP; Ieq = −1.52 × %PEG + 0.34 × ZP. It suggested that 1% pegylation increase can be offset with 4 mV ZP. The differences are such that it may be possible to balance these parameters to simultaneously maximize the stealth property and intracellular bioavailability of cationic liposomes.
cationic liposomes; internalization; membrane binding; pegylation; zeta potential
Sodium–glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are an emerging class of agents for use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Inhibition of SGLT2 leads to improved glycemic control through increased urinary glucose excretion (UGE). In this study, a biologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model of SGLT2 inhibitor-mediated UGE was developed. The derived model was used to characterize the acute PK/PD relationship of the SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, in rats. The quantitative translational pharmacology of dapagliflozin was examined through both prospective simulation and direct modeling of mean literature data obtained for dapagliflozin in healthy subjects. Prospective simulations provided time courses of UGE that were of consistent shape to clinical observations, but were modestly biased toward under prediction. Direct modeling provided an improved characterization of the data and precise parameter estimates which were reasonably consistent with those predicted from preclinical data. Overall, these results indicate that the acute clinical pharmacology of SGLT2 inhibitors in healthy subjects can be reasonably well predicted from preclinical data through rational accounting of species differences in pharmacokinetics, physiology, and SGLT2 pharmacology. Because these data can be generated at the earliest stages of drug discovery, the proposed model is useful in the design and development of novel SGLT2 inhibitors. In addition, this model is expected to serve as a useful foundation for future efforts to understand and predict the effects of SGLT2 inhibition under chronic administration and in other patient populations.
diabetes; glucosuria; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics; SGLT2; translational pharmacology; UGE
Pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK–PD) modeling greatly enables quantitative implementation of the “learn and confirm” paradigm across different stages of drug discovery and development. This work describes the successful prospective application of this concept in the discovery and early development of a novel κ-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist, PF-04455242, where PK–PD understanding from preclinical biomarker responses enabled successful prediction of the clinical response in a proof of mechanism study. Preclinical data obtained in rats included time course measures of the KOR antagonist (PF-04455242), a KOR agonist (spiradoline), and a KOR-mediated biomarker response (prolactin secretion) in plasma. Clinical data included time course measures of PF-04455242 and prolactin in 24 healthy volunteers following a spiradoline challenge and single oral doses of PF-04455242 (18 and 30 mg). In both species, PF-04455242 successfully reversed spiradoline-induced prolactin response. A competitive antagonism model was developed and implemented within NONMEM to describe the effect of PF-04455242 on spiradoline-induced prolactin elevation in rats and humans. The PK–PD model-based estimate of Ki for PF-04455242 in rats was 414 ng/mL. Accounting for species differences in unbound fraction, in vitro Ki and brain penetration provided a predicted human Ki of 44.4 ng/mL. This prediction was in good agreement with that estimated via the application of the proposed PK–PD model to the clinical data (i.e., 39.2 ng/mL). These results illustrate the utility of the proposed PK–PD model in supporting the quantitative translation of preclinical studies into an accurate clinical expectation. As such, the proposed PK–PD model is useful for supporting the design, selection, and early development of novel KOR antagonists.
kappa opioid receptor antagonist; PK–PD modeling; proof of mechanism; translational pharmacology
Regulatory approaches for evaluating therapeutic equivalence of multisource (or generic) drug products vary among different countries and/or regions. Harmonization of these approaches may decrease the number of in vivo bioequivalence studies and avoid unnecessary drug exposure to humans. Global harmonization for regulatory requirements may be promoted by a better understanding of factors underlying product performance and expectations from different regulatory authorities. This workshop provided an opportunity for pharmaceutical scientists from academia, industry and regulatory agencies to have open discussions on current regulatory issues and industry practices, facilitating harmonization of regulatory approaches for establishing therapeutic equivalence and interchangeability of multisource drug products.
bioequivalence; harmonization; interchangeability; regulatory standards; therapeutic equivalence
Organic nitrate vasodilators (ORN) exert their pharmacologic effects through the metabolic release of nitric oxide (NO). Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is the principal enzyme responsible for NO liberation from nitroglycerin (NTG), but lacks activity towards other ORN. Cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1a1) can produce NO from NTG, but its activity towards other ORN is unknown. Using purified enzymes, we showed that both isoforms could liberate NO from NTG, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), and nicrorandil, while only ALDH1a1 metabolized isosorbide-2-mononitrate and isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN). Following a 10-min incubation with purified enzyme, 0.1 mM NTG and 1 mM ISDN potently inactivated ALDH1a1 (to 21.9% ± 11.1% and 0.44% ± 1.04% of control activity, respectively) and ALDH2 (no activity remaining and 4.57% ± 7.92% of control activity, respectively), while 1 mM IS-5-MN exerted only modest inactivation of ALDH1a1 (reduced to 89% ± 4.3% of control). Cytosolic ALDH in hepatic homogenates incubated at the vascular EC50 concentrations of ORN was inactivated by NTG (to 45.1% ± 8.1% of control activity) while mitochondrial ALDH was inactivated by NTG and nicorandil (to 68.2% ± 10.0% and 78.7% ± 19.8% of control, respectively). Via site-directed mutagenesis, the active sites of ORN metabolism of ALDH2 (Cys-319) and ALDH1a1 (Cys-303) were found to be identical to those responsible for their dehydrogenase activity. Cysteine-302 of ALDH1a1 and glutamate-504 of ALDH2 were found to modulate the rate of ORN metabolism. These studies provide further characterization of the substrate selectivity, inactivation, and active sites of ALDH2 and ALDH1a1 toward ORN.
aldehyde dehydrogenase; nitric oxide; organic nitrate; site-directed mutagenesis
Here, we compile the Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) classification for 927 drugs, which include 30 active metabolites. Of the 897 parent drugs, 78.8% (707) are administered orally. Where the lowest measured solubility is found, this value is reported for 72.7% (513) of these orally administered drugs and a dose number is recorded. The measured values are reported for percent excreted unchanged in urine, LogP, and LogD7.4 when available. For all 927 compounds, the in silico parameters for predicted Log solubility in water, calculated LogP, polar surface area, and the number of hydrogen bond acceptors and hydrogen bond donors for the active moiety are also provided, thereby allowing comparison analyses for both in silico and experimentally measured values. We discuss the potential use of BDDCS to estimate the disposition characteristics of novel chemicals (new molecular entities) in the early stages of drug discovery and development. Transporter effects in the intestine and the liver are not clinically relevant for BDDCS class 1 drugs, but potentially can have a high impact for class 2 (efflux in the gut, and efflux and uptake in the liver) and class 3 (uptake and efflux in both gut and liver) drugs. A combination of high dose and low solubility is likely to cause BDDCS class 4 to be underpopulated in terms of approved drugs (N = 53 compared with over 200 each in classes 1–3). The influence of several measured and in silico parameters in the process of BDDCS category assignment is discussed in detail.
Electronic supplementary material
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BDDCS; biowaiver; dose number; extent of metabolism; permeability rate
We propose a new method for optimal experimental design of population pharmacometric experiments based on global search methods using interval analysis; all variables and parameters are represented as intervals rather than real numbers. The evaluation of a specific design is based on multiple simulations and parameter estimations. The method requires no prior point estimates for the parameters, since the parameters can incorporate any level of uncertainty. In this respect, it is similar to robust optimal design. Representing sampling times and covariates like doses by intervals gives a direct way of optimizing with rigorous sampling and dose intervals that can be useful in clinical practice. Furthermore, the method works on underdetermined problems for which traditional methods typically fail.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1208/s12248-011-9291-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
interval analysis; optimal experimental design; set-values methods
The present study aimed to develop an effective screening strategy to predict in vivo phototoxicity of multiple compounds by combined use of in vitro phototoxicity assessments and cassette dosing pharmacokinetic (PK) studies. Photochemical properties of six fluoroquinolones (FQs) were evaluated by UV spectral and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays, and phototoxic potentials of FQs were also assessed using 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test (3T3 NRU PT) and intercalator-based photogenotoxicity (IBP) assay. Cassette dosing pharmacokinetics on FQs was conducted for calculating PK parameters and dermal distribution. All the FQs exhibited potent UV/VIS absorption and ROS generation under light exposure, suggesting potent photosensitivity of FQs. In vitro phototoxic risks of some FQs were also elucidated by 3T3 NRU PT and IBP assay. Decision matrix for phototoxicity prediction was built upon these in vitro data, taken together with outcomes from cassette dosing PK studies. According to the decision matrix, most FQs were deduced to be phototoxic, although gatifloxacin was found to be less phototoxic. These findings were in agreement with clinical observations. Combined use of in vitro photobiochemical and cassette dosing PK data will be useful for predicting in vivo phototoxic potentials of drug candidates with high productivity and reliability.
cassette dosing pharmacokinetic study; fluoroquinolones; phototoxicity; reactive oxygen species; 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test
Transdermal delivery of therapeutic agents for cosmetic therapy is limited to small and lipophilic molecules by the stratum corneum barrier. Microneedle technology overcomes this barrier and offers a minimally invasive and painless route of administration. DermaRoller®, a commercially available handheld device, has metal microneedles embedded on its surface which offers a means of microporation. We have characterized the microneedles and the microchannels created by these microneedles in a hairless rat model, using models with 370 and 770 μm long microneedles. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to study the geometry and dimensions of the metal microneedles. Dye binding studies, histological sectioning, and confocal microscopy were performed to characterize the created microchannels. Recovery of skin barrier function after poration was studied via transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements, and direct observation of the pore closure process was investigated via calcein imaging. Characterization studies indicate that 770 μm long metal microneedles with an average base width of 140 μm and a sharp tip with a radius of 4 μm effectively created microchannels in the skin with an average depth of 152.5 ± 9.6 μm and a surface diameter of 70.7 ± 9.9 μm. TEWL measurements indicated that skin regains it barrier function around 4 to 5 h after poration, for both 370 and 770 μm microneedles. However, direct observation of pore closure, by calcein imaging, indicated that pores closed by 12 h for 370 μm microneedles and by 18 h for 770 μm microneedles. Pore closure can be further delayed significantly under occluded conditions.
microneedles; microporation; pore closure; skin; transdermal delivery