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1.  Challenges and Opportunities in Establishing Scientific and Regulatory Standards for Assuring Therapeutic Equivalence of Modified Release Products: Workshop Summary Report 
The AAPS Journal  2010;12(3):371-377.
Modified release products are complex dosage forms designed to release drug in a controlled manner to achieve desired efficacy and safety. Inappropriate control of drug release from such products may result in reduced efficacy or increased toxicity. This workshop provided an opportunity for pharmaceutical scientists from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies to discuss current industry practices and regulatory expectations for demonstrating pharmaceutical equivalence and bioequivalence of MR products, further facilitating the establishment of regulatory standards for ensuring therapeutic equivalence of these products.
doi:10.1208/s12248-010-9201-5
PMCID: PMC2895434  PMID: 20440588
bioequivalence; interchangeability; modified release; pharmaceutical equivalence; therapeutic equivalence
2.  Blood pressure as an example of a biomarker that functions as a surrogate 
The AAPS Journal  2006;8(1):E146-E152.
There are many important uses of biomarkers in drug development. An area of particular interest is the use of biomarkers as surrogate end points. Only a small minority of biomarkers are established surrogate end points. Blood pressure is an example of a surrogate end point accepted by both clinicians and regulators. It was a plausible surrogate because of the large epidemiologic databases demonstrating a correlation between elevated blood pressures and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. That plausibility has been supported, however, by the numerous placebo-controlled outcome studies evaluating several pharmacologically distinct agents that showed an effect on stroke and coronary heart disease outcomes from lowering blood pressure.
doi:10.1208/aapsj080117
PMCID: PMC2751433  PMID: 16584122
biomarker; surrogate endpoint; blood pressure

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