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1.  A Markov Chain Model to Evaluate the Effect of CYP3A5 and ABCB1 Polymorphisms on Adverse Events Associated with Tacrolimus in Pediatric Renal Transplantation 
The AAPS Journal  2013;15(4):1189-1199.
The SNP A6986G of the CYP3A5 gene (*3) results in a non-functional protein due to a splicing defect whereas the C3435T was associated with variable expression of the ABCB1 gene, due to protein instability. Part of the large interindividual variability in tacrolimus efficacy and toxicity can be accounted for by these genetic factors. Seventy-two individuals were examined for A6986G and C3435T polymorphism using a PCR-RFLP-based technique to estimate genotype and allele frequencies in the Jordanian population. The association of age, hematocrit, platelet count, CYP3A5, and ABCB1 polymorphisms with tacrolimus dose- and body-weight-normalized levels in the subset of 38 pediatric renal transplant patients was evaluated. A Markov model was used to evaluate the time-dependent probability of an adverse event occurrence by CYP3A5 phenotypes and ABCB1 genotypes. The time-dependent probability of adverse event was about double in CYP3A5 non-expressors compared to the expressors for the first 12 months of therapy. The CYP3A5 non-expressors had higher corresponding normalized tacrolimus levels compared to the expressors in the first 3 months. The correlation trend between probability of adverse events and normalized tacrolimus concentrations for the two CYP3A5 phenotypes persisted for the first 9 months of therapy. The differences among ABCB1 genotypes in terms of adverse events and normalized tacrolimus levels were only observed in the first 3 months of therapy. The information on CYP3A5 genotypes and tacrolimus dose requirement is important in designing effective programs toward management of tacrolimus side effects particularly for the initial dose when tacrolimus blood levels are not available for therapeutic drug monitoring.
PMCID: PMC3787223  PMID: 23990505
ABCB1; adverse events; CYP3A5; Markov; tacrolimus
3.  Assessment of the Impact of Dosing Time on the Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics of Prednisolone 
The AAPS Journal  2008;10(2):331-341.
Prednisolone is widely used for the treatment of inflammation and auto-immune diseases. It exhibits nonlinear pharmacokinetics (PK); and its induced systemic effects (pharmacodynamics (PD)) are commonly evaluated with two biomarkers, cortisol and blood lymphocytes in plasma. Circadian patterns are observed in both biomarkers. Furthermore, the disease itself may show a circadian pattern. For example, in rheumatoid arthritis patients, better therapeutic outcomes have been reported when prednisolone was administered in the very early morning. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of dosing time on the PK/PD of prednisolone with a simulation approach using an interactive algorithm. A series of simulations were performed with either intravenous or oral administration of prednisolone or prednisone. The results showed that the initial or maximum concentration and trough concentration of total prednisolone were lower when the drug was administered in the early morning around 6 am. Oscillation patterns were observed in cumulative cortisol suppression (CCS) and alteration of total lymphocyte trafficking in blood. When the drug was given in the morning within the therapeutic dose range, or around 6 pm for a small dose amount (<1 mg), the minimum CCS and maximum effect on lymphocytes were observed. These results indicated that the PK/PD of prednisolone are time- and dose-dependent, and suggested that it is necessary to consider the application of chronotherapy to achieve better clinical outcomes with fewer side effects of prednisolone, and a PK/PD simulation approach could provide a valuable tool to evaluate and predict time-dependency in the system.
PMCID: PMC2751388  PMID: 18581240
dosing time; pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics; prednisolone; simulation
5.  Microdialysis as a tool in local pharmacodynamics 
The AAPS Journal  2006;8(2):E222-E235.
In many cases the clinical outcome of therapy needs to be determined by the drug concentration in the tissue compartment in which the pharmacological effect occurs rather than in the plasma. Microdialysis is an in vivo technique that allows direct measurement of unbound tissue concentrations and permits monitoring of the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs throughout the body. Microdialysis was first used in pharmacodynamic research to study neurotransmission, and this remains its most common application in the field. In this review, we give an overview of the principles, techniques, and applications of microdialysis in pharmacodynamic studies of local physiological events, including measurement of endogenous substances such as acetylcholine, catecholamines, serotonin, amino acids, peptides, glucose, lactate, glycerol, and hormones. Microdialysis coupled with systemic drug administration also permits the more intensive examination of the pharmacotherapeutic effect of drugs on extracellular levels of endogenous substances in peripheral compartments and blood. Selected examples of the physiological effects and mechanisms of action of drugs are also discussed, as are the advantages and limitations of this method. It is concluded that microdialysis is a reliable technique for the measurement of local events, which makes it an attractive tool for local pharmacodynamic research.
PMCID: PMC3231563  PMID: 16796373
Microdialysis; pharmacodynamics (PD); neurotransmitter; glucose; hormone

Results 1-5 (5)