PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (28)
 

Clipboard (0)
None
Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
issn:2229-340
2.  HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS’ KNOWLEDGE ON HOME HEALTH CARE IN AL-KHOBAR AND AL-DAMMAM 
Objective:
To survey self-reported knowledge of home health care (HHC) services of health care professionals in Al-Khobar and Al-Dammam.
Methods:
A specially developed questionnaire was used to conduct a cross-sectional study to find out how knowledgeable 11 hospital administrators, 16 PHHC medical directors, and 637 health care team were of HHC services.
Results:
When asked whether they knew of HHC services, 90.9% of medical directors, 62.5% of primary health care center directors, 83.1% of physicians, 92.9% of nurses, 98.6% of physiotherapists, 95.9% of social workers, and 57.6% of the health team members replied that they did, although this knowledge was very scanty. Health care workers’ source of information on HHC services was hospital work (65.0%) while administrators’ sources were journals (65.0%). Only 11.1% of the administrators and 30.3% of the health team members indicated having had HHC training from university, and 3.7% of administrators and 20.4% of health team members indicated having attended a HHC lecture or symposium. The only finding with significant difference of responses (p<0.001) was on the knowledge of HHC services among health care professionals. All other responses showed no significant differences between them. No significant differences in the responses were found between the two groups of administrators.
Conclusions:
Health professionals and administrators showed little knowledge of HHC services. The main source of HHC information for health professionals was from their hospital experience while administrators learned more about HHC services from medical journals.
Recommendations:
HHC training centers must be set up in Saudi Arabia. Home health care concepts and skills should be part of the regular health science undergraduate curriculum.
PMCID: PMC3410105  PMID: 23012088
Home Health Care (HHC)
3.  PRESCRIBING PATTERNS FOR ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE, ASEER REGION, SAUDI ARABIA 
Objective:
The objective of this study was to identify the patterns of prescribing for Acute respiratory infections in patients attending primary health care centers in the Aseer region, southwestern Saudi Arabia.
Materials & Methods:
This study was conducted at primary health care centers in the Aseer region during November 2003. A master sheet designed by the investigator was distributed to all the working physicians in the primary health care center in the Aseer region. The master sheet included the age, sex, complaints, signs, clinical diagnosis and the type of medications prescribed. Physicians were asked to include all patients attending on 17th November 2003, and send the master sheet to the Technical Supervision Unit at Primary Care Department, General Directorate of Health Affairs. Data of the master sheet was entered and analyzed by using SPSS.
Results:
The total number of patients attending with acute respiratory infections(ARIs) was 3000 which represented 25% of the patients attending primary health care centers that day. Children formed 60% of the total number of cases. Regarding symptoms and signs, it was found that 70% had a cough, 59% had a runny nose, and 43% had a sore throat . The common cold was the most common diagnosis (42%). Antipyretics, antihistamines, antibiotics and antitussives were prescribed for 78%, 48%, 45% and 25% respectively. Statistical analysis using logistic regression revealed that the higher the temperature, the more severe the throat congestion and the presence of exudates on pharynx, the higher the likelihood to prescribe antibiotics.
Conclusion:
In this study, it was found that the prescription of all drugs for ARIs was still high in spite of the fact that these conditions are self-limiting. To rationalize prescribing for ARI, implementation of the national protocol for diagnosis and treatment of ARIs is mandatory. Further studies to explore the physician's knowledge, attitudes and behavior concerning prescribing for ARI is strongly recommended.
PMCID: PMC3410106  PMID: 23012089
Prescribing; Acute Respiratory Infections; Primary health care centers
4.  SEVERE MALARIA IN SUDANESE CHILDREN: CLINICAL ASPECTS AND PROGNOSIS IN HOSPITILIZED PATIENTS 
Objective:
To asssess the epidemiology, clinical presentations, disease mangement, outcome and risk factors associatted with severe malaria in children in four hospitals in Sudan.
Methods:
Follow-up prospective design was used to fulfil the objectives of the study in four hospitals: Omdurman paediatrics hospital, located in the capital (Khartoum) compared to Madani, Gadarif and Sennar hospitals located in other states.
The results:
Total admission of severe malaria was 543 children representing 21% of all paediatric admissions, and 12% of malaria outpatient cases. Median age of children with severe malaria was 48 months. 93% of children with severe malaria died before the age of 9 years.
Case fatlality rate was 2.6%. The risk of dying because of delay was four times more than when there was no delay , 95% CI (1.5 – 14.3). Other risks of death were severe malaria associated with coma, inability to sit or eat and hyperpyrexia.
Omdurman hospital in Khartoum State in the capital, had the highest case management performance percentage compared to other regional hospitals.
Conclusions:
In view of this, it can be argued that deaths due to severe malaria could be reduced by improving health management and planning with the redistribution of resources (including consultants) at the central and regional levels and the conduct of proper training programs on the management of severe malaria at all levels. Raising the awareness of parents about seeking treatment for malaria early in order to avoid unnecessary deaths is vital.
PMCID: PMC3410107  PMID: 23012090
Severe malaria; Case fatality rate; Severe malaria management scoring system
5.  BREAST INFECTIONS IN NON-LACTATING WOMEN 
Background:
Breast infection in lactating mothers is a common entity which in the majority of cases can be explained by ascending infections. However, it has been noticed that the number of non lactating women presenting with breast abscesses is rising. This study attempts to explore the sensitivity pattern of organisms and underlying cause of breast infections in non-lactating women.
Materials and Methods:
This review was undertaken at King Fahd of the University, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia between 1991-2003. All patients presenting with breast infections were included. Medical records, operative notes, cultures, histopathology reports and outcome were reviewed.
Results:
The number of patients presenting with breast infections accounted for 179(3.5%) out of the total number of patients 6314 with variable breast complaints. Infection occurred in 136(76%) lactating women (Group I) ,while Non lactating (Group II) breast infections accounted for 43(24%). Age ranged from 24 years to 52 years. Underlying clinical conditions were found in 26 patients(60%) in Group II namely granulomatous mastitis13(50%), duct ectasia4 (15.3%), pregnancy3(11.5%), fat necrosis1(3.8%), diabetes3 (11.5%) and breast cancer 2(7.6%). The pattern of culture results was different in the two groups, from differing causative organisms namely staphylococcus aureus as the commonest organism in both groups, in comparison to such uncommon organisms as Klebsiella pneumonae, Peptococcus magnus, Streptococcus group B, Entro-bacter cloacae, Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurring in group II only. Fortunately, all organisms were sensitive to antimicrobial therapy.
Conclusion:
Breast infection in non-lactating women is an infrequent but recognized clinical entity that deserves special attention. An underlying clinical condition should always be sought and treated. Indeed, in addition to cultures, radiological modalities such as ultrasonographic imaging may provide specific diagnosis and aid the management.
PMCID: PMC3410108  PMID: 23012091
Breast infections; non-lactating; mastitis
6.  ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS OF DIFFERENT BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH VENTILATOR ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA (VAP) 
Objective:
Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a frequent complication of mechanical ventilation (MV) and it is a leading cause of death in MV patients. The development of VAP has been demonstrated as being due to aspiration of oropharyngeal secretion, ventilator tubing condensate, or gastric contents that are colonized with pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of the present study is to isolate and identify bacteria that cause VAP and to study antibiotic susceptibility.
Material and Methods:
This study was carried out on 95 patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for VAP. Quantitative cultures of endotracheal aspirates (EA) using a cut-off point of 106 cfu/ml was done.
Results:
The microbiological results revealed that gram negative bacilli were the most common bacterial agents responsible for VAP and accounted for 78.8% of all the causative agents. The most common isolated organisms were Klebsiella pnemouniae (30.9 %) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (21.2%), Eschericia coli (12.8 %), Proteus spp. (9.8%), and Citrobacter spp. (2.8%). Blood cultures were positive in 25.9% of patients with Klebsiella pnemouniae in about 33.3%.
Conclusion:
From this study, it can be concluded that VAP is an important nosocomial infection. EA is a simple procedure to obtain respiratory samples and perform sensitivity testing in patients with VAP. Also, the commonest cause of VAP is gram negative bacilli.
PMCID: PMC3410109  PMID: 23012092
Pneumonia; mechanical ventilation; antibiotics
7.  PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF ASTHMA AMONG WAD MEDANI BASIC SCHOOL CHILDREN, GEZIRA STATE, SUDAN 
Objectives:
Childhood asthma is said to be under-estimated and under-diagnosed in tropical countries including Sudan. The prevalence of asthma worldwide is increasing. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and the trigger factors of asthma among Wad Medani basic school children.
Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted during school year 2000-2001. The study group was selected by stratified proportional random sampling according to their age, sex and localities.Data was collected utilizing a pre-tested questionnaire addressing the history of asthma and its trigger factors (sample-2, 2002).
Results:
The results revealed that asthma is the ninth of the most common diseases among the school children, having a prevalence of 9.2% (sample 1) and 17.9% (sample 2), the main trigger factors of which are dust, cold bats, exercise and smoke respectively.
Conclusion:
Asthma among school children is a common problem that should be considered when planning preventive school health programmes.
PMCID: PMC3410110  PMID: 23012093
Asthma; Medani; School Children; Sudan
8.  PROFESSIONAL ATTITUDES AND CAREER CHOICES OF FEMALE MEDICAL LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS AND GRADUATES: EXPERIENCE FROM EASTERN SAUDI ARABIA 
Objectives:
To conduct a survey of the medical laboratory technology senior students, interns and graduates in King Faisal University to gather descriptive data on what students and graduates felt about their chosen profession and their career goals for the next five years.
Material and Methods:
The study design was a survey. A questionnaire was specially designed for this purpose in order to gather information on the professional attitudes and career choices of the participants. The study period was one year, from January I, 2004 to December 31, 2004. A stratified random sample with proportional allocation was selected and a self-administered 17-item questionnaire was distributed. A 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1, strongly agree to 5 strongly disagree was created for the questions as well as two multiple-choice questions. 115 questionnaires were distributed to the available senior students, interns and graduates, 111 were returned completed. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) PC + Software program.
Results:
Respondents indicated a high level of satisfaction with their chosen profession as indicated by the ratings on the different questions relating to the profession of MLT. Their career goals were mainly working in a hospital laboratory as medical technologists (57.7%), and continuing their postgraduate education (38.7%).
Conclusion and Recommendations:
MLT students and graduates expressed satisfaction with their chosen profession as evidenced by their responses assessing professional attitudes. Their career goals were mainly working at the bench level as Medical Laboratory Technologists in a hospital laboratory and postgraduate education.
PMCID: PMC3410111  PMID: 23012094
MLT; Career choices; Professional attitudes
9.  AN AUDIT OF ASSESSMENT TOOLS IN A MEDICAL SCHOOL IN EASTERN SAUDI ARABIA 
Background:
Assessment has a powerful influence on curriculum delivery. Medical instructors must use tools which conform to educational principles, and audit them as part of curriculum review.
Aim:
To generate information to support recommendations for improving curriculum delivery.
Setting:
Pre-clinical and clinical departments in a College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia.
Method:
A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey to see if assessment tools being used met basic standards of validity, reliability and currency, and if feedback to students was adequate. Excluded were cost, feasibility and tool combinations.
Results:
Thirty-one (out of 34) courses were evaluated. All 31 respondents used MCQs, especially one-best (28/31) and true/false (13/31). Groups of teachers selected test questions mostly. Pre-clinical departments sourced equally from “new” (10/14) and “used” (10/14) MCQs; clinical departments relied on ‘banked’ MCQs (16/17). Departments decided pass marks (28/31) and chose the College-set 60%; the timing was pre-examination in 13/17 clinical but post-examination in 5/14 pre-clinical departments. Of six essay users, five used model answers but only one did double marking. OSCE was used by 7/17 clinical departments; five provided checklist. Only 3/31 used optical reader. Post-marking review was done by 13/14 pre-clinical but 10/17 clinical departments. Difficulty and discriminating indices were determined by only 4/31 departments. Feedback was provided by 12/14 pre-clinical and 7/17 clinical departments. Only 10/31 course coordinators had copies of examination regulations.
Recommendations:
MCQ with single-best answer, if properly constructed and adequately critiqued, is the preferred tool for assessing theory domain. However, there should be fresh questions, item analyses, comparisons with pervious results, optical reader systems and double marking. Departments should use OSCE or OSPE more often. Long essays, true/false, fill-in-the-blank-spaces and more-than-one-correct-answer can be safely abolished. Departments or teams should set test papers and collectively take decisions. Feedback rates should be improved. A Center of Medical Education, including an Examination Center is required. Fruitful future studies can be repeat audit, use of “negative questions” and the number of MCQs per test paper. Comparative audit involving other regional medical schools may be of general interest.
PMCID: PMC3410120  PMID: 23012084
Assessment Technique; Curriculum review; MCQ
10.  SELECTION OF MEDICAL STUDENTS AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR STUDENTS AT KING FAISAL UNIVERSITY 
The appropriate selection of medical students is a challenging task. It requires that important assessment criteria principally based upon cognitive skills that include the matriculation and admission test scores of the applicants be fulfilled. Non-cognitive skills are also important, but used to a lower degree include intellectual flexibility, inquisitiveness, critical reasoning, logical thinking, tolerance, ability to cope with uncertainty and problem solving. Other criteria that are also considered important for selection include personal qualities and attitudes of the applicants that reflect directly on doctor-patient relationship. In contrast, such demographic factors as age, gender, race, religion, socio-economic status and schooling should not influence the selection process. The admission criteria adopted at King Faisal University Medical College focus basically on cognitive criteria. Other criteria whether non-cognitive or personal quality assessment are also taken into account through interviews and completed questionaires.
PMCID: PMC3410121  PMID: 23012085
Admission selection; medical education; medical students
11.  UNDER FIVES CLINIC 
PMCID: PMC3410122  PMID: 23012076
12.  THE ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGISTS IN HEALTH CARE DELIVERY 
Advances in the biomedical and the behavioral sciences have paved the way for the integration of medical practice towards the biopsychosocial approach. Therefore, dealing with health and illness overtakes looking for the presence or absence of the disease and infirmity (the biomedical paradigm) to the biopsychosocial paradigm in which health means a state of complete physical, psychological and social well-being. Psychology as a behavioral health discipline is the key to the biopsychosocial practice, and plays a major role in understanding the concept of health and illness. The clinical role of psychologists as health providers is diverse with the varying areas of care giving (primary, secondary and tertiary care) and a variety of subspecialties. Overall, psychologists assess, diagnose, and treat the psychological problems and the behavioral dysfunctions resulting from, or related to physical and mental health. In addition, they play a major role in the promotion of healthy behavior, preventing diseases and improving patients’ quality of life. They perform their clinical roles according to rigorous ethical principles and code of conduct. This article describes and discusses the significant role of clinical health psychology in the provision of health care, following a biopsychosocial perspective of health and illness. Professional and educational issues have also been discussed.
PMCID: PMC3410123  PMID: 23012077
Psychology; health psychology; biopsychosocial; and behavioral medicine
13.  PREVENTION OF BREAST CANCER 
The best therapy for cancer is prevention. Primary prevention involves health promotion and risk reduction in the general population so that invasive cancers do not develop. These primary preventive measures include the cessation of smoking, lifestyle and diet modification, vitamins and micronutrients supplementation. Identification of genetic risk, understanding of carcinogenesis, development of effective screening tools, avoiding risk factors and effective chemoprevention can lead to decreased morbidity and mortality of cancers in general and more importantly breast cancer. Secondary prevention is the identification and treatment of premalignant or subclinical cancers. Screening by means of mammography is a typical example of secondary prevention. Tertiary prevention is defined as symptoms control and rehabilitation. These definitions may become less useful in the future as they do not account for the new incoming data such as molecular data.
PMCID: PMC3410124  PMID: 23012078
Prevention; Cancer; Breast
14.  HEALTH EDUCATION RESOURCES AVAILABILITY FOR DIABETES AND HYPERTENSION AT PRIMARY CARE SETTINGS, ASEER REGION, SAUDI ARABIA 
Objective:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the availability of health materials and means on diabetes and hypertension at PHCCs in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia.
Materials and methods:
This study was carried out in PHCCs in Aseer region. A questionnaire was distributed to all PHCCs in the region. The questionnaire elicited information on the total population served, the number of diabetic and hypertensive patients, and the availability of health materials for diabetes and hypertension. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS.
Results:
A total of 242 PHCCs out of 245 responded to this questionnaire. There were 20 health educators (8%).Availability of health education materials ranged between 10 to 50%. Health education programs for Diabetes and hypertension were available in more than 90% of PHCCs.
Conclusion:
This study revealed that most of PHCCs in Aseer region lacked essential health education materials and means for diabetes and hypertension and, therefore were in urgent need of these materials from the Health Education Department, private health sectors and drug companies.
PMCID: PMC3410125  PMID: 23012079
Health education; availability; Diabetes; Hypertension; Aseer Region
15.  A REVIEW OF PREDONATION BLOOD DONOR DEFERRALS IN A UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL 
Objectives:
To study the main causes of predonation deferral of potentially healthy prospective blood donors in a University Hospital Blood Bank unit, and to make recommendations accordingly.
Methods:
A retrospective review of the main causes of predonation deferral of blood donors in King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU) Al-Khobar, was carried out. Records of all predonation deferrals from 1st January 1996 to 31st December 2003 were reviewed and analyzed.
Results:
A total of 33,900 potential blood donors came to donate blood during the study period. A total of 6508 donors (19.2%) were deferred for various reasons. Analysis of the causes of deferral showed the following as the most common reasons in rank order: (1) recent ingestion or taking of counter-indicative medications; (2) low hematocrit level; (3) underweight; (4) abnormally high pulse rate; (5) low blood pressure; (6) temperature above 37.5°C; (7) High blood pressure; (8) presenting for donation too soon i.e. less than 8 weeks after the previous one; (9) age below or above the accepted limit; (10) a previous serological positive result; (11) general appearance; (12) abnormally low pulse rate.
Conclusion and Recommendations:
It is important to provide donors with a clear message on their deferral status. Increased public education about blood donation and the common causes of donor deferral may lower deferral rates and prevent a negative impact on the donor himself as well as on subsequent blood donations. Public education is needed also to help recruit as many volunteer donors as possible.
PMCID: PMC3410126  PMID: 23012080
Prospective blood donors; Donor screening; Pre-donation deferral
16.  FROM HOME TO HOSPITAL: BELIEFS AND PRACTICES RELATED TO SEVERE MALARIA IN SUDAN 
Purpose:
To develop effective measures of reducing the proportion of severe malaria presentation and deaths attributed to malaria, an adequate understanding of beliefs and practices in households and at the level of primary health care is necessary. The objectives of this paper are to explore beliefs and practices related to the management of severe malaria, and to identify barriers to early consultation.
Subjects and Methods:
A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted in five hospitals in Sudan in 2003. All malaria cases admitted, or their care givers were interviewed by a medical doctor using pre-coded and pre-tested questionnaire.
Results:
Enrolled in this study, were a total of 482 patients, 62.9% of whom were female. Almost 75.0% of the respondents perceived that malaria had serious complications. Anaemia as a complication was mentioned by 115 (32.0%) respondents. A total of 418 (86.7%) patients sought advice from health personnel. Of these, 305 (73.0%) did so more than 24 hours after the onset of the illness. Distance, lack of money, unavailability of transportation or all were the reasons mentioned as barriers to seeking care at hospitals. More than 70.0% of the patients received anti-malarial drugs before admission with a clear preference for the injectable form of chloroquine. Multivariate analysis revealed that “cost of services” and “not seeking help from health personnel” were the determinants for late consultation.
Conclusion:
The study revealed that late consultation was a feature in many parts of Sudan. Among the barriers mentioned by the respondents, the cost of services was of the greatest concern.
PMCID: PMC3410127  PMID: 23012081
Severe malaria; believes and practices; determinants of late consultation
17.  GIANT JUVENILE FIBROADENOMA: EXPERIENCE FROM A UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL 
Objective:
Fibroadenoma is one of the commonest benign breast lesions in our outpatient clinics. Giant Juvenile fibroadenoma (GJF) characterized with their alarming rapid growth and gross disfigurement is less frequently identified.
Materials and Methods:
A 14-year review (1990-2004) of all fibroadenomas presented to the Outpatient Department was undertaken. Demographic data, duration of symptoms, size at presentation, the use of radiological, cytological and histo-pathological modalities, surgical excision and follow up were all noted. Eight-Hundred-Sixty-Four cases were diagnosed as fibroadenoma by both clinical and radiological examinations and confirmed by FNAC. Patients with fibroadenomas <2 cm in size were followed up regularly in the out patients department, while those >2 cm underwent surgical excision. GJF were defined as those with >5 cm in diameter.
Results:
The total number of excised fibroadenomas was 202 (23%), while the remaining662 (77%) fell into the follow up category. GJF were diagnosed in 9 patients accounting for 4.5% of all excised fibroadenomas. Age ranged between 14-23 years.
Conclusion:
However benign these lesions may appear, in view of the history of a sudden rapid breast enlargement as demonstrated in nearly all the clinical presentations, surgical excision remains the mainstay of treatment of such lesions in order to allow the previously compressed normal surrounding breast tissue to expand and retain its normal function and cosmetic appearance. The use of radiological modalities such as ultrasound and MRI may aid the diagnosis, limiting mammography to the older age group
PMCID: PMC3410128  PMID: 23012082
Juvenile fibroadenoma; breast
19.  ASTHMA AWARENESS MONTH 
PMCID: PMC3410130  PMID: 23012065
20.  PREDICTORS OF SHORT-TERM HOSPITAL READMISSIONS OF ASTHMATIC CHILDREN 
Background:
The admission rate for bronchial asthma has increased dramatically all over the world. Part of this increase in hospital admissions is due to patient readmission.
Objective:
To determine the risk factors associated with short-term hospital readmission of pediatric patients with asthma within two months of the last hospital admission.
Methods and setting:
A retrospective case-control study using the registration books of both admissions and discharges to identify patient groups. All hospital records of patients admitted from August 1998 through December 2002 at Aseer Central Hospital, southwestern Saudi Arabia were reviewed. Patients who were admitted during this period of study and readmitted to hospital within two months were used as the study group (n=28) and those patients admitted within the same period but not readmitted within two months constituted the control group (n=45). Demographic variables, route of admission, patient's previous medical history, clinical assessment, hospital treatment as well as discharge treatment were obtained and entered for analysis.
Results:
Twenty-eight patients were readmitted within two months of their discharge from hospital (17 boys and 11 girls). Seventy percent of these were less than four years of age. Significant predictors of readmission were: prior history of asthma admission (adjusted OR 2.21,95% CI 1.08-9.10), neonatal intensive care graduate (adjusted OR 4.44,95% CI 1.67-9.34), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (adjusted OR 3.06,95% CI 2.01-7.95), recurrent aspiration (adjusted OR 1.96,95% CI 1.08-4.27), duration of asthma symptoms more than five days (adjusted OR 0.15,95% CI 0.03-0.42), moderate to severe clinical assessment (adjusted OR 1.12,95% CI 1.01-2.94), positive X-ray findings (adjusted OR 0.04,95%CI 0.011-0.230), intensive care admission (adjusted OR 1.96,95%CI 1.08-4.63), mechanical ventilation (adjusted OR 0.010,95%CI 0.002-0.130), intravenous steroids (adjusted OR 0.104 ,95%CI 0.016-0.321).
Conclusion:
Prior neonatal intensive care unit admission, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, history of previous asthma admissions, recurrent aspirations, intensive care unit admission, intravenous steroids, positive X-ray findings and mechanical ventilation were significant predictors of asthma short-term hospital readmissions.
PMCID: PMC3410131  PMID: 23012067
Asthma; Children; Risk factors; Readmission
21.  SELF-REPORTED KNOWLEDGE AND PATTERN OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG MALE SCHOOL STUDENTS AND THEIR TEACHERS IN AL KHOBAR, SAUDI ARABIA 
Objective:
The aim of this study was to determine self-reported knowledge and practice of physical activity among male school students and their teachers in Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia.
Methods:
This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Al Khobar area, Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The target population consisted of third grade intermediate and all three grades of male secondary school students. A multistage stratified self-weighting sampling design was adopted. All students, a total of 1240, in the selected classes as well as their teachers (142) in the selected schools were included in the sample. Two sets of self-administered questionnaires were used: one for male students and the other for teachers. The questionnaire contained demographic data and data on knowledge and practice of physical activity.
Results:
The majority of male students knew that physical activity was protective against diseases in general ((92.8%) and was helpful in the prevention of obesity (74.4%). Teachers had significantly better knowledge about the benefits of physical activity. Both students and teachers had poor knowledge about the role of physical activity in the prevention of diabetes mellitus and hypertension (36.6% and 28.8% for students vs. 43.0% and 46.5% for teachers respectively). The frequency and duration of practice of effective physical activity were significantly better than their teachers (45.6% and 71.3% for students vs. 23.1% and 36.6% for teachers respectively). Age and the knowledge that exercise protects from obesity were the main determinants of practice of physical activity among male students. Youthfulness was statistically significantly associated with practice of physical activity.
Conclusions:
Teachers had significantly better knowledge about the benefits of physical activity than their students. Both students and teachers had poor knowledge about the role of physical activity in the prevention of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Health education should concentrate on clarifying this area. Students practiced effective physical activity significantly more than their teachers. Programs to increase regular physical activity were suggested.
PMCID: PMC3410132  PMID: 23012068
School students; teachers; knowledge; physical activity
22.  THE PATTERN OF COMMONER HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG BASIC SCHOOL CHILDREN, GEZIRA STATE, SUDAN 
Background:
The lack of baseline information on the magnitude of health problems among school children is considered one of the factors of the unsatisfactory status of school health in Sudan. Availability of such data from schools will help in the health promotion of school children.
Objective:
To determine the proportions of the commoner diseases or health problems among Wad Medani basic school children (males and females) at the end of the school year 2000-2001.
Method:
This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 3862 basic school children (males and females).They were selected by multi-stage stratified proportional random sampling according to their sex and localities. A pre-designed pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data which were then tabulated and statistically analyzed.
Results:
The study revealed that 77.9% of the study group had malaria, 33% of them had sore throat, 26.4% suffered from psychosocial problems that affected their school performance. Dental carries 24.5%, diarrhea attacks 17.5%, oxyuris worm 16.8%, pneumonia 11.5, measles infection 12.4%, asthma 9.2% and visual defects 8.9%. Some of these problems were related to the poor quality of school environment including sanitation and poor nutritional services. These findings should be considered in planning school health programmes. Appropriate interventions to reduce these problems through improving school environment and raising the awareness of the school community towards such problems is recommended.
PMCID: PMC3410133  PMID: 23012069
Common health problems among school children in Gezira State-Sudan
23.  HOW TO APPROACH THE PROBLEM OF LOW BACK PAIN: AN OVERVIEW 
The management of patients with low back pain (LBP) problems by primary care physicians or even spine specialists differ significantly and little is known about treatment strategy.
This review is to present the clinical profile and to assess the most common treatment modalities of patients with low-back pain in order to improve the clinical judgment of the treating physician.
Data were obtained from a midline literature search of articles in English. A manual revision of original articles was done and demonstrative figures from patients at our institute were added.
LBP is an extremely common problem. It is characterized by attacks, remissions and exacerbations. It is best managed by a multidisciplinary team. Primary coordination of treatment may depend on the patient's need and the awareness of the treating physician of the importance of history and physical examinations. The following suggested protocol may help to identify red flags that denote more serious conditions.
PMCID: PMC3410134  PMID: 23012066
Low back pain; red flags; treatment modalities
24.  CHARACTERISTICS OF IMMUNIZATION PROVIDERS IN RIYADH AND THEIR SELF-PERCEPTION OF COMPETENCY 
Objective:
To study the demographic characteristics of immunization providers in Riyadh City and their self-perception of competency.
Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted among immunization providers in Riyadh City from August 2003 to March 2004. This study covered 71 institutions: (25 primary health care centers, 30 private clinics and dispensaries, 8 government hospitals and 8 private hospitals). Immunization providers were selected by stratified random process. One hundred and one physicians participated in the study and the data were obtained by self-administered questionnaires, tabulated and analyzed using appropriate statistics.
Results:
The participating physicians were mostly pediatricians (50.5%) and general practitioners (38.6%). About 47% of them had had no training in immunization during the preceding 10 years. Self-evaluation revealed that 30.7% of them ranked themselves as excellent, 67.3% as average and 2.0% as poor immunization providers. Self-confidence was associated with specialty, qualification, place of work, years of experience and training on immunization (p<0.05). Most of participating doctors (83.7%) used books as their references. The doctors were least confident in vaccinating pregnant and lactating women and the vaccination of travelers to endemic areas.
Conclusion:
To improve immunization services, doctors should be trained before being involved in this practice. There should be frequent distribution of national and international protocols with the auditing of the practice to improve and sustain a highly effective service.
PMCID: PMC3410135  PMID: 23012070
Vaccination; Immunization provider; Self-Perception and Saudi Arabia
25.  DIABETES KNOWLEDGE AMONG SELF REPORTED DIABETIC FEMALE TEACHERS: AL-KHOBAR, SAUDI ARABIA 
Objective:
The objective of this study was to determine the general knowledge of diabetes among female diabetic school teachers in Al-Khobar, Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.
Methods:
A total of 91 female diabetic school teachers were interviewed in the School Health Clinic in Al-Khobar using a structured questionnaire. Their weight and height were measured and BMI was calculated.
Results:
The results showed that understanding of diabetes was inadequate. Knowledge about symptoms of hypoglycemia was low. One-fourth (25%) of the sample of this study was using certain herbs for the treatment or management of diabetes mellitus. About three- fourths were overweight and obese. The results showed a deficiency of knowledge on the general aspects of diabetes mellitus. An appropriate educational material was prepared in the form leaflets, lectures and workshops.
Conclusion:
This paper concludes that awareness and education about diabetes are needed urgently among the studied sample.
PMCID: PMC3410136  PMID: 23012071
Diabetes Mellitus; School teachers; knowledge; herbs

Results 1-25 (28)