PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (33)
 

Clipboard (0)
None
Journals
Authors
more »
Year of Publication
issn:2229-340
1.  Favorable impact of Nigella sativa seeds on lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients 
Background and Aim:
The atherogenic pattern of dyslipidemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly discussed. We have recently reported a hypoglycemic effect of Nigella sativa (NS) seeds in patients with type 2 DM. In this study we sought to assess the impact of NS seeds on lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients.
Patients and Method:
A total of 94 patients with type 2 DM were recruited and divided into 3 dose groups. Capsules containing NS were administered orally in a dose of 1, 2, and 3 g/day for 12 weeks. All patients were subjected to measurement of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) before treatment and 4, 8, and 12 weeks thereafter.
Results:
Patients receiving 1 g/day NS seeds for 12 weeks (group 1) showed nonsignificant changes in all the parameters except for a significant increase in HDL-c after 4 weeks of treatment. However, patients ingested 2 g/day NS displayed a significant decline in TC, TG, and LDL-c, and a significant elevation in HDL-c/LDL-c, compared with their baseline data and to group 1 patients. Increasing NS dose to 3 g/day failed to show any increase in the hypolipdemic effect produced by the 2 g/day dose.
Conclusion:
NS supplementation at a dose of 2 g/day for 12 weeks may improve the dyslipidemia associated with type 2 diabetic patients. Therefore, NS is a potential protective natural agent against atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications in these patients.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.102311
PMCID: PMC3515953  PMID: 23230380
Black seeds; diabetes mellitus type 2; dyslipidemia; HDL; LDL; Nigella sativa; total cholesterol; triglycerides
2.  Comparative study of physical activity of hypertensives and normotensives: A cross-sectional study of adults in Saudi Arabia 
Background:
To formulate all intervention strategies for hypertension in the community, it is essential to quantify the magnitude of the disease and its risk factors. The patterns of physical activity have not been studied in terms of their being a risk factor or a predictor of hypertension in Saudi Arabia.
Materials and Methods:
This was a community-based cross-sectional study using the STEP-wise approach of adults and a multistage, stratified, cluster random sample. Data were collected using a questionnaire which included sociodemographics, blood pressure, patterns, levels and duration of physical activity.
Results:
Of a total of 4758, 1213 (25.5%) were hypertensives. Hypertension was significantly negatively associated with total levels and duration of physical activity in leisure, transport, and work. Significant predictors of hypertension included lower levels of work involving a moderate physical activity for 10 min, walking/cycling for 10 min continuously, and vigorous activity during leisure time.
Conclusions:
Hypertension is prevalent among adults; physical inactivity is a significant risk factor and predictor. Targeting this modifiable risk factor can help in prevention, early diagnosis, and control.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.102315
PMCID: PMC3515954  PMID: 23230381
Adults; hypertension; physical activity; Saudi Arabia
3.  The effect of body mass index on the outcome of pregnancy in women with recurrent miscarriage 
Background:
Maternal obesity is associated with menstrual disorders, infertility and sporadic miscarriages. Recurrent miscarriage (RM) affects at least 1% of couples trying to conceive. In over 50% of cases, the cause of the loss of pregnancy remains unexplained. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) and future outcomes of pregnancy in couples with “unexplained” RM.
Methods and Results:
All couples referred to the specialist recurrent miscarriage clinic at St. Mary's Hospital, London, were investigated for an underlying cause. Those with unexplained RM were eligible. Demographic and clinical data were retrieved from a computerised database and medical records. The World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of BMI was used. Univariate analysis demonstrated that BMI, maternal age, number of previous miscarriages and ethnicity were significantly associated with pregnancy outcome. Logistic regression demonstrated that maternal obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) significantly increased the risk of miscarriage in couples with unexplained RM (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.06 – 2.83). Asian women with a BMI similar to Caucasian women had a higher risk of a further miscarriage (OR 2.87, 95% CI, 1.52 – 5.39).
Conclusions:
Maternal obesity is an independent factor associated with an increased risk of miscarriage in couples with RM. All women with RM should have their BMI recorded at their first clinic visit. The potential effect of weight loss on the outcome of subsequent pregnancies should be assessed in future studies. The increased risk of miscarriage in Asian women needs to be explored further.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.102316
PMCID: PMC3515955  PMID: 23230382
BMI; miscarriage; obesity; recurrent miscarriage; weight loss
4.  Gender differences in health education needs and preferences of Saudis attending Riyadh Military Hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 
Background and Aim:
Health reforms that tend to increase the participation of clients in decision-making requires them to be health-literate; hence, the importance of health education. However, not much research has been done to investigate the differences in health education needs according to demographic characteristics of the clients. The aim of this study was to find out any possible gender differences there may be in health education needs and preferences.
Subjects and Methods:
This cross-sectional study was conducted at Riyadh Military Hospital, Saudi Arabia, on a convenience sample of adult Saudis attending its clinics. Data was collected from April 2009 to May 2010 using a self-administered questionnaire covering demographic data, history and needs of health education, methods, and preferred educator.
Results:
Of the 1300 forms distributed, 977 were returned completed (75.2% response). Most men (74.0%) and women (77.9%) had had health education, but more women reported that it had been helpful (P = 0.014). More men mentioned health education needs relating to primary prevention (P = 0.027), and unhealthy practices (P = 0.003), and considered the different language a barrier (P = 0.002) even after adjustment for age and education. The one-to-one method was the most preferred health education method for men (72.7%) and women (67.9%). More women preferred group health education (P = 0.02) after adjustment for age and education. Significantly more men preferred pharmacists and dietitians as health educators.
Conclusion:
The results point to a few significant differences between men and women regarding their health education needs, barriers, and preferences. These must be taken into consideration when planning health education programs.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.102317
PMCID: PMC3515956  PMID: 23230383
Gender; health education; needs; preferences
5.  Effect of antiretroviral therapy on clinical and immunologic disease progression in HIV positive children: One-year follow-up study 
Objective:
To study the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on clinical, immunologic, and nutritional progression of disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children for 1 year.
Materials and Methods:
The study included 54 children aged 1.5–15 years who registered at the ART center, Surat, from August 2007 to August 2009. During the study period, the children were followed-up at 6 monthly intervals up to 1 year after starting ART. World Health Organization (WHO) clinical staging and CD4 cell count as per national guidelines, and nutritional status were used to measure clinical and immunologic progression of disease up to 1 year.
Results:
Out of 54 children, mother-to-child transmission was reported in 96.2% children; for 74% of the children, both parents were HIV positive. All the children were classified according to WHO clinical staging into 4 stages and as per CD4 cell count (%), followed up at 6 and 12 months and the benefits with ART reported. At 12 months follow-up, 15% of the study group children had died. Both mean CD4 count and a relative percentage showed significant increase (P < 0.01) in the study group 1 year after ART.
Conclusion:
The present study reports benefits of ART in terms of clinical and immunologic progression of disease, nutritional status of HIV-infected children after 1 year of ART.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.102318
PMCID: PMC3515957  PMID: 23230384
ART; CD4 cell count; HIV-positive children; nutrition; WHO clinical staging
6.  The use of school teachers to promote oral hygiene in some secondary school students at Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India: A short term prospective pilot study 
Study design:
It was a short term prospective pilot study on a group of 116 secondary school students.
Objectives:
To assess the feasibility of using the services of school teachers to promote oral hygiene in secondary school students and compare the effectiveness of dental health education (DHE) offered by school teachers on a fortnightly basis with what is offered by dental professionals at three- monthly intervals.
Materials and Methods:
Six secondary schools were randomly selected. The base-line Oral Hygiene Index simplified (OHI-S) and Plaque index (PI) scores for all the students were recorded. The teachers were trained on dental health facts. The six schools were divided into three groups of two schools with different intervention techniques: Group 1- Schools given no health education, Group 2 – Schools given health education by their school teachers on a fortnightly basis together with simple screening for deposits of gross calculus , Group 3 – Schools which were given health education by dental professionals at intervals of three months without any screening. Grade nine students were selected for pre and post intervention evaluation. The second examination was done six months following the intervention to find out the OHI-S and Plaque index scores. The examination was done by three trained and calibrated dentists. Data analysis was done with SPSS 16 with relevant statistical tests.
Results:
The mean OHI-S and PI scores were significantly less in group 2 and there was a statistically significant difference between the baseline OHI – S, PI score and the scores after six months in all the three groups.
Conclusion:
The concept of utilizing the teachers for frequent DHE and screening for any gross deposits of food debris and calculus is feasible. Also frequent DHE by teachers was more effective than the infrequent DHE by the professionals.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.102319
PMCID: PMC3515958  PMID: 23230385
Dental health education; oral hygiene index-simplified; oral health promotion; plaque index; prospective study
7.  Attitudes and views of medical students toward anatomy learnt in the preclinical phase at King Khalid University 
Objective:
The objective of the present study was to determine the views and attitude of clinical medical students toward gross anatomy courses taught to them in preclinical years and their relevance to their medical practice.
Materials and Methods:
A structured questionnaire of 16 items was distributed to 146 clinical students. The study group included both genders (104 males and 42 females). A total of 121 students (83%) responded to the questionnaire.
Results:
The responses obtained in relation to the clarity of the anatomy course outline its impact on their ability to think and solve problems, develop their skills as members of a team, and its relevance to their clinical practice and their ability to engage in common clinical practices were negative.
Conclusion:
There is an urgent need to redesign the anatomy curriculum in King Khalid University in order to enable the graduates to deliver adequate health care to the community.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.102320
PMCID: PMC3515959  PMID: 23230386
Anatomy course; attitude; King Khalid University; medical students
8.  Knowledge of the residents at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAAUH) about palliative care 
Background:
Palliative care is a rapidly growing subspecialty that aims at improving the quality of life and relieving suffering associated with life threatening disease. Despite its rapid growth and huge demand, the knowledge of health care professionals on palliative care remains inadequate.
Objective:
This study aims to determine the knowledge of residents at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAAUH) on palliative care.
Materials and Methods:
Through a cross-sectional design, all residents in the hospital were invited to complete a two-part self-administered questionnaire in June 2010. The first part of the questionnaire included variables describing the socio-demographic characteristics and educational background, and the second part developed by palliative care education initiative at Dalhousie University in Canada in 2000 had 25 items on the knowledge of palliative care.
Results:
Of the 80 residents 65 (81%) responded, the overwhelming majority of whom were Saudis (92.3%) with an equal representation of males and females. The mean age of the participants was 29.1 ± 2.4 years. Less than one-third (29.2%) indicated that they had previous didactic education on palliative care. The percentage of right answers on items reflecting knowledge on palliative care accounted for 29.9% ± 9.9%. No statistically significant difference was found in the level of knowledge among the residents according to their demographics or graduation and training characteristics.
Conclusion:
Resident physicians enrolled in postgraduate programs have suboptimal knowledge of basic palliative care. Substantial efforts should be made to incorporate a palliative care module into the theoretical and practical training of medical students and resident physicians.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.102321
PMCID: PMC3515960  PMID: 23230387
Knowledge; palliative care; residents; Saudi Arabia
9.  The status of Vitamin D in medical students in the preclerkship years of a Saudi medical school 
Background:
The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has recently been recognized in different parts of the world, even affecting healthy populations. The deficiency of vitamin D can lead to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Few studies have been done to evaluate the status of vitamin D in the medical community. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of low levels of vitamin D in healthy Saudi medical students.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional study was carried out in November 2009 on male and female students in the preclerkship years of medical school at the King Faisal University, Dammam. Data on age, consumption of dairy products and seafood, and exposure to sunlight were collected. The body mass index was calculated. Approximately, 15 ml of blood was extracted for the measurement of serum calcium, serum albumin, serum phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, fasting parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D levels. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D < 50 nmol/l. Comparison between groups was done for statistical significance using an unpaired t-test. Significance was set at P < 0.05 using 95% CI for all comparisons.
Results:
The data from 95 male and 103 female students were analyzed. The mean age for all students was 19.54 years. In 100% of the students, the vitamin D level was low. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in all students was 96.0% (92.64% in males and 99.03% in females), while the remaining 4% had vitamin D insufficiency. The mean 25-hydroxy vitamin D level was 26.83 ± 12.60 nmol/l in males and 16.03 ± 8.28 nmol/l in females (P-value = 0.0001). Males had a statistically significant higher body mass index as well as consumption of dairy products, while the consumption of seafood was significantly higher in females. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of exposure to the sun.
Conclusion:
Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent among medical students included in this study. An urgent action has to be taken in order to prevent adverse consequences of low vitamin D in the young, otherwise healthy populations.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.98293
PMCID: PMC3410172  PMID: 22870413
Insufficiency; medical students; Saudi; vitamin D deficiency
10.  Pre-hypertension and hypertension in college students in Kuwait: A neglected issue 
Objective:
To determine the proportion of pre-hypertension and hypertension in college students in Kuwait and their related risk factors.
Materials and Methods:
A total of 803, randomly selected students aged 17 to 23 years (346 male, 457 female) from different colleges in Kuwait, were included in the study between 2009 and 2010. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements were taken by trained personnel. Pre-hypertension was defined as systolic pressure between 120 and 139 mm Hg or diastolic pressure between 80 and 89 mm Hg. Risk factor measurements that were determined, included smoking, body mass index (BMI), and family history of hypertension. Blood samples were collected and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and lipid profile levels were determined.
Results:
There were no hypotensive students. Normotensives constituted 53.5% (n = 430), pre-hypertensives formed 39.5% (n = 317), and hypertensive students comprised of 7% (n = 56). The overall proportions of hypertension and pre-hypertension were higher among male students (85.7 and 64.4%) than female students (14.3 and 35.6%), respectively. Hypertensive and pre-hypertensive students versus normotensive students had significantly higher levels of BMI-based obesity, smoking, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and IGT. Also, hypertensive and pre-hypertensive, compared to normotensive students, had significantly higher proportions (21.4, 18.3, and 4.0%, respectively) of risky high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level (< 1 mg / dL), cholesterol (7.1, 3.8, and 1.4%, respectively), and triglycerides (TG) (17.9, 9.1, and 7.9%, respectively) where p was< 0.001, 0.016, and 0.051, respectively.
Conclusion:
Hypertensive and pre-hypertensive students showed elevated levels of lipids and BMI-based obesity more than normotensive students. TG, HDL, HbA1c, and cholesterol appeared to influence pre-hypertension.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.98296
PMCID: PMC3410173  PMID: 22870414
BMI-based obesity; hypertension; high-density lipoprotein; Kuwait; pre-hypertension; triglycerides
11.  Maternal antecedents of infants with abnormal head sizes in southwest Nigeria: A community-based study 
Objective:
To identify the socio-demographic antecedents and pregnancy-related history of infants with abnormal head sizes in a developing country.
Materials and Methods:
An observational study of mother-infant pairs attending routine immunization clinics in an inner-city community in Lagos, Nigeria. Age and gender-specific head circumference was determined with the current Child Growth Standards of the World Health Organization (WHO). Factors independently associated with any abnormal head size (z-score < - 2SD or > 2SD), based on the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI), were explored with multiple logistic regression analyses.
Results:
Of the 5731 mothers studied, 730 (12.7%) had an offspring with an abnormal head size. In the final regression model, teenage mothers (OR:1.86; CI:1.26 – 2.75), mothers with primary or no education (OR:1.65; P = 0.007), multiple pregnancies (OR:3.88; CI:2.53 – 5.95), and delivery in either private hospitals (OR:1.54; CI:1.22 – 1.95) or residential homes (OR:1.50; CI:1.05 – 2.14), compared to government hospitals, were significantly more likely to have offsprings with abnormal head sizes.
Conclusions:
Community-oriented public health education, targeting prospective mothers with multiple pregnancies, teenage girls, and women with little or no formal education on the potential risk of delivery outside public hospitals, may curtail the burden of abnormal head size of their offspring and reduce the pressure on the already overstretched rehabilitation services in resource-poor countries.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.98298
PMCID: PMC3410174  PMID: 22870415
Developing country; early detection; growth monitoring; head circumference; WHO growth standard
12.  Interpreting the psychometric properties of the components of primary care instrument in an elderly population 
Objective:
To determine the psychometric properties of the Components of Primary Care Instrument (CPCI) in a patient population aged 65 or older.
Materials and Methods:
795 participants in the OKLAHOMA Studies, a longitudinal population-based study of predominantly Caucasian, elderly patients, completed the CPCI. Reliability analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were done to provide psychometric properties for this elderly sample. Models were constructed and tested to determine the best fit for the data including the addition of a method factor for negatively worded items.
Results:
Cronbach's alphas were comparable to values reported in prior studies. The confirmatory factor analysis with factor inter-correlations and a method factor each improved the fit of the factor model to the data. The combined model's fit approached the level conventionally recognized as adequate.
Conclusion:
CPCI appears to be a reliable tool for describing patient perceptions of the quality of primary care for patients over age 65.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.98299
PMCID: PMC3410175  PMID: 22870416
Components of primary care instrument; elderly; older patients; primary care; reliability; validity
13.  Pattern of self-medication with analgesics among Iranian University students in central Iran 
Background:
Self-medication is defined as the use of drugs for the treatment of self-diagnosed disorders. It is influenced by factors such as education, family, society, law, availability of drugs and exposure to advertisements. This study was performed to evaluate self-medication with analgesics and its pattern among different groups of Iranian University Students.
Materials and Methods:
A randomized, cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010. The target population of this study was 564 students out of 10,000 students attending four medical and non-medical science universities in Qom state. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16, and analysis was conducted with descriptive analysis procedures.
Results:
76.6% of the students had used analgesics in self-medication in the previous 3 months. The frequency of analgesic use in the study period was once in 19.2% of the participants, twice in 22.2%, three times in 16.3% and more than three times in 35.5% of the participants, although 6.8% of them were not sure when they were used. Of all the respondents, 49.8% reported headache as the problem. This was the most common problem, after which came Dysmenorrhea,headache and stomach ache. Bone and joint pains were other problems that led to the use of analgesics. The most commonly used source of information for self-medication with analgesics was advice from friends and family (54.7%), previously prescribed medications (30.1%), their medical knowledge (13.3%) and recommendation of a pharmacist (1.9%).
Conclusion:
Self-medication with analgesics is very high among Iranian students in Qom city. This could be an index for other parts of the Iranian community. Because the source of information about analgesics is inappropriate, we would recommend education courses about analgesics and self-medication on the radio and television for the entire population.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.98302
PMCID: PMC3410176  PMID: 22870417
Analgesics; Iran; students; self-medication
14.  Infant feeding practices in the rural population of north India 
Background:
Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival, birth spacing, and the prevention of childhood infections. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding depend on its initiation, duration, and the age at which the breastfed child is weaned. Breastfeeding practices vary among different regions and communities.
Objectives:
To assess the pattern of infant feeding and its relation to certain practices of maternity and newborn care, and to assess the knowledge of mothers on the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding.
Materials and Methods:
The cross-sectional study was carried out in randomly selected villages of the Bhojipura Block of Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh. A total of 123 women who had delivered within the last year were interviewed in a house-to-house survey. A study instrument was used to collect data. Chi- square test and regression analysis were used to analyze the data.
Results:
Most of the mothers were aged less than 30 years (78.04%) and were Hindus (73.9%). Most were illiterate (69.9%) and belonged to the lower socioeconomic class (97.5%). The majority were housewives (99.1%) and multiparous (68.2%). Most had initiated breastfeeding (78.8%) within 24 hours of delivery. About 15.4% of the infants did not receive colostrum and 22.8% of the infants were not exclusively breastfed. Ghutti (water mixed with honey and herbs), boiled water, tea, and animal milk were commonly used pre-lacteal feeds. About 47.2% of the respondents were not aware of the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. About one quarter of the mothers started complementary feeding before the child was six months old. About half the deliveries had taken place at home and only a quarter of the females had had three or more antenatal visits during pregnancy. The birth weight of the majority (78%) of newborns was not measured. A majority (69.9%) of the mothers did not receive advice on child feeding. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that maternity and newborn care variables had no significant association with exclusive breastfeeding.
Conclusions:
Despite higher rates of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding, awareness of the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding was low. This indicates the need to promote awareness of the correct method of infant feeding and care of the newborn. Creating an awareness of the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding will further strengthen and support this common practice in rural communities and avoid an early introduction to complementary foods for sociocultural reasons.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.98305
PMCID: PMC3410177  PMID: 22870418
Birth weight; infant feeding practices; rural India
15.  Integration of evidence based medicine into the clinical years of a medical curriculum 
Teaching Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) helps medical students to develop their decision making skills based on current best evidence, especially when it is taught in a clinical context. Few medical schools integrate Evidence Based Medicine into undergraduate curriculum, and those who do so, do it at the academic years only as a standalone (classroom) teaching but not at the clinical years. The College of Medicine at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences was established in January 2004. The college adopted a four-year Problem Based Learning web-based curriculum. The objective of this paper is to present our experience in the integration of the EBM in the clinical phase of the medical curriculum. We teach EBM in 3 steps: first step is teaching EBM concepts and principles, second is teaching the appraisal and search skills, and the last step is teaching it in clinical rotations. Teaching EBM at clinical years consists of 4 student-centered tutorials. In conclusion, EBM may be taught in a systematic, patient centered approach at clinical rounds. This paper could serve as a model of Evidence Based Medicine integration into the clinical phase of a medical curriculum.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.98307
PMCID: PMC3410178  PMID: 22870419
Clinical years; evidence based medicine; medical curriculum; medical education
16.  Hyercalcemia induced by interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C 
Interferon is being increasingly used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Several case reports have suggested an association between interferon therapy and sarcoidosis with hypercalcemia. We report a case of severe hypercalcemic crisis with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy in a male patient who was receiving interferon therapy for hepatitis C. Gastroenterologists should be aware of this unusual but clinically important complication of interferon therapy.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.98308
PMCID: PMC3410179  PMID: 22870420
Hypercalcemia; interferon; sarcoidosis
17.  How NICE do we have to be? Lessons learned from the NICE experience 
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.98309
PMCID: PMC3410180  PMID: 22870421
18.  A new era for the Journal of Family and Community Medicine 
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.98277
PMCID: PMC3410181  PMID: 22870407
19.  Clinical effect of metformin in children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis 
To assess the clinical value and of metformin as mono-therapy versus other treatments for type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. Major electronic databases, the reference lists of relevant articles and databases of ongoing trials were searched. Authors of reviews and metformin manufacturers were contacted in order to obtain more references and reports of unpublished trials. The methodological quality of these reports, included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was assessed using the National Health System Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (NHS CRD) checklist. The search identified 1,825 studies. Three RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs had been completed and one was still ongoing. In the metformin group there were significant reductions of mean change of HBA1c from baseline. It reduced by -0.71% (P = 0.0002) and in the other trial the result was reduced by -1.10 (95% CI: -1.19 to -1.01). In addition, more patients (48.1%) in the metformin group achieved good glycaemic control (<7%) at week 24. The mean changes in FPG from baseline were significantly (P < 0.05) different in the metformin group (-16.6%, for week 18 and week 24 20.6%. In the second trial there was a significant (P < 0.001) reduction in the adjusted mean of FPG from baseline in the metformin group, while there was an increase in the placebo group ( -42.9 mg/dl vs. +21.4mg/dl) with mean difference of -64.80 in favour of the metformin group. For BMI, significant (P < 0.001) differences were seen at week 12 and week 24 (0.07 and 0.55 kg2) for metformin and glimepiride respectively. There was no significant difference between the placebo and metformin in the other trials. For lipid value there was a significant decrease in LDL levels in the metformin group. No significant changes were found in the other lipid parameters after adjusting. There were more adverse events in the metformin group but they were not statistically significant. There was a limited but not convincing evidence to suggest that metformin can improve the glycaemic control in children and adolescent with type 2 diabetes compared with other interventions. This is may be the result of the limited number, poor quality and short duration of the included trials.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.98279
PMCID: PMC3410182  PMID: 22870408
Adolescents; children; diabetes mellitus; meta-analysis; metformin; systematic review
20.  The attitude of health care professionals towards accreditation: A systematic review of the literature 
Accreditation is usually a voluntary program, in which authorized external peer reviewers evaluate the compliance of a health care organization with pre-established performance standards. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature of the attitude of health care professionals towards professional accreditation. A systematic search of four databases including Medline, Embase, Healthstar, and Cinhal presented seventeen studies that had evaluated the attitudes of health care professionals towards accreditation. Health care professionals had a skeptical attitude towards accreditation. Owners of hospitals indicated that accreditation had the potential of being used as a marketing tool. Health care professionals viewed accreditation programs as bureaucratic and demanding. There was consistent concern, especially in developing countries, about the cost of accreditation programs and their impact on the quality of health care services.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.98281
PMCID: PMC3410183  PMID: 22870409
Accreditation; attitude; systematic review
21.  Effectiveness of physical activity promotion in blood pressure and blood sugar reduction: A community–based intervention study in rural south India 
Context:
Physical activity of moderate intensity for 30 minutes a day, on most days substantially reduces the risk of many chronic diseases.
Aim:
To assess the effect of regular physical activity on blood pressure and blood sugar levels in a rural Indian community
Settings and Design:
This community-based study was carried out in Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam in south India, with 485 subjects, aged 20 to 49 years.
Materials and Methods:
The study was done in five phases: Awareness campaign, baseline assessment of participants, intervention phase (10 weeks), interim, and final assessment. Physical activity of moderate intensity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on four days / week) was promoted by forming 30 small walking groups, in a home-based setting, with professional supervision. Village leaders and Self-Help Group members were the resource people for the promotion of physical activity.
Statistical Analysis:
Analysis was done by using paired ‘t’ test; the ‘Intention-to-Treat’ approach was utilized for the interpretation of the findings of the study.
Results:
Of the 485 subjects, 265 (54.6%) complied with walking on more than four days / week, while 156 (32.2%) walked on one to four days / week, and 64 (13.2%) dropped out during the intervention period. This study has shown that a 10-week intervention to promote physical activity was effective in significantly decreasing the population's BP by 1.56 / 0.74 mm Hg, fasting blood sugar levels by 2.82 mg%, body weight by 0.17 kg, and BMI by 0.06 kg / m2.
Conclusions:
This study has proved the functional feasibility of enabling people to undertake physical activity in a rural Indian community, and the effectiveness of using physical activity, to significantly reduce the population's mean BP and blood sugar levels.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.98284
PMCID: PMC3410184  PMID: 22870410
Blood pressure; chronic diseases; community intervention; physical activity
22.  Predictors of pulmonary involvement in patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis 
Objectives:
The aim of this study is to assess the value of chest radiographs (CXRs) and sputum examinations in detecting pulmonary involvement of tuberculosis (TB) in patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB).
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective analysis was performed among 248 EPTB patients with culture-proven diagnosis of tuberculosis seen between January 2001 and December 2007 at a tertiary teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Demographics, clinical, laboratory and radiological findings were reviewed and assessed. This study was approved by the hospital ethics and research committee.
Results:
One hundred twenty five of 233 EPTB patients (53.6%) had abnormal CXR findings. There was a significant difference in the occurrence of positive sputum culture results between patients with abnormal CXR findings (30/57) and those with normal CXR findings (4/17) (P = 0.04). Of 17 HIV-negative/unknown HIV-status EPTB patients with normal CXR results, 4 patients (23.5%) had positive sputum culture results. Intrathoracic lymphadenopathy (P < 0.001), pleural TB (P < 0. 001) and disseminated TB (P = 0.004) were associated with an increased risk of abnormal CXR findings. Patients with cough (52.9%), weight loss (41.2%) and night sweats (26.5%) are more likely to have positive sputum culture results.
Conclusion:
CXR findings are predictive of positive sputum culture results. However, the rate of normal CXR among EPTB patients with positive sputum culture results was relatively high. Therefore, respiratory specimen cultures should be obtained in TB suspects with a normal CXR to identify potentially infectious cases of TB.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.98287
PMCID: PMC3410185  PMID: 22870411
Predictors; pulmonary; extra-pulmonary tuberculosis; radiology
23.  Knowledge and attitude of health professionals in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia, toward complementary and alternative medicine 
Background:
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a popular treatment option for many populations. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge and attitude of health professionals in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia, toward CAM.
Material and Methods:
In this cross-sectional survey, a multistage random sample was taken from health professionals working in hospitals in Riyadh city and surrounding governorates. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, from 306 health professionals working in 19 hospitals, on socio-demographic data, knowledge about CAM and their sources, and attitudes toward CAM practices.
Results:
Of the participants, 88.9% had some knowledge about CAM. Respondents with a doctorate degree (94.74%) and 92.53% of those with a bachelor's degree had significantly higher knowledge of CAM than subjects with a diploma, a fellowship, or a master's degree (68.75%, 76.67%, and 85.41%, respectively, P = 0.004). Mass media represented 60.1% of sources of the knowledge of CAM followed by family, relatives, and friends (29.08%) and health educational organizations (14.71%). Participants estimated that prophetic medicine including prayer, honey and bee products, medical herbs, Hijama, nutrition and nutritional supplements, cauterization, and camel milk and urine were the most commonly used CAM practices (90.5%, 85%, 76.9%, 70.6%, 61.4%, 55.9%, and 52.5%, respectively) in addition to medical massage (61.8%) and acupuncture (55%). One hundred and fifteen (80%) physicians were ready to talk with their patients on CAM.
Conclusion:
The willingness to improve knowledge and create a positive attitude in health professionals toward CAM has increased. Religious practices, especially those related to prophetic medicine, are more common in the region. Health educational organizations have to play a greater role by being the source of evidence-based knowledge of CAM. Talking on CAM with patients should be improved by rooting them on evidence-based practices.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.98290
PMCID: PMC3410186  PMID: 22870412
Alternative; complementary; prophetic medicine; health educational organizations; health institutes ; health professionals; knowledge; attitude; mass media; Saudi Arabia
24.  The major medical ethical challenges facing the public and healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia 
Background:
Despite the relatively high expenditure on healthcare in Saudi Arabia, its health system remains highly centralized in the main cities with its primary focus on secondary and tertiary care rather than primary care. This has led to numerous ethical challenges for the healthcare providers. This article reports the results of a study conducted with a panel of practitioners, and non-clinicians, in Saudi Arabia, in order to identify the top ten ethical challenges for healthcare providers, patients, and their families.
Materials and Methods:
The study design was a cross-sectional, descriptive, and qualitative one. The participants were asked the question: “What top ten ethical challenges are Saudis likely to face in health care?” The participants were asked to rank the top ten ethical challenges throughout a modified Delphi process, using a ranking Scale. A consensus was reached after three rounds of questions and an experts’ meeting.
Results:
The major 10 ethical issues, as perceived by the participants in order of their importance, were: (1) Patients’ Rights, (2) Equity of resources, (3) Confidentiality of the patients, (4) Patient Safety, (5) Conflict of Interests, (6) Ethics of privatization, (7) Informed Consent, (8) Dealing with the opposite sex, (9) Beginning and end of life, and (10) Healthcare team ethics.
Conclusion:
Although many of the challenges listed by the participants have received significant public and specialized attention worldwide, scant attention has been paid to these top challenges in Saudi Arabia. We propose several possible steps to help address these key challenges.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.94003
PMCID: PMC3326764  PMID: 22518351
Bioethics; ethical issues; ethics priorities; medical ethics
25.  Dynamics of doctor–patient relationship: A cross-sectional study on concordance, trust, and patient enablement 
Background:
The rapid pace of medical advances coupled with specialization and super-specialization, is eroding the traditional doctor–patient relationship.
Objective:
(a) To study the determinants of core dimensions, such as, concordance, trust, and enablement in a doctor–patient relationship; (b) to explore associations, if any, among these core dimensions.
Materials and Methods:
A cross–sectional study design with both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. One hundred and ninety-eight outdoor patients were interviewed as part of the quantitative study. Three dimensions of the doctor–patient relationship, that is, physician patient concordance, trust in physician, and patient enablement were assessed using validated tools. Focus group interviews using an open-ended format among few physicians was carried out as part of the qualitative study.
Results:
In the quantitative analysis most of the sociocultural factors did not show any significant association with the doctor–patient relationship. However, gender was significantly and strongly associated with trust in the physician. Female patients showed a much lower trust in the physician (50%) as compared to male patients (75%) (OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.17 – 0.64, Chi Sq = 12.86, P = 0.0003). A qualitative study revealed language and culture, alternative medicines, commercialization of medicine, and crowding at specialist and super-specialist clinics as barriers to a good doctor–patient relationship. Better concordance was associated with improved trust in the doctor (OR = 5.30, 95% CI 2.06 – 13.98, Chi Sq = 14.46, P = 0.0001), which in turn was associated with improved patient enablement (OR = 3.89, 95% CI = 1.60 - 9.64, Chi Sq = 10.15, P = 0.001).
Conclusion:
Good doctor–patient concordance (agreement) leads to better trust in the physician, which in turn leads to better patient enablement, irrespective of the sociocultural determinants.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.94006
PMCID: PMC3326765  PMID: 22518353
Concordance; doctor; enablement; patient; trust

Results 1-25 (33)