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issn:2229-340
1.  WORK-RELATED ASSAULTS ON NURSING STAFF IN RIYADH, SAUDI ARABIA 
Objective:
To determine the extent of work-related violence against nurses in hospitals in Riyadh.
Materials and methods:
Through a cross sectional approach, a self administered questionnaire was offered to 500 active-duty nurses selected randomly. In addition to the demographic characteristics, the questionnaire inquired about exposure to workplace violence, hospital and department of employment at the time of exposure, characteristics of the assailant and nurses’ perception of the causes of violence.
Results:
Out of 434 respondents, 93 (21.4%) were males, and 341 (78.6%) females. The mean age was 36.1 ± 7.97 years. Workplace violence was experienced by 235 (54.3%) nurses. Of these 93.2% were exposed to harsh insulting language, 32.8% to verbal threat, 28.1% to attempts of physical assault, 17.4% to sexual harassment and 16.2% to actual physical assault. Nurses working in psychiatry and emergency units had the highest rate of exposure to violence (84.3% & 62.1% respectively) Nurses perceived shortage in security personnel (82%), shortage in nursing staff (63%), language barrier (36.3%) and unrestricted movement of patients in hospitals (21.5%) as causes of their exposure to violence.
Recommendations:
improve security in hospitals by increasing the number of security officers on duty and increase the community's awareness of the problem.
PMCID: PMC3430167  PMID: 23008680
Workplace violence; occupational risk; nursing hazards
2.  SEROPREVALENCE OF RIFT VALLEY FEVER AMONG SLAUGHTERHOUSE PERSONNEL IN MAKKAH DURING HAJJ 1419h (1999) 
Objectives:
Determine the sero-prevalence of rift valley fever (RVF) among slaughterhouse personnel in Makkah during Hajj and define personal and work place correlates.
Materials and methods:
A sample of 294 participants were chosen randomly from slaughterhouse personnel in Makkah during Hajj 1419 (1999). Data were collected through personal interviews using a pre-designed questionnaire consisting of personal and work place variables, e.g. age, nationality, type and hours of work. A blood sample was collected from each participant and tested by enzyme immuno-assay for IgG antibody using killed antigen for rift valley virus.
Results:
Of the total sample, 17% was seropositive for RVF. The rate of infection varied with country of origin: Syria (10.6%), Egypt (21.2%), Bangladesh (22.6%), Mali (47.1%) and Niger (50%). The number of animals slaughtered per hour and daily hours of work were significantly associated with prevalence of RVF (p<0.05).Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that nationality and daily hours of work predicted 84.1% of the occurrence of RVF.
Recommendations:
Sero-surveys should be done among slaughterhouse personnel in Saudi Arabia and other countries particularly in countries known to be free from RVF, e.g. Syria and Bangladesh to assess the situation of RVF. The importation of animals from endemic areas should be banned.
PMCID: PMC3439744  PMID: 23008651
Rift valley fever; slaughterhouses; Hajj
3.  RISK FACTORS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN BAHRAH, SAUDI ARABIA 
Background:
Asthma is a common health problem whose prevalence in Saudi Arabia has risen over the last few decades. Brick factories in the city of Bahrah have exacerbated the problem, and increasing numbers of asthma cases are attending local primary health care centers.
Objective:
Determine the risk factors of asthma in Bahrah.
Materials and Methods:
The study was comprised of 110 cases of bronchial asthma resident in Bahrah who were diagnosed by the treating physicians and 110 healthy controls matched in age and sex. A questionnaire was completed from cases and controls, consisting of data regarding personal, familial, indoor and outdoor environmental factors that may be potential risk factors to asthma. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to assess risk factors.
Results:
The mean ages of cases and controls were 22.4 (± 16.7) and 22.8 (± 16.1) years, respectively. Each group consisted of 64 males (58%) and 46 (42%) females. There was a significant association between distance from houses to brick factories and bronchial asthma (Chi square for linear trend = 26.6, p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that living within one kilometer of a brick factory (OR=5.1, CI=2.33-11.16), family history (OR=4.6, CI=2.16-9.78), allergic rhinitis (OR=3.39, CI=1.49-7.69), skin atopy (OR=4.6, CI=1.53-13.87) and recurrent respiratory tract infections (OR=4.1, CI=1.79-9.22) were independent risk factors for asthma in Bahrah.
Conclusions and recommendations:
Brick factories, family history and history of rhinitis, skin atopy, or recurrent respiratory tract infections are risk factors of bronchial asthma. An in-depth study to asses air pollution in Bahrah is recom-mended. People are advised not to live near brick factories.
PMCID: PMC3437065  PMID: 23008636
Bronchial asthma; brick factories; air pollution; allergic diseases

Results 1-3 (3)