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issn:2229-340
1.  Assessment of the effect of health education on mothers in Al Maki area, Gezira state, to improve homecare for children under five with diarrhea 
Introduction:
Home care of under-five children is one of the most important interventions in the control of diarrheal diseases. It has a significant impact in reducing childhood mortality and morbidity.
Objective:
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of health education on home care of under- five children with diarrheal disease.
Materials and Methods:
This is a quasi- experimental study, held in Al Maki neighborhood, which is located in Greater Wad Medani locality, Gezira State, Central Sudan. The study targeted a random sample of 118 mothers who have at least one child under- five years of age with diarrhea needing home management. The study was conducted in three phases. Phase one was a base line survey for the mothers. Intervention phase including different health education approaches, home visits, group sessions and distribution of mother cards through community volunteers and researchers. Post intervention survey using the same pre-intervention questionnaire, and observation of mothers managing their children.
Results:
Results showed that knowledge of mothers about definition of diarrhea, its danger, when to seek medical help and the three rules of home management which was found to be 35, 28, 13 and 29% improved significantly after intervention to 91, 94, 92 and 93% respectively with a very high significant level.
Recommendations:
We recommended that volunteers are effective health education provider especially on household based intervention. Health services should support the community based interventions to reinforce the knowledge and practices of mother towards the sick children.
doi:10.4103/1319-1683.74332
PMCID: PMC3045106  PMID: 21359025
Diarrhea disease; home management and health education
2.  LEVEL AND DETERMINANTS OF INFANT AND UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY IN WAD-MEDANI TOWN, SUDAN 
Aim:
This study aimed to determine the level of infant and under-five mortality rates and to examine the effect of socioeconomic, demographic and environmental factors on the health status of the children under five years.
Methods:
The data for this study were collected by means of a questionnaire addressed to women in Wad-Medani, Sudan. Three hundred women in the reproductive age (15-49) years were chosen randomly for this study. The data were analyzed statistically using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Frequency distributions and a statistical test based on Chi-square for independence was conducted.
Results:
Infant mortality rate was 77 per 100 and child mortality rate was 67 per 100. The results revealed that immunization, child order, child birth weight, birth interval and contraceptive use had a significant influence on the mortality of children under the age of five. The mother's level of education is highly significant on the mortality of children under five years old.
Conclusions:
The Ministry of Health should give greater attention to improving immunization services and concentrate on health education campaigns for mothers and for the community.
PMCID: PMC3410148  PMID: 23012148
Determinants; Infant; Underfive mortality; Sudan
3.  PATTERNS OF CHILDHOOD CANCER IN CHILDREN ADMITTED TO THE INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE, MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND ONCOLOGY (INMO), WAD MEDANI, GEZIRA STATE 
Introduction:
Cancers form one of the major causes of death in children between the ages of one and 15 years. They differ markedly from adult cancers in their nature, distribution and prognosis. The patterns of childhood cancers in America and Europe are almost the same, with leukemia and central nervous system tumors accounting for over one-half of the new cases. In contrast, lymphoma is the most common prevailing cancer of this age group in Africa.
Objective:
The objective of this study is to determine the patterns of childhood cancers in Gezira State, Central Sudan. It is a retrospective study using hospital records. All children with cancer, aged 1 – 15 years diagnosed by means of histological or cytological examination admitted to the Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Molecular Biology and Oncology from May 1999 – December 2004 were included in the study.
Results:
The results showed a pattern of childhood lymphoma as the most common cancer (42.8%) followed by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (19.8%) and kidney tumor (12.8%). The prevalence of cancer was found to be higher among boys (64.7%) than girls (35.3%) with a rate of 1.8:1. Most of the children admitted with cancer were from rural areas (66.1%) compared to (33.9%) from urban areas.
Conclusion:
Lymphoma, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and bone tumor commonly occurred in children above 5 years in contradistinction to kidney tumor and retinoblastoma which was prevalent in children less than 5 years of age.
PMCID: PMC3410067  PMID: 23012108
Leukemia; Lymphoma; Pattern; Prevalence; Cancer

Results 1-3 (3)