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issn:2229-340
4.  Tips from the Editor 
PMCID: PMC3437075  PMID: 23008625
5.  FACTORS AFFECTING CHILD DEVELOPMENT IN MADINAH, SAUDI ARABIA 
Introduction:
This paper addresses an important pre-requisite for promoting child health; namely the promotion of sound child development.
Objectives:
The study aimed at identifying factors affecting child development in Madinah, Saudi Arabia.
Design:
A cross-sectional study with a multi-stage stratified random sample of children.
Setting:
Well-baby clinics of the primary health care centers in urban and rural areas of the Madinah region, North-western Saudi Arabia.
Participants:
A sample of 1219 “normal” children below the age of six.
Intervention:
Tools used for the study were the modified and translated Denver Revised-Pre-screening Developmental Questionnaire (R-PDQ), and the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) kit together with a social questionnaire. Logistic Regression analysis was used to show any significant association(s) between the study variables and the 104 developmental items in the R-PDQ.
Results:
Eight variables were found to be strongly associated with each of the developmental items. Mothers’ education was found to be significantly associated with 21 developmental items. Number of children in the household was next to mothers’ education in its association with child development. Place of residence and gender were found to be significantly associated with seven and one abilities respectively.
Conclusion:
Findings emphasized the importance of girls and mothers’ education as an aid in stimulating the development of their children and enabling mothers to prepare children for school. Adequate birth interval, and prolonged breastfeeding are recommended to enable mothers to care for their children, communicate with them and foster sound development. Scrutinizing the child's home environment and involving parents in the developmental progress of their children are also considered important. More stimulation and educational play are recommended for rural children and male urban children.
PMCID: PMC3437101  PMID: 23008601
Child development; R-PDQ; Madina; Saudi Arabia
6.  Assessment of the Knowledge of Primary Health Care Staff about Primary Health Care 
The orientation about Primary Health Care among staff working in the PHC centers was assessed. Staff members numbering 909 were studied. The main criteria for judging orientation were a working knowledge of the definition and elements of PHC in addition to knowledge of the meaning of the word Alma Ata. Differences of this knowledge depending on sex, age, spoken language, type of job, postgraduate experience, previous experience in PHC and previous training in PHC were assessed. The main findings of the study were that the correct definition of PHC was known by only 51.4%, functions of PHC by 62.6%, and what Alma Ata, means in terms of PHC was known by 76.2% of the staff. This knowledge was significantly better in females than males, non-Arabic speaking staff than those who spoke Arabic, General practitioners and nurses than other staff; it was better in those staff who had long postgraduate experience, previous experience or previous training in PHC.
In conclusion, the study reveals the current status of awareness of PHC staff of the implications of simple concepts of PHC and points to the importance of the orientation of staff towards these concepts in order to help them practice PHC effectively.
PMCID: PMC3437150  PMID: 23012208
Primary health care; Alma Ata; General practitioners; Nurses
7.  Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices related to Diarrhoea in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia 
Community knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices are essential in any diarrhoea research. This cross-sectional study addresses these questions ill a semi-urban community in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The study included 344 subjects and 276 controls v/’ all age groups. Most people had reasonable knowledge of diarrhoea. Mothers o/’ children with diarrhoea continued to fired them during the attack. However, some community practices were found to be harmful. The majority of diarrhoea cases neither sought medical attention, nor used oral rehydration salts (ORS) at home. Instead, they resorted to faulty self-medication. Overall use of ORS was 53%; much less than expected. Education of health personnel on ORS might improve its use. It was found that the community needs to be educated on the benefits of hand washing before meals and after changing soiled diapers, washing of eggs and the use of boiled water for the preparation of infant preparing feeds.
PMCID: PMC3437181  PMID: 23008534
Diarrhoea; Knowledge; Attitude and Practice

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