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issn:2229-340
1.  Smoking pattern among female college students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia 
Background:
Smoking is the most important avoidable cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the world. The estimated annual death rate of 4.9 million people in 1999 is expected to rise to 10 million by the 2020s and 2030s, 7 million of which will occur in developing countries.
Aim:
The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and assess its pattern among non-medical female college students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted of 1020 female students selected from the literature and science colleges by multi-stage stratified random sampling technique with proportional allocation. Data were collected using a self-administered modified WHO Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire.
Results:
Results revealed that occurrence of smoking among female college students was 8.6%. It was significantly higher among literature college students (12.1%) than among Science College students (3.4%). The mean age at which smoking started was 16 ± 2.4 years, with a minimum of 11 years. More than half of the students who smoked were cigarette smokers, while 43.2% were shisha smokers. There was a strong relationship between parents who smoked and daughters who smoked. The main motive for smoking was curiosity (44.3%), followed by relief of tension (26.1%).
Conclusions:
It may be concluded that smoking is increasing among female college students in Saudi Arabia. Accordingly, it is recommended that a preventive comprehensive health education program on smoking be initiated for females in middle schools, that stricter tobacco control measures be adopted by the government, and that anti-smoking clinics be established in colleges.
doi:10.4103/2230-8229.83370
PMCID: PMC3159230  PMID: 21897913
College students; females; Saudi Arabia; smoking
2.  Pilgrims satisfaction with ambulatory health services in Makkah, 2008 
Objective:
The main objective of this study was to assess the level and correlates of patients’ satisfaction with ambulatory health services provided for pilgrims during Hajj period in 2008.
Materials and Methods:
This was a facility-based, cross-sectional study conducted in the Makkah region during the Hajj season in December 2008. A two-stage technique was used to select 500 patients from those who attended the ambulatory health services. One hundred subjects were selected by systematic random sampling (every fifth) from each of the five hospitals included in the study and asked to fill in a pilot-tested self-administered questionnaire. A total of 487 questionnaires were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and t-test, Mann Whitney test and ANOVA, or Kruskal-Wallis test was used as appropriate after checking for normality. Level of significance level was set to be <0.05 throughout the study.
Results:
From 478 subjects analyzed, 390 (81.6%) were man, 345 (72.2%) were married, 28.9% had either intermediate or high secondary school education, and 2.4% were skilled laborers. The total satisfaction score for health facilities was 20.45 ± 4.03 of 25. The satisfaction scores were 20.15 ± 4.7 of 25 for patient satisfaction with physicians and 21.35 ± 4.5 for patient satisfaction with paramedical personnel. The overall satisfaction score was 61.5 ± 4.5 of 75 points. There were significant relations between total satisfaction of health facilities with education level and with occupation (P = 0.012, 0.001, respectively). The total satisfaction of patients with physicians was significant only with education level. The overall satisfaction score had a significant relation with occupation (P = 0.03), but a borderline relation with the education level (P = 0.056).
Conclusion:
Satisfaction with ambulatory Hajj health services is acceptable. Some physicians and waiting area services need special attention to improve satisfaction levels with ambulatory health in the subsequent Hajj seasons.
doi:10.4103/1319-1683.74331
PMCID: PMC3045102  PMID: 21359024
Ambulatory health services; Hajj pilgrims; Makkah
3.  KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND SMOKING PATTERNS AMONG NURSING AND LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS, DAMMAM, SAUDI ARABIA 
Objective:
To study the reported practices of knowledge about and attitude towards smoking among nursing and medical laboratory technology (MLT) students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University at Dammam and Al-Khobar.
Setting:
College of Medicine, Dammam and King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia
Methods:
A cross-sectional approach involving a sample of 266 students and interns (152 nursing and 114 MLT), which included all enrolled students in the academic year (1998/1999). A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data covering knowledge, practice and attitude to smoking. SPSS was used for statistical analysis.
Results:
The overall smoking prevalence was low (5.6%), slightly higher among nursing (6.6%) versus MLT (4.4%) students. Knowledge of and attitude towards smoking was generally satisfactory in both groups, although deficient in some key areas, such as the addictive nature of smoking, some of its consequences on health, and difficulty of quitting.
Conclusion and Recommendations:
The prevalence of smoking among nursing and MLT students is generally low but their knowledge and attitude need improvement. Health education on facts, dangers and consequences of smoking should start as early as the primary school, and should continue throughout the education of future health professionals (role models for the community).
PMCID: PMC3437104  PMID: 23008604
Smoking; tobacco consumption; university students; nursing; laboratory technology; knowledge/attitudes/practice (KAP); Saudi Arabia
4.  AUDIT OF DIABETIC CARE IN A SAUDI PRIMARY CARE SETTING 
Objective:
To audit the care offered to diabetic patients attending the Family and Community Medicine Clinic (FAMCO), King Faisal University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).
Design:
A cross-sectional study of medical records of 45 diabetic patients who regularly visited the clinic during a one-year period from June 1997 to May 1998.
Subjects:
Patients who presented at the clinic because of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type II).
Results and Conclusions:
The level of care for diabetic patients was relatively inappropriate, and some important parameters were under-recorded. Specific measures to improve and promote diabetic care in FAMCO clinics need to be undertaken. These include formulating and using protocols for diabetes management and better training of health-care providers.
PMCID: PMC3437105  PMID: 23008605
Saudi Arabia; medical audit; diabetes mellitus; primary care
5.  THE PREVALENCE OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AMONG STUDENTS IN JEDDAH, SAUDI ARABIA 
Objectives:
To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted during 1994 on a sample of students selected from 49 public schools using a multistage stratified random sampling technique. For all students, an interview was conducted and anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were obtained. Fasting glucose and total cholesterol levels on a capillary blood sample were measured using Accutrend for a subsample of students.
Results:
Of the 4042 students selected, 71% were males and the overall mean age was 15.3 ± 2.7 years. After age adjustment, about 23% of the students were found overweight. In addition, 6.4% and 9% of the students were found to have systolic and diastolic hypertension, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between males and females. Among 1432 students, 4% of males and 2% of females had hypercholesterolemia (p=0.06). Hyperglycemia was found in 0.4% of males and 0.6% of females. Among 1834 students in the 9th to 12th grades, 6.9% of males and 0.5% of females were current cigarette smokers.
Conclusions:
Since attitudes and behaviors that influence future health are established during childhood and adolescence, intervention to prevent cardiovascular diseases (in adult life) should take place in childhood and youth to reduce the risk factors and schools have a great role to play in the promotion of good health.
PMCID: PMC3437094  PMID: 23008574
Cardiovascular risk factors; school students; Saudi Arabia

Results 1-5 (5)