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issn:2229-340
1.  Awareness of cardiovascular disease in eastern Saudi Arabia 
Objective:
To estimate the awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and their determinants in a screening campaign in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia.
Materials and Methods:
All national residents in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension at more than 300 examination posts throughout the eastern province. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect data on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, lifestyle habits, and history of heart attack, angina, arterial disease, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Weight, height, blood pressure, and glucose concentration were measured.
Results:
Out of 197,681 participants, 5372 (2.7%) were aware of a history of a CVD. The prevalence correlated well with age. It was higher in women, widows, and subjects with lower level of education. More than 75% of affected subjects had two or more risk factors.
Conclusion:
A substantial proportion of those with a history of CVD had multiple risk factors, necessitating an effective, focused policy for the prevention and treatment. Increased effort is required to promote an awareness of cardiac disease and also probably target primary care providers involved in the screening process.
doi:10.4103/1319-1683.68784
PMCID: PMC3195070  PMID: 22022666
Awareness; campaign; cardiovascular disease; Saudi Arabia; screening
2.  CONTROL OF HYPERTENSION IN EASTERN SAUDI ARABIA: RESULTS OF SCREENING CAMPAIGN 
Objective:
To assess the pattern of follow-up and level of hypertension control according to sociodemographic, and clinical risk factors in the participants of a screening campaign.
Research Design and Methods:
In 2004, all Saudi residents in the Eastern Province, aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension. A structured questionnaire was completed during a face-to-face interview. The presence of hypertension and the place of follow-up were recorded. Blood pressure was measured by trained nurses using a mercury sphygmomanometer, according to the recommendations of The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VII).
Results:
Thirteen point one percent of the participants had been previously diagnosed as having hypertension. In 34.3% of them, blood pressure was controlled, while 40.8% had combined uncontrolled SBP and DBP, 14.4% had isolated uncontrolled SBP, and 10.5% had isolated uncontrolled DBP. The blood pressure control was inversely associated with age. It was higher in women, singles, the educated, in those with BMI of less than 25 kg/m2, and in those with positive history of CVD (p<0.001).
Conclusion:
Co-morbidities relevant for hypertension are very prevalent, so aggressive BP control is mandatory.
PMCID: PMC3377016  PMID: 23012185
Blood pressure control; screening campaign; Saudi Arabia
3.  HYPERTENSION IN THE EASTERN PROVINCE OF SAUDI ARABIA: RESULTS OF A SCREENING CAMPAIGN 
Objective:
To estimate the prevalence of hypertension through a screening campaign in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, and examine its association with lifestyle factors.
Research Design and Methods:
In 2004, all Saudi residents in the Eastern Province, aged 30 years and above were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension. Blood pressure was recorded by trained nurses using a mercury sphygmomanometer, based on the recommendations of (JNC- VII). A positive screening test for hypertension was defined as systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure of ≥ 140 and 90 mm Hg, respectively. Subjects who had positive screening tests were asked to come on the following day for a confirmation of the reading. Hypertension was considered if there was a persistent reading of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure of ≥ 140 and 90 mmHg after confirmation, or when there was history of a previous diagnosis.
Results:
21% of the sample was positive from previous history or screening. After confirmation, the prevalence of hypertension dropped to 15.6%, pre-hypertension was 3.7%, whereas the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension was 2.8%. The prevalence rose with age. It was higher in women than in men of all age groups and in all sectors of the eastern province, although the mean systolic and diastolic BP was higher in men than women. It was higher with lower education, in widows and divorcees than others (P<0.0001).
Conclusion:
The yield of the screening for abnormal blood pressure was high. Systematic follow-up of subjects with abnormal screening results is vital.
PMCID: PMC3377128  PMID: 23012174
Hypertension; Screening; Saudi Arabia
4.  A COMMUNITY-BASED SCREENING CAMPAIGN FOR THE DETECTION OF DIABETES MELLITUS AND HYPERTENSION IN THE EASTERN PROVINCE, SAUDI ARABIA: METHODS AND PARTICIPATION RATES 
Objective:
To describe a community-based diabetes and hypertension screening campaign, the percentage of screened positive individuals, identified the participation rate, and the factors affecting the participation.
Campaign design and methods:
A community-based screening campaign whose main objective was the screening for diabetes and hypertension was conducted in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia for three and half months in the year 2004. A structured questionnaire was used. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed on the basis of repeated detection of a fasting blood sugar equal to or more than 126 mg/dl, and hypertension when the blood pressure was 140/90 mm Hg or more.
Results:
Of the 650,000 target population, 214,381 (33%) participated, and 197,681 questionnaire were completed. Of the number of individuals screened, 31,711 (16%) were positive for abnormal blood pressure and /or glucose, and needed confirmation of their results. Only 17296 (54.5%) of them were referred to health facilities for confirmation of results
Conclusion:
Community screening campaigns for diabetes mellitus and hypertension is extremely efficient in identifying undiagnosed diabetic and hypertensive individuals. The most successful strategy for the screening and confirmation of results was through PHCCs, especially in the rural areas, where there was good organization and strict adherence to guidelines on methodology.
PMCID: PMC3410157  PMID: 23012153
Campaign; screening; Saudi Arabia; diabetes; hypertension.

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