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issn:2229-340
1.  DERMATOSES IN OBESE FEMALE SCHOOLCHILDREN IN THE AL-KHOBAR AREA, EASTERN SAUDI ARABIA 
Objectives:
The aim of this study was to determine the most frequent skin disorders in obese female schoolchildren in primary and intermediate schools in the Al-Khobar area, Eastern Saudi Arabia.
Methodology:
This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Al-Khobar area. It involved 2239 female schoolchildren randomly selected from 30 regular public and private primary and preparatory schools. A multi-stage stratified random sampling technique with proportional allocation was used. Data was collected using clinical examination and anthropometric measurements.
Result:
The skin diseases that were most common in obese schoolchildren were: dandruff, acne, xerosis, acanthosis nigricans, folliculitis, alopecia, stria distensae (stretch marks) and callosity.
Conclusions and recommendations:
obesity is associated with specific skin disorders. Health education programs on skin diseases and obesity should be provided to all schoolchildren, their families and teachers.
PMCID: PMC3410066  PMID: 23012107
Dermatoses; skin disorders; obese schoolchildren; Al-Khobar; Saudi Arabia
2.  ATTITUDES OF MEDICAL INTERNS TOWARDS THE PRACTICE OF PRIMARY HEALTH CARE 
Background:
Training in different specialties should prepare young physicians to assume responsibilities in primary care. Training for the acquisition of the proper attitude for health care, should be given in the course of the training in different specialties.
Objective:
To assess the attitudes of medical interns who have undergone rotation in the Department of Family and Community Medicine of a large university hospital, towards the provision of primary care.
Methods:
A cross-sectional study incorporating a structured questionnaire was carried out on a sample of 106 interns; and 20 consultants were selected as a reference group.
Results:
All medical interns almost unanimously endorsed continuous, coordinated, accessible and comprehensive care. In contrast, consultants less often supported the provision of such care for their own patients.
Conclusions:
Unless consultants change their attitudes towards the attributes of primary care, the quality of patient care as well as physician training would suffer.
PMCID: PMC3430180  PMID: 23008667
Attitudes; Medical Interns; Primary Health Care
3.  DIETARY MISCONCEPTIONS AMONG DIABETIC PATIENTS IN MAKKA CITY, SAUDI ARABIA 
Objectives:
To assess the prevalence of some dietary misconceptions among primary health care center-registered diabetic patients in Makka City, Saudi Arabia.
Methods:
A sample of 1039 primary health care center- registered diabetic patients was interviewed using a structured questionnaire on diabetic diet -related misconceptions. A scoring system was used to document the frequency of misconceptions. The relationship of the misconceptions to socio-demographic and diabetes-related variables was assessed using chi-squared tests.
Results:
Most patients (68.7%) had a high diet misconception score. More than half of the sample had the misconception that carbohydrates were to be completely eliminated from the diet, and only dried bread and bitter foods were to be consumed. Data included the belief in the consumption of honey and dates; the omission of snacks; belief in the carcinogenicity of the sugar substitutes; and obesity as a sign of good health. The score was significantly higher among males (p<0.01), patients older than 35 years (p<0.02), and among patients whose level of education was low (p<0.01).
Conclusion:
It is important to note that the rate of diet-related misconceptions among diabetics in Makka city is high. The study pointed to the target fraction of diabetic patients among whom these misconceptions prevailed. There is a need for constant motivation and appropriate education at frequent intervals to encourage better knowledge of the disease so that there is compliance to treatment.
PMCID: PMC3430184  PMID: 23008671
Misconceptions; diabetes; diet; Saudi Arabia
4.  SCHOOL BOYS WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN AL-KHOBAR CITY, SAUDI ARABIA: ARE THEY AT INCREASED RISK OF SCHOOL ABSENTEEISM? 
Objective:
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the mean period of school absenteeism (MPSA) among Questionnaire Diagnosed Asthmatic (QDA) Saudi schoolboys of Al-Khobar city and the factors associated with it.
Methods:
The methodology of this cross-sectional study included the distribution of a self-administered questionnaire, which was completed by the parents of 1482 schoolboys who satisfied the selection criteria of the study.
Results:
The prevalence rate of QDA was 9.5% (141/1482). MPSA among Questionnaire Diagnosed Asthmatic Boys (QDAs) was 13.6 ± 3.4 days compared to 3.7 ± 2.2 days among non-QDA boys (non-QDAs). Among QDAs, it was associated significantly and positively with those who were younger, with a decreasing level of socioeconomic class, history of pets at home, presence of a current smoker in the family (father or both parents), visit to a hospital emergency room, and admission to hospital. It was significantly and negatively associated with concomitant use of prophylactic medication(s), including those used appropriately. QDAs from middle and lower socioeconomic classes used less prophylactic medication(s) but had had more visits to an emergency room and had admissions to hospital. The multiple linear regression equation for the total period of school absenteeism (TPSA) during the current academic year was generated.
Conclusions:
QDAs have higher MPSA compared to their non-asthmatic classmates. The impact of this disease increases particularly among QDAs belonging to lower socioeconomic families.
PMCID: PMC3437057  PMID: 23008641
Childhood asthma; School absence; Saudi Arabia
7.  NON-FATAL OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES ADMITTED TO HOSPITALS AMONG GENERAL ORGANIZATION FOR SOCIAL INSURANCE WORKERS IN AL-KHOBAR CITY, SAUDI ARABIA: EXPERIENCE OF ONE YEAR 
Objectives:
(1) To determine the incidence rate of non-fatal occupational injuries requiring admission into private hospitals in Al-Khobar city during a 12-month period among workers insured by the General Organization for Social Insurance (GOSI). (2) To describe the pattern, characteristics and outcome of these injuries. (3) To estimate their subsequent direct medical costs.
Methods:
This is a cohort study design. The cohort consisted of workers at workplaces where insurance cover ensured admission into two private hospitals selected randomly in Al-Khobar city. A data-collecting sheet was used to collect the necessary data from both the patient and his medical file on admission into hospital.
Results:
The injury incidence rate was 7.1 per 1,000 full-time workers. All injured workers were males. Grouped by nationality, 1.5% were Saudis, 74.8% from the Indian subcontinent and 13.2% Filipinos. Main injury sites included hands and fingers (32.1%) multiple parts (20.7%), lower limbs (20.5%), eyes, head and neck (11.5%) and back (9.5%). Falls were the main cause of injury (33.4%), followed by tools-related injuries (23.9%), falling objects (14.5%) and car accidents (12.0%). The majority of admissions (77.8%) were for periods less than 1 week with only 7.1% for more than 3 weeks. Absence from work was more than 3 weeks and less than 1 week in 35.5% and 24.9% of the admissions, respectively. The majority of the cases (65.0%) visited clinics 2-7 times. Direct medical cost per admission was less than SR 2,000 in 63.9% of the cases in one hospital (1 USD = SR 3.75).
Conclusions:
The incidence rate was lower than, but comparable to those rates estimated in more detailed surveys from other countries. Occupational injuries requiring admission into hospitals contributed to 18.3% of the total cases of injuries among insured people during year 1995 and were responsible for significant medical charges, human suffering and loss of productivity. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that GOSI should study the reasons behind the current situation and find appropriate solutions.
PMCID: PMC3437110  PMID: 23008620
Occupational injuries; hospital admissions; Al-Khobar; Saudi Arabia
8.  FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PATIENT's CARE DURING CONSULTATION IN MINISTRY OF HEALTH FACILITIES, JEDDAH CITY, SAUDI ARABIA 
Objective:
To assess the factors affecting health care and patient's satisfaction during the consultation.
Design:
A cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured questionnaire form on a random sample of outpatient clinic attendants.
Setting:
The Outpatient Department clinics at King Fahad and King Abdulaziz Hospital in addition to eleven Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) in Jeddah.
Subjects:
A sample of 340 subjects attending clinics of two hospitals and eleven PHCCs.
Methods:
Direct interviewing of subjects using a structured questionnaire was carried out. Information collected was basic demographic data regarding satisfaction with aspects of outpatient health care.
Results:
The rate of patients’ satisfaction in all facilities was 76.5% with no significant variation between hospitals and Primary Health Care Centers. The study showed aspects of poor patient care, such as short consultation time and incomplete physical examination of patients. Other factors correlated with mean consultation time and completeness of physical examination were stressed.
Conclusion:
There was a low rate of patients’ satisfaction in all Ministry of Health (MOH) facilities studied. Aspects related to patient care need to be improved. Practical recommendations on this were stressed
PMCID: PMC3437133  PMID: 23008565
Consultation; satisfaction; patient care; outpatient; Saudi Arabia

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