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issn:2229-340
1.  Academic job satisfaction questionnaire: Construction and validation in Saudi Arabia 
Background:
Colleges and universities are becoming increasingly accountable for teaching outcomes in order to meet rigorous accreditation standards. Job satisfaction (JS) seems more difficult to measure in the academic field in view of the complexity of roles, duties and responsibilities.
Objectives:
To compile and determine the psychometric properties of a proposed Academic Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (AJSQ) suitable for university faculty, and amenable to future upgrading.
Materials and Methods:
A 46-item five-option Likert-type draft questionnaire on JS was distributed for anonymous self-reporting by all the academic staff of five colleges in University of Dammam (n=340). The outcome measures were (1) factor analysis of the questionnaire items, (2) intra-factor α-Coefficient of Internal Consistency Reliability, (3) inter-factor correlations, (4) comparison of psychometric properties in separately analyzed main faculty subgroups.
Results:
The response rate was 72.9 percent. Factor analysis extracted eight factors which conjointly explained 60.3 percent of the variance in JS. These factors, in descending order of eigenvalue, were labeled “Authority”, “Supervision”, “Policies and Facilities”, “My Work Itself”, “Interpersonal Relationships”, “Commitment”, “Salary” and “Workload”. Cronbach's-α ranged from 0.90 in Supervision to 0.63 in Salary and Workload. All inter-factor correlations were positive and significant, ranging from 0.65 to 0.23. The psychometric properties of the instrument in separately analyzed subgroups divided by sex, nationality, college and clinical duties produced fairly comparable findings.
Conclusion:
The AJSQ demonstrated good overall psychometric properties in terms of construct validity and internal consistency reliability in both the overall sample and its separately analyzed subgroups. Recommendation: To replicate these findings in larger multicenter samples of academic staff.
doi:10.4103/1319-1683.78630
PMCID: PMC3114607  PMID: 21694952
Academic faculty; accreditation; job satisfaction; job questionnaire; Saudi Arabia
2.  JOB SATISFACTION AMONG THE ACADEMIC STAFF OF A SAUDI UNIVERSITY: AN EVALUATIVE STUDY 
Background:
Job satisfaction is a major determinant of job performance, manpower retention and employee well-being.
Objectives:
To explore the state of job satisfaction among the academic staff of King Faisal University – Dammam (KFU-D), and detect the areas and groups at a higher risk of being dissatisfied.
Method:
A fully-structured 5-option Likert-type Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (JSQ) composed of an evaluative item and eleven domains making a total of 46 items was used. It was distributed by internal mail to all the 340 academic staff, 248 of whom returned completed questionnaires (response rate = 72.9 %).
Findings:
The overall mean Job Satisfaction Rate (JSR) was 73.6 %. The highest JSR's were found in three domains (“Supervision”, “Responsibility”, and “Interpersonal Relationships”), and the lowest in four others (“Salary”, “My Work Itself”, “Working Conditions”, and “Advancement”). The JSR was significantly lower among Saudi nationals, females, those below age 40, those from clinical medical and Dentistry departments. Multiple Regression identified six independent variables which conjointly explained 25 % of the variance in job satisfaction (p < 0.0001). These were: being an expatriate, above the age of 50, serving the university for less than one or more than ten years, and, not from a clinical department of Medicine or Dentistry.
Conclusions
Most staff were satisfied with many aspects of their jobs, but there was significant dissatisfaction with several job-related aspects and demographic features. Appropriate interventions are indicated. Further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to monitor future trends.
PMCID: PMC3377049  PMID: 23012199
Job satisfaction; Academic staff; Job performance; University education; Saudi Arabia
4.  CAN A SHORT-TERM TRAINING COURSE IMPROVE THE PRIMARY-CARE PHYSICIANS’ ATTITUDES TOWARD MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS? 
Objective:
To measure changes in the attitude of Primary Health Care (PHC) physicians towards mental illnesses after a short-term training course. In addition, to ascertain if this change would persist 6 months after the training course.
Method:
This is an intervention type study. Out of 296 PHC physicians working in Eastern Saudi Arabia, 191 were randomly selected and divided randomly into two groups. The Study groups were tested for pre and post exposure (immediate and 6months later), to the psychiatric training course. The Control group was not involved in the intervention. The course was run over a 4-day period in June 1999. A 26-item self-administered questionnaire to assess the PHC physicians’ attitudes was used.
Results:
The study group consisted of 45 trainees, 24 (53%) of whom were men. The control group, 121 out of 166 physicians, responded to the questionnaire, with an 83% response rate, men forming 49%. The data analysis indicated a significant improvement in the PHC physicians’ attitude after the course (P<0.0001). Six months later, as compared with their immediate post-test, the positive attitudes persisted within the study group (p-value=0.274). Multiple regressions indicated that the duration of undergraduate psychiatric training was the only contributor factor.
Conclusion:
This training course resulted in a positive change in the trainees’ attitudes. Besides, it showed that the undergraduate psychiatric training had a favourable effect on the PHC physicians’ attitude. Therefore, there should be frequent mental health training programs for PHC physicians. Moreover, physicians who spent longer period in undergraduate psychiatric training should be given the priority to work in PHC settings.
PMCID: PMC3425748  PMID: 23012033
Mental illness; training course; evaluation; attitude; PHC physicians; Saudi Arabia
5.  DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS IN PSYCHIATRIC OUTPATIENT CLINIC ATTENDEES IN EASTERN SAUDI ARABIA 
Background:
Depressive disorders are common in Psychiatry Outpatient Clinics.
Patients:
All new patients attending the Psychiatry Clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU), in the Eastern Province were included in the study.
Aim:
To investigate the frequency and pattern of depressive disorders among Psychiatric Out-patients attendees in the KFHU.
Methods:
A semi-structured psychiatric interview and clinical mental state examination were used in the assessment of all consecutive new patients attending the clinic during the study period. The Psychiatric diagnoses were made according to the 10th Edition of International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders (ICD-10).
Results:
The frequency of depressive disorders was 19.3%. The majority of the patients were between 20-49 years of age and females predominated in the ratio of 1.7:1. Almost 70% were formally unemployed (including 66 housewives). Depressive disorder of the moderate nature was the commonest.
Conclusion:
Depressive disorders are common in Psychiatry outpatients. The socio-demographic characteristics of depressive disorder in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are similar to those abroad in many respects.
PMCID: PMC3425766  PMID: 23011991
Frequency; Pattern; Depression; Saudi teaching hospital

Results 1-5 (5)