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1.  Prevalence and associated factors of cigarette smoking among medical students at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh of Saudi Arabia 
To determine the prevalence of smoking among medical students at the medical college at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, and assess the association between smoking and socio-demographical factors, smoking contacts, reasons for smoking and attempts to quit.
Materials and Methods:
Cross-sectional survey in which anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was used to survey the cigarette smoking habits of the first- and second-year medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City in June 2009.
Overall 39.8 % of the investigated students (153) had smoked before, and 17.6% were current smokers. The mean age of initiating smoking was 15.8 (±3.3). There were significantly more males than females. The most important reasons for smoking were leisure, imitation of other people and a means of relieving psychological pressure. Reasons for not smoking were mostly health and religion-based. Smokers tended to have friends who smoked.
Cigarettes smoking is highly prevalent among medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City. Contact with smokers particularly friends are the major risk factors for the initiation of the habit. Health and religious considerations are important motives for not smoking, quitting or attempting to quit. These findings can be of help in designing future intervention strategies.
PMCID: PMC3114611  PMID: 21694953
Association; medical students; prevalence; Riyadh; smoking
2.  Pilgrims satisfaction with ambulatory health services in Makkah, 2008 
The main objective of this study was to assess the level and correlates of patients’ satisfaction with ambulatory health services provided for pilgrims during Hajj period in 2008.
Materials and Methods:
This was a facility-based, cross-sectional study conducted in the Makkah region during the Hajj season in December 2008. A two-stage technique was used to select 500 patients from those who attended the ambulatory health services. One hundred subjects were selected by systematic random sampling (every fifth) from each of the five hospitals included in the study and asked to fill in a pilot-tested self-administered questionnaire. A total of 487 questionnaires were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and t-test, Mann Whitney test and ANOVA, or Kruskal-Wallis test was used as appropriate after checking for normality. Level of significance level was set to be <0.05 throughout the study.
From 478 subjects analyzed, 390 (81.6%) were man, 345 (72.2%) were married, 28.9% had either intermediate or high secondary school education, and 2.4% were skilled laborers. The total satisfaction score for health facilities was 20.45 ± 4.03 of 25. The satisfaction scores were 20.15 ± 4.7 of 25 for patient satisfaction with physicians and 21.35 ± 4.5 for patient satisfaction with paramedical personnel. The overall satisfaction score was 61.5 ± 4.5 of 75 points. There were significant relations between total satisfaction of health facilities with education level and with occupation (P = 0.012, 0.001, respectively). The total satisfaction of patients with physicians was significant only with education level. The overall satisfaction score had a significant relation with occupation (P = 0.03), but a borderline relation with the education level (P = 0.056).
Satisfaction with ambulatory Hajj health services is acceptable. Some physicians and waiting area services need special attention to improve satisfaction levels with ambulatory health in the subsequent Hajj seasons.
PMCID: PMC3045102  PMID: 21359024
Ambulatory health services; Hajj pilgrims; Makkah

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