Interferon is being increasingly used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Several case reports have suggested an association between interferon therapy and sarcoidosis with hypercalcemia. We report a case of severe hypercalcemic crisis with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy in a male patient who was receiving interferon therapy for hepatitis C. Gastroenterologists should be aware of this unusual but clinically important complication of interferon therapy.
Hypercalcemia; interferon; sarcoidosis
The tuberculosis control program is based on a felt need–oriented basis. The diagnosis is mainly microbiological. However, sputum smear-negative Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) cases with suspected radiological findings can be problematic in diagnosis.
To confirm the diagnosis of tuberculosis early, in smear-negative AFB cases by using a Fiberoptic Bronchoscope.
Materials and Methods:
We embarked on Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy (FOB) and Spot Scopy smear Microscopy (SSM) for 533 suspected Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PT) cases (sputum smear negative and radiologically suggestive) from February 2007 to May 2010. FOB was performed using a special device, a Trans Oro Pharyngeal Spacer (TOPS), as a conduit.
The yield for positivity for AFB was 341 (64%) out of 533 cases.
Conclusion and Recommendation:
The specimens collected by using the fiberoptic bronchoscope confirmed the disease in the smear-negative cases. Hence, FOB was recommended in smear-negative cases, to avoid delay in the treatment of tuberculosis.
Fiberoptic bronchoscopy; pulmonary tuberculosis; spot scopy smear microscopy; trans oro pharyngeal spacer
Hydatidiform mole (HM) is the most common form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Recurrence of HM is extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a patient with six consecutive partial HMs without normal pregnancy. A 42-year-old lady who was referred to us at King Fahad Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, initially as a case of 26-year-old with persistent trophoblastic disease after three recurrent molar pregnancies that were confirmed histologically in the referring hospital. She underwent evacuation and curettage and was followed up by serial β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels, and did not require chemotherapy. She then had three more molar pregnancies in 1995, 1996, and 2004; all molar pregnancies were evacuated by suction curettage at her base hospital, but in the last event, she complained of shortness of breath and abdominal pain. Diagnostic workup in our hospital confirmed choriocarcinoma, for which she received multiple regimen chemotherapy and was cured. Unfortunately, she lately presented with symptoms suggestive of premature menopause.
Choriocarcinoma; hydatidiform mole; recurrent mole
A patient with peripheral polyneuropathy after bariatric surgery for morbid obesity is reported. She suffered from frequent episodes of vomiting and abdominal pain after surgery. Muscle weakness in her lower limbs developed 5 months later and she experienced difficulty in walking and standing. Wrist drop, foot drop, and marked distal limb muscle atrophy were found bilaterally. Electromyography showed the presence of sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. Nutritional deficiencies may play an important role in pathogenesis. This uncommon neurological complication might be due to rapid weight loss and vitamin deficiency. Physicians who take care for patients after bariatric surgery should have a high index of awareness for the neurologic complications, and routine vitamin supplementation might be useful for these patients.
Bariatric surgery; morbid obesity; polyneuropathy
Unsafe abortion is a significant medical and social problem worldwide. In developing countries, most of the unsafe abortions are performed by untrained personnel leading to high mortality and morbidity
A 30 year-old female, gravida 7, para 6 underwent uterine evacuation for heavy bleeding per vaginum following intake of abortifacient to abort a 14 weeks gestation. The procedure was performed at a rural setup and her bowel was pulled out of the introitus through the perforated wound, an unusual complication of unsafe abortion. Illiteracy, unawareness about health services, and easy accessibility to untrained abortion providers lead to very high mortality and morbidity in India. There is unmet need to bring awareness among the people about the safe and effective methods of contraception and abortion services to avoid such complications.
Unsafe abortion; uterine evacuation; uterine perforation
Breast abscess is mostly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. A 26-year-old immunocompetent lady was admitted with breast abscess. Incision and drainage (I/D) was done and Pneumococci were isolated from the drained pus. The patient was earlier treated with Augmentin which was later changed to linezolid after testing for antibiotic susceptibility. This strain showed a high level of resistance to penicillin. It had been noticed that there was a slow increase in the number of penicillin resistant Pneumococci isolated in our hospitals. The increase in penicillin-resistant Pneumococci correlates with the intensive use of beta-lactam antibiotics. Hence, antibiotics should be used judiciously, avoiding their use particularly in mild self-limiting upper respiratory infections. Attention therefore, should focus on monitoring resistance in Pneumococci to prevent mortality and morbidity associated with this organism, which continues to take a heavy toll on children and the elderly.
Breast abscess; penicillin resistant Pneumococci
Granuloma Gluteale Infantum (GGI) is a rare condition of unclear etiology, presenting as asymptomatic cherry red nodules in the diaper area appearing in the setting of primary irritant contact dermatitis. A 50 day old infant with GGI is presented to emphasize that the condition may be easily missed, and that it may result from the misuse of fluorinated topical steroids used to treat a rash in the diaper area. This is the first case reported from Saudi Arabia.
Granuloma gluteale infantum; fluorinated steroids; diaper dermatitis
Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a rare progressive disease. Patients commonly present with a picture of acute appendicitis or with increasing abdominal girth. We present a case of a 71 year old man who presented with right iliac fossa pain, fever and vomiting. His abdominal examination revealed right iliac fossa mass which was confirmed radiologically. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed jelly like material along with a right iliac fossa mass. The aspirate was negative for malignancy initially. Due to persistance and progression of his disease he underwent right hemicolectomy. Histopathological diagnosis showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the cecum Duke’s C2.
Pseuomyxoma peritonei; mucinous adenocarcinoma
Statins have come to the forefront of treatments for hyperlipidemias, coronary artery diseases and strokes. They have been shown to cause myotoxicity and rhabdomyolysis. In most cases, rhabdomyolysis is self-limiting and needs supportive therapy. Two cases of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis are reported emphasizing the definition, risk factors, clinical features and the self-limiting nature of the disorder.
Statins; myopathy; rhabdomyolysis
Pancytopenia as an initial manifestation of acute plasmodium vivax malaria is extremely rare and mainly reported with plasmodium falciparum. We report a 37- year old Nepali patient who recently came to Saudi Arabia and presented with a three-week history of intermittent fever, chills and rigor. She was found to have spleenomegaly, pancytopenia, hyperferrtinemia, and hypofibronogenemia with positive peripheral blood smear for plasmodium vivax. The patient had a full recovery from pancytopenia with oral chloroquine.
Pancytopenia; plasmodium vivax; hemophagocytosis; malaria; bone marrow failure
A 46-year-old female is the first to be described from Saudi Arabia with a right coronary artery aneurysm associated with chest pain. A review of the coronary aneurysm is discussed with its implications on our patient.
Saudi Arabia; aneurysm; coronary; chest pain
The diagnosis of unsuspected foreign body ingestion is a common problem in children. We describe a toddler who presented with persistent vomiting and dehydration. A plain radiograph of the abdomen did not reveal a foreign body. However, abdominal ultrasonography promptly identified a funnel-shaped foreign body obstructing the gastric outlet. This was extracted by upper endoscopy. A recent review of the literature shows increasing evidence that abdominal ultrasonography is an equally complementary diagnostic modality for ingested foreign bodies in children.
Gastrointestinal foreign body; Sonographic diagnosis; Gastric outlet obstruction; Abdominal ultrasonography
This report concerns two brothers aged 10 and 18 years with long-standing dysphagia that started at age three and six years respectively. They had been diagnosed as achalasia and treated accordingly. The appearance of additional symptoms and clinical signs required further investigations including abdominal sonography, esophago-gastroduodenoscopy, barium swallow, esophageal manometry, computerized tomography (CT) of abdomen and brain, biochemical profiles, and neurologic and ophthalmic evaluations. The results of these extensive investigations along with the clinical evaluations were consistent with Allgrove's syndrome.
Glucocorticoid therapy was initiated. The management consisted of pneumatic cardiac dilatation and initiation of cortisone treatment. The patients’ response was impressive and they resumed most of their usual activities.
Allgrove's syndrome; Triple A syndrome; Achalasia; Alacrima; Autonomic neuropathy; Adrenocortical impairment; Pneumatic dilatation; Steroid therapy
Breast cancer is the commonest international malignancy among women. Its increased prevalence over recent years in our part of the world has prompted women to randomly seek medical advice. Many patients are delayed for weeks to months prior to receiving medical treatment. This review explores the causes of delay and proposes possible solutions.
Materials and Methods:
This review was undertaken at King Fahd Hospital of the University, a tertiary care center with the capacity of 420 beds. It accommodates a large number of referrals from the Eastern Province, other regions of the Kingdom, in addition to many walk-in patients. Most of the patients referred with breast cancer are directed to the breast clinic for treatment. There was random re-tracing of patients’ steps from the discovery of the suspicious breast mass to the delivery of care.
The total number of diagnosed breast cancer cases at this center between 1997-2007 was 303, with a total number of 975 registered visits. Random retracing of these patients’ records identified three points of delay: community related, primary heath care and tertiary care. It was found that the patients spent 6-15 weeks and around 32-38 hand offs before receiving the final care.
This unnecessary delay creates anxiety and mistrust of the operating health system leading patients to seek alternative medicine or treatment abroad.
A multidisciplinary one-stop breast oncology clinic may be the solution to the above problem. It may allow the fast tracking of breast cancer patients through a highly specialized and welltrained multidisciplinary team that offers the highest quality of care, thereby optimizing the chances of cure with the least delay and possible morbidity.
Breast cancer; management; delay
Synovial sarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm which commonly occurs in the extremities of adults, in close association with joint capsules, tendon sheaths, bursae and fascial structures. Only a few cases of synovial sarcoma occurring in the abdominal wall have been reported. A case of a primary synovial sarcoma arising from the anterior abdominal wall fascial aponeurosis is presented.
Synovial sarcoma; abdominal wall tumor
Although rare, dysgerminomas are important irrespective of incidence because they affect women of reproductive age (i.e., <45 years). Dysgerminomas make up two thirds of all malignant ovarian neoplasms in women younger than 20 years. All dysgerminomas are considered malignant, but only one third of dysgerminomas behave aggressively. Their exact etiology has not been determined. Few reports are found in the review of the literature on the incidence of dysgerminoma and other germ cell tumors in families. Some of these reports focus on the genetic abnormalities associated with germ cell tumor and the responsible gene. Two cases of dysgerminomas diagnosed in two sisters aged 14 and 19 years old are presented here with their radiological studies.
Dysgerminoma; Germ Cell Tumor; Familial incidence; Imaging
Congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN) is a rare renal tumor. It can be detected antenatally especially with judicious use of ultrasonography.
A premature female neonate 28 weeks’ gestation, complicated by polyhydramnios, was born to a 28-year-old woman. An abdominal mass was detected antenatally. At the end of the first week of life, the newborn had hypertension that was controlled by hydralazine. Ultrasonography and CT scan showed a right-sided renal heterogeneous solid mass. Right nephrectomy was performed and the histology showed CMN.
Congenital mesoblastic nephroma; Polyhydramnios; Neonatal hypertension
Thyroid storm is a known complication of thyroid surgery. Nowadays, it is commonly seen in thyrotoxic patients. In this case report we discuss a patient who presented with acute abdomen and normothermia and was discovered to have thyrotoxicosis, a rare feature of thyroid storm.
Thyroid storm; acute abdomen
Acute appendicitis is a common cause of acute abdomen. However, it is a rare cause of pneumoperitonium. In this report the surgical diagnoses and management will be discussed in detail.
Acute abdomen; peritoneum
Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder with characteristic clinical symptoms and signs. Typical symptoms of hypothyroidism are lethargy, cold intolerance, slowing of intellectual and motor activity, decreased appetite, weight gain, and dry skin. A 39-year-old female presented to the clinic with dysarthria as the chief symptom. Subsequent questions revealed that other symptoms were confined to the otolaryngeal region, which were episodes of mild dysphonia, dysphagia, sleep apnea, and snoring. Laboratory data revealed marked hypothyroidism and positive tests for antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal antibodies. After administration of thyroxin, the dysarthria and the other symptoms rapidly disappeared. Dysarthria may be the presenting symptom of hypothyroidism and can be resolved after hormone replacement therapy.
Worldwide malignant melanoma is the commonest tumor of the skin, though it occurs in many other organs. It is a serious disease, the prognosis of which is poor if not detected and treated early. The disease is on the increase in many countries e.g. USA,1 England and Wales,2 Australia,3 and many parts of the world.4–6 Saudi Arabia is a vast country which is undergoing rapid development with a changing social and economic environment. To the best of our knowledge, not many studies or reports of malignant melanoma have issued from the Eastern Region. It is therefore, important to report this case and review the incidence of the disease.
Malignant melanoma; Skin; Eastern Region; Foot; DCH (Dammam Central Hospital)
A 55-year-old male presented with painful lobulated mass on the left lateral lower chest and upper abdomen. Evaluation revealed the mass as a subcutaneous abscess originating from and communicating with a splenic abscess. The patient was treated by incision and drainage of the subcutaneous abscess along with splenectomy, and antituberculous therapy. Histopathological examination of the spleen confirmed the diagnosis of splenic tuberculosis. Postoperatively, the patient improved, and was discharged ten days later on antituberculous drugs. One year later, the patient remains asymptomatic and shows progressive improvement.
Tuberculous; Spleen; Abscess
Factitious disorders are characterized by physical or psychological manifestations that are intentionally produced or feigned with no apparent external incentives in order to assume the sick role. These disorders are rarely reported or may be under-reported in Saudi patients. We describe here two male and female Saudi cases of such disorders. Both presented predominantly with features of Munchausen's syndrome. Like most psychiatric patients both had sought help from traditional healers prior to their reporting to the hospitals. Inspite of the socio-cultural factors, it is clear that doctors’ awareness and acceptance of the possibility of factitious disorders is a prerequisite to making the diagnosis.
Factitious disorders; cultural factors
Inhalation of metallic foreign bodies is a rare event occurring mostly in children, and often requires early surgical intervention to avoid complications. We report a case of spontaneous expectoration of an intrabronchial metallic nail in an adult, 2 hours after inhalation.