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1.  AN ANALYSIS OF PEAK PELVIS ROTATION SPEED, GLUTEUS MAXIMUS AND MEDIUS STRENGTH IN HIGH VERSUS LOW HANDICAP GOLFERS DURING THE GOLF SWING 
Purpose/Hypothesis:
The kinematic sequence of the golf swing is an established principle that occurs in a proximal-to-distal pattern with power generation beginning with rotation of the pelvis. Few studies have correlated the influence of peak pelvis rotation to the skill level of the golfer. Furthermore, minimal research exists on the strength of the gluteal musculature and their ability to generate power during the swing. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between peak pelvis rotation, gluteus medius and gluteus maximus strength, and a golfer's handicap.
Subjects:
56 healthy subjects.
Material/Methods:
Each subject was assessed using a hand-held dynamometry device per standardized protocol to determine gluteus maximus and medius strength. The K-vest was placed on the subject with electromagnetic sensors at the pelvis, upper torso, and gloved lead hand to measure the rotational speed at each segment in degrees/second. After K-vest calibration and 5 practice swings, each subject hit 5 golf balls during which time, the sensors measured pelvic rotation speed.
Results:
A one-way ANOVA was performed to determine the relationships between peak pelvis rotation, gluteus medius and gluteus maximus strength, and golf handicap. A significant difference was found between the following dependent variables and golf handicap: peak pelvis rotation (p=0.000), gluteus medius strength (p=0.000), and gluteus maximus strength (p=0.000).
Conclusion:
Golfers with a low handicap are more likely to have increased pelvis rotation speed as well as increased gluteus maximus and medius strength when compared to high handicap golfers.
Clinical Relevance:
The relationships between increased peak pelvis rotation and gluteus maximus and medius strength in low handicap golfers may have implications in designing golf training programs. Further research needs to be conducted in order to further explore these relationships.
PMCID: PMC3362989  PMID: 22666643
golf; gluteus maximus; gluteus medius; peak pelvis rotation
2.  ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF GLUTEUS MEDIUS AND GLUTEUS MAXIMUS DURING REHABILITATION EXERCISES 
Purpose/Background:
Previous research studies by Bolga, Ayotte, and Distefano have examined the level of muscle recruitment of the gluteal muscles for various clinical exercises; however, there has been no cross comparison among the top exercises from each study. The purpose of this study is to compare top exercises from these studies as well as several other commonly performed clinical exercises to determine which exercises recruit the gluteal muscles, specifically the gluteus medius and maximus, most effectively.
Methods:
Twenty-six healthy subjects participated in this study. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on gluteus medius and maximus to measure muscle activity during 18 exercises. Maximal voluntary muscle contraction (MVIC) was established for each muscle group in order to express each exercise as a percentage of MVIC and allow standardized comparison across subjects. EMG data were analyzed using a root-mean-square algorithm and smoothed with a 50 millisecond time reference. Rank ordering of the exercises was performed utilizing the average percent MVIC peak activity for each exercise.
Results:
Twenty-four subjects satisfied all eligibility criteria and consented to participate in the research study. Five of the exercises produced greater than 70%MVIC of the gluteus medius muscle. In rank order from highest EMG value to lowest, these exercises were: side plank abduction with dominant leg on bottom (103%MVIC), side plank abduction with dominant leg on top (89%MVIC), single limb squat (82%MVIC), clamshell (hip clam) progression 4 (77%MVIC), and font plank with hip extension (75%MVIC). Five of the exercises recruited gluteus maximus with values greater than 70%MVIC. In rank order from highest EMG value to lowest, these exercises were: front plank with hip extension (106%MVIC), gluteal squeeze (81%MVIC), side plank abduction with dominant leg on top (73%MVIC), side plank abduction with dominant leg on bottom (71%MVIC), and single limb squat (71%MVIC). Four of the exercises produced greater than 70%MVIC for both gluteus maximus and medius muscles.
Conclusions:
Higher %MVIC values achieved during performance of exercises correlate to muscle hypertrophy.20,22 By knowing the %MVIC of the gluteal musculature that occurs during various exercises, potential for strengthening of the gluteal muscles can be inferred. Additionally, exercises may be rank ordered to appropriately challenge the gluteal musculature during rehabilitation.
PMCID: PMC3201064  PMID: 22034614
gluteus medius; gluteus maximus; muscle recruitment; rehabilitation exercise

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