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1.  OFF‐SEASON TRAINING HABITS AND PRESEASON FUNCTIONAL TEST MEASURES OF DIVISION III COLLEGIATE ATHLETES: A DESCRIPTIVE REPORT 
Purpose/Background:
Division III (D III) collegiate coaches are challenged to assess athletic readiness and condition their athletes during the preseason. However, there are few reports on off‐season training habits and normative data of functional assessment tests among D III athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine off‐season training habits of D III athletes and their relationships to the standing long jump (SLJ) and single‐leg hop (SLH) tests.
Methods:
One‐hundred and ninety‐three athletes (110 females, age 19.1 ± 1.1 y; 83 males, age 19.5 ± 1.3 y) were tested prior to the start of their sports seasons. Athletes reported their off‐season training habits (weightlifting, cardiovascular exercise, plyometric exercise, and scrimmage) during the six weeks prior to the preseason. Athletes also performed three maximal effort SLJs and three SLHs.
Results:
Male athletes reported training more hours per exercise category than their female counterparts. Mean SLJ distances (normalized to height) were 0.79 ± 0.10 for females and 0.94 ± 0.12 for males. Mean SLH distances for female athletes' right and left limbs were 0.66 (± 0.10) and 0.65 (± 0.10), respectively. Mean SLH distances for male athletes' right and left limbs were 0.75 (± 0.13) and 0.75 (± 0.12), respectively. Several significant differences between off‐season training habits and functional test measures were found for both sexes: males [SLJ and weightlifting (p = 0.04); SLH and weightlifting (p = 0.04), plyometrics (p = 0.05)]; females [SLJ and plyometrics (p = 0.04); SLH and scrimmage (p = 0.02)].
Conclusion:
This study provides normative data for off‐season training habits and preseason functional test measures in a D III athlete population. Greater SLJ and SLH measures were associated with increased time during off‐season training.
Clinical Relevance:
The findings between functional tests and off‐season training activities may be useful for sports medicine professionals and strength coaches when designing their preseason training programs.
Level of Evidence:
4
PMCID: PMC4127507  PMID: 25133073
college; field test; functional test; single‐leg hop; standing long jump
2.  LOWER EXTREMITY FUNCTIONAL TESTS AND RISK OF INJURY IN DIVISION III COLLEGIATE ATHLETES 
Purpose/Background:
Functional tests have been used primarily to assess an athlete's fitness or readiness to return to sport. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to determine the ability of the standing long jump (SLJ) test, the single‐leg hop (SLH) for distance test, and the lower extremity functional test (LEFT) as preseason screening tools to identify collegiate athletes who may be at increased risk for a time‐loss sports‐related low back or lower extremity injury.
Methods:
A total of 193 Division III athletes from 15 university teams (110 females, age 19.1 ± 1.1 y; 83 males, age 19.5 ± 1.3 y) were tested prior to their sports seasons. Athletes performed the functional tests in the following sequence: SLJ, SLH, LEFT. The athletes were then prospectively followed during their sports season for occurrence of low back or LE injury.
Results:
Female athletes who completed the LEFT in $118 s were 6 times more likely (OR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 31.7) to sustain a thigh or knee injury. Male athletes who completed the LEFT in #100 s were more likely to experience a time‐loss injury to the low back or LE (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 9.5) or a foot or ankle injury (OR=6.7, 95% CI: 1.5, 29.7) than male athletes who completed the LEFT in 101 s or more. Female athletes with a greater than 10% side‐to‐side asymmetry between SLH distances had a 4‐fold increase in foot or ankle injury (cut point: >10%; OR=4.4, 95% CI: 1.2, 15.4). Male athletes with SLH distances (either leg) at least 75% of their height had at least a 3‐fold increase (OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 11.2 for the right LE; OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 11.2 for left LE) in low back or LE injury.
Conclusions:
The LEFT and the SLH tests appear useful in identifying Division III athletes at risk for a low back or lower extremity sports injury. Thus, these tests warrant further consideration as preparticipatory screening examination tools for sport injury in this population.
Clinical Relevance:
The single‐leg hop for distance and the lower extremity functional test, when administered to Division III athletes during the preseason, may help identify those at risk for a time‐loss low back or lower extremity injury.
Level of Evidence:
2
PMCID: PMC3679628  PMID: 23772338
epidemiology; functional test; single‐leg hop; lower extremity functional test
3.  SHOULDER POSTERIOR INTERNAL IMPINGEMENT IN THE OVERHEAD ATHLETE 
Posterior internal impingement (PII) of the glenohumeral joint is a common cause of shoulder complex pain in the overhead athlete. This impingement is very different from standard outlet impingement seen in shoulder patients. Internal impingement is characterized by posterior shoulder pain when the athlete places the humerus in extreme external rotation and abduction as in the cocking phase of pitching or throwing. Impingement in this position occurs between the supraspinatus and or infraspinatus and the glenoid rim. Understanding regarding this pathology continues to evolve. Definitive understanding of precipitating factors, causes, presentation and methods of treatment have yet to be determined. A high index of suspicion should be used when attempting to make this diagnosis. This current concepts review presents the current thinking regarding pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of this condition.
Level of Evidence:
5
PMCID: PMC3625798  PMID: 23593557
Glenoid impingement; internal impingement; posterior impingement; throwing shoulder
4.  EVIDENCE – BASED MEDICINE/PRACTICE IN SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY 
A push for the use of evidence‐based medicine and evidence‐based practice patterns has permeated most health care disciplines. The use of evidence‐based practice in sports physical therapy may improve health care quality, reduce medical errors, help balance known benefits and risks, challenge views based on beliefs rather than evidence, and help to integrate patient preferences into decision‐making. In this era of health care utilization sports physical therapists are expected to integrate clinical experience with conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of research evidence in order to make clearly informed decisions in order to help maximize and optimize patient well‐being. One of the more common reasons for not using evidence in clinical practice is the perceived lack of skills and knowledge when searching for or appraising research. This clinical commentary was developed to educate the readership on what constitutes evidence‐based practice, and strategies used to seek evidence in the daily clinical practice of sports physical therapy.
PMCID: PMC3474298  PMID: 23091778
Evidence‐Based Medicine; Sports Physical Therapy; Rehabilitation
5.  HOW TO WRITE A SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE 
Successful production of a written product for submission to a peer‐reviewed scientific journal requires substantial effort. Such an effort can be maximized by following a few simple suggestions when composing/creating the product for submission. By following some suggested guidelines and avoiding common errors, the process can be streamlined and success realized for even beginning/novice authors as they negotiate the publication process. The purpose of this invited commentary is to offer practical suggestions for achieving success when writing and submitting manuscripts to The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy and other professional journals.
PMCID: PMC3474301  PMID: 23091783
Journal submission; scientific writing; strategies and tips

Results 1-5 (5)