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1.  MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE SHOULDER PAIN IN AN ADOLESCENT LACROSSE ATHLETE: A CASE REPORT 
ABSTRACT
Acute onset of shoulder pain in adolescent athletes typically is related to trauma. The subject of this case report, a 13 year‐old male, was injured when he collided with another athlete while his right arm was extended. He experienced immediate onset of significant right shoulder pain. Manual assessment in the emergency department revealed anterior tenderness and loss of function due to pain – most notably limitations in both active internal rotation and abduction. A plain film showed a radiographic density anterior to the humeral head but a donation site (where a bony avulsion may have occurred) was not delineated. Magnetic resonance imaging clearly identified a lesser tuberosity avulsion (thus the site of origin of the bony material) encompassing the insertion of the subscapularis muscle with retraction of approximately one centimeter. Open surgical repair (reduction and fixation) was performed with excellent results.
Level of Evidence:
5 (Single Case report)
PMCID: PMC4060317  PMID: 24944858
Acute shoulder trauma; adolescent; avulsion fracture; subscapularis
2.  DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING OF THE THROWING ATHLETE’S SHOULDER 
The diagnostic capabilities of advanced imaging have increasingly enabled clinicians to delineate between structural alterations and injuries more efficiently than ever before. These impressive gains have unfortunately begun to provide a reliance on imaging at the loss of quality in the clinical examination. Ideally, imaging of the shoulder complex is performed to confirm the provisional diagnosis developed from the history and clinical exam rather than to create such. This clinical commentary will provide the framework for both basic and advanced uses of imaging as well as discussion of evolving modalities.
Level of Evidence:
5
PMCID: PMC3811741  PMID: 24175143
Throwing athlete; shoulder pain; imaging; diagnosis
3.  ACUTE MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS OF THE ACROMIOCLAVICULAR JOINT: A CASE REPORT 
Acromioclavicular injuries are quite common and approaches to early management of those that are described as a Type III are controversial. The Rockwood Type III classification implies complete disruption of the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments, resulting in inferior positioning of the scapula and, thus, the glenohumeral complex while the clavicle appears more superiorly prominent. Clinical management can include surgical or conservative techniques. This case report outlines the decision making process related to this type of injury, as applied in the diagnosis and management of 61 year‐old recreational athlete.
Level of Evidence
5 (Single Case report)
PMCID: PMC3474304  PMID: 23091789
Acromioclavicular injury; functional outcomes; shoulder separation; Type III management
4.  A PILOT STUDY OF CORE STABILITY AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE: IS THERE A RELATIONSHIP? 
Study Design:
Correlation study
Objectives:
To objectively evaluate the relationship between core stability and athletic performance measures in male and female collegiate athletes.
Background:
The relationship between core stability and athletic performance has yet to be quantified in the available literature. The current literature does not demonstrate whether or not core strength relates to functional performance. Questions remain regarding the most important components of core stability, the role of sport specificity, and the measurement of core stability in relation to athletic performance.
Methods:
A sample of 35 volunteer student athletes from Asbury College (NAIA Division II) provided informed consent. Participants performed a series of five tests: double leg lowering (core stability test), the forty yard dash, the T-test, vertical jump, and a medicine ball throw. Participants performed three trials of each test in a randomized order.
Results:
Correlations between the core stability test and each of the other four performance tests were determined using a General Linear Model. Medicine ball throw negatively correlated to the core stability test (r –0.389, p=0.023). Participants that performed better on the core stability test had a stronger negative correlation to the medicine ball throw (r =–0.527). Gender was the most strongly correlated variable to core strength, males with a mean measurement of double leg lowering of 47.43 degrees compared to females having a mean of 54.75 degrees.
Conclusions:
There appears to be a link between a core stability test and athletic performance tests; however, more research is needed to provide a definitive answer on the nature of this relationship. Ideally, specific performance tests will be able to better define and to examine relationships to core stability. Future studies should also seek to determine if there are specific sub-categories of core stability which are most important to allow for optimal training and performance for individual sports.
PMCID: PMC3109894  PMID: 21713228

Results 1-4 (4)