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1.  Sinonasal risk factors for the development of invasive fungal sinusitis in hematological patients: Are they important? 
Allergy & Rhinology  2011;2(1):6-11.
Invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS) is a highly aggressive infection that can affect hematologic patients. The classically described general risk factors, however, do not fully explain the development of IFS in a small percentage of cases. This study examined the impact of anatomic sinonasal factors and environmental factors on the development of IFS in high-risk patients. Medical records and computed tomography (CT) scans of patients admitted to our institution who were at high risk of developing IFS were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-seven patients of 797 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Patients affected by IFS were compared with patients not affected to identify possible sinonasal and environmental risk factors of IFS. Seven patients were excluded because of the lack of adequate radiological images. Six of the 20 eligible patients were assigned to the study group of patients affected by IFS and the remaining 14 patients were assigned to the control group. All but one case developed the infection during the summer with a significantly higher mean environmental temperature (p = 0.002). Anatomic nasal alterations were found in all patients affected by IFS and were significantly more frequent than in the control group (p = 0.014). It would be advisable to have patients with hematologic risk factors of IFS, especially during the summer period, undergo endoscopic nasal assessment. Furthermore, a CT finding of anatomic nasal alterations, such as anterior nasal septum deviation causing nasal obstruction, should increase the suspicion of IFS in case of the occurrence of nasal symptoms.
doi:10.2500/ar.2011.2.0009
PMCID: PMC3390131  PMID: 22852108
fungal infection; hematologic malignancy; invasive fungal sinusitis; nasal endoscopy; sinonasal risk factors; sinus endoscopic surgery

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