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1.  Hypertonic saline downregulate the production level of lipopolysaccharide-induced migration inhibitory factor in THP-1 cells 
Purpose
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) may serve as a general marker for systemic inflammation in septic and nonseptic acute critical illness. Additionally, our previous experiment has demonstrated that immunosuppressant Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) lowered MIF levels and inhibited T-cells proliferation when compared to control levels. The addition of hypertonic saline (HTS) increased MIF production as compared with PGE2-stimulated T-cells in concordance with restore PGE2-suppressed T-cells proliferation. Generally, HTS has been well known for its anti-inflammatory effect so far. Therefore, the experiments were conducted to evaluate MIF after stimulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) either in the presence or absence of HTS in monocyte, in response to early phase injury.
Methods
Human acute monocytic leukemic cell line (THP-1) cells were cultured in RPMI media, to a final concentration of 1 × 106 cells/mL. The effect of HTS on LPS-induced MIF was evaluated in monocyte with 1 µg/mL LPS. HTS at 10, 20 or 40 mmol/L above isotonicity was added. MIF concentrations of the supernatant were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cell lysates were used for Western blots analysis to determine the MIF expression.
Results
MIF concentrations in the cell supernatant increased in LPS-induced cells compared to control cells. Also, levels of MIF protein expression were higher in LPS stimulating cells. However, the addition of HTS to LPS stimulated cell restored MIF concentrations and MIF expression.
Conclusion
The role of HTS in maintaining physiological balance in human beings, at least in part, should be mediated through the MIF pathway.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.1.1
PMCID: PMC3268137  PMID: 22324039
Hypertonic saline solution; Macrophage migration-inhibitory factors; Lipopolysaccharides; Anti-inflammatory agents; Immunosuppression
2.  Body size and thyroid nodules in healthy Korean population 
Purpose
Excess weight and obesity have been associated with numerous diseases including thyroid cancer, but the relationship has been weak. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of body sizes on thyroid nodules in healthy Korean population.
Methods
A total of 7,763 persons who underwent a health examination in our health examination center were included in this study. The epidemiologic factors, body size and thyroid ultrasound results were reviewed. We investigated the effects of body size on the presence of thyroid nodules and malignancy.
Results
The incidence of thyroid nodules was 20.6%. In the group who were found to have thyroid nodules, mean height, weight and body surface area (BSA) were significantly smaller compared to the others. Especially, in the women, smaller height (less than 160 cm) and overweight (≥ 60 kg) were identified as independent risk factors for the presence of thyroid nodules. The patients with body mass index (BMI) subgroups of normal or overweight had a tendency to have thyroid nodules more frequently. The detection rate of thyroid cancer was 0.47%. The patients with thyroid cancer tended to be smaller in height and BSA than the others.
Conclusion
A higher frequency of thyroid nodules was associated with women and, older age. In women, there were significant correlations in height, weight and BMI subgroups to the presence of thyroid nodules.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.1.13
PMCID: PMC3268138  PMID: 22324041
Thyroid nodule; Body mass index; Body surface area
3.  Early experience with diagnosis and management of eroded gastric bands 
Purpose
Band erosion is a well-known complication of laparoscopic adjustable gastric band placement. We gained experience with laparoscopic removal of an eroded gastric band.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the operative log of our obesity surgery unit to identify all operations performed for band erosion from March 2009 to May 2011.
Results
During the study period, a total of six of 96 patients (6.3%), five females and one male, were diagnosed with band erosion and underwent surgical removal of the band system. The median time interval from the initial gastric band placement to the diagnosis of band erosion was 8.5 months (range, 7 to 22 months), with most band erosion occurring within the first year (5/6, 83%). The median body mass index at band removal was 28.4 kg/m2. Upper abdominal pain was the most common symptom (5/6, 83%), and other signs and symptoms were port site infection (3/6, 50%) and loss of restriction and weight regain (1/6, 17%). All eroded bands were removed using laparoscopy. Further complications after laparoscopic removal of the band system were observed in three cases. One patient showed multiple intra-abdominal abscesses requiring insertion of a pigtail catheter for drainage. The other two patients experienced sepsis with localized peritonitis, eventually requiring laparoscopic washout and drainage.
Conclusion
Gastric band erosion requires the removal of the gastric band. Laparoscopic removal is technically achievable in the majority of patients with eroded gastric band. The method can be challenging, has potential postoperative complications (fistula, abscess), and should be attempted only by experienced surgeons.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.1.18
PMCID: PMC3268139  PMID: 22324042
Gastric banding; Bariatric surgery; Band erosion; Morbid obesity; Complications
4.  A practical approach for assessing chemosensitivity in colorectal cancer cell lines by comparative analysis of cell viability and thymidylate synthase mRNA expression 
Purpose
The purpose of this study is to suggest a probable problem in chemosensitivity tests performed in practice and to speculate on practicable measures for more accurate chemosensitivity evaluation.
Methods
Three colorectal cancer cells (RSC, RRC1, and RRC2) were treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Inhibition percentage (%inhibition) of cancer cells and relative quantitation of thymidylate synthase (TS) mRNA were measured on day 2, day 5 after replacement of 70% media on day 2, day 7, and day 3 after replacement of all media on day 7. Doses that produced 50% inhibition (Dm) were calculated to evaluate drug effect. Relative quantitation of TS mRNA and correlations between TS mRNA levels and 5-FU concentrations were analyzed.
Results
RRC1 was more resistant than RRC2 on day 7, but Dm value of RRC2 increased three days after replacement of media from 12.3 to 18.1. Mean TS mRNA levels of RSC on D2 and D7 were significantly lower than those of RRC1 and RRC2, respectively (P = 0.004, P = 0.004 on D2; P = 0.010, P = 0.006 on D7). TS mRNA levels in RRC1 were significantly reversely correlated with 5-FU concentrations on day 2 (correlation coefficient = -0.867, P = 0.015). On the other hand, correlations were not significant in RRC2 (r = 0.067).
Conclusion
Evaluating %inhibition of cancer cells at one point in chemosensitivity tests seems to be inadequate in determining chemotherapeutic regimens. Multilateral approaches, such as trials evaluating cancer cell survival before and after media replacement and correlations between TS mRNA levels and 5-FU concentrations, needs to be implemented for the practical application of chemosensitivity tests.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.1.28
PMCID: PMC3268140  PMID: 22324043
Drug effects; 5-fluorouracil; Thymidylate synthase
5.  Comparison of surgical-site infection between open and laparoscopic appendectomy 
Purpose
An inflamed appendix can be removed either openly (open appendectomy [OA]) or laparoscopically (laparoscopic appendectomy [LA]). Surgical-site infection (SSI) is a representative healthcare-associated infection and can impose serious economic burdens on patients as well as affect morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to compare LA with OA in terms of SSI.
Methods
The medical records of 749 patients (420 males; mean age, 33 years) who underwent appendectomy (OA, 431; LA, 318) between September 1, 2008 and April 29, 2010 were retrospectively reviewed for demographic and pathologic characteristics, recovery of bowel movement, length of hospital stay, and postoperative complications.
Results
The frequency of purulent/gangrenous or perforated appendicitis was not significantly different between LA and OA groups (83% [263/318 cases] vs. 83% [359/431 cases], P = 0.183). The time to first flatus after surgery was not significantly different between the two groups (1.38 ± 1.07 days for LA, 1.33 ± 0.90 days for OA, P = 0.444), but the length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in LA group than in OA group (3.37 ± 0.12 days vs. 3.83 ± 0.12 days, P = 0.006). The frequency of overall SSI was not significantly different between the two groups (2.8% for LA, 4.6% for OA, P = 0.204), but that of superficial incisional SSI was significantly lower in LA group (0.6% vs. 3.9%, P = 0.016).
Conclusion
The results of this study suggest that LA may lead to a shorter length of hospital stay and may have a lower risk of superficial incisional SSI than OA.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.1.35
PMCID: PMC3268141  PMID: 22324044
Laparoscopic; Appendectomy; Surgical-site infection
6.  Comparison of the outcomes between laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal repair and prolene hernia system for inguinal hernia; review of one surgeon's experience 
Purpose
To compare the outcomes between laparoscopic total extraperitoneal (TEP) repair and prolene hernia system (PHS) repair for inguinal hernia.
Methods
A retrospective analysis of 237 patients scheduled for laparoscopic TEP or PHS repair of groin hernia from 2005 to 2009 was performed.
Results
The mean age was 52.3 years in TEP group and 55.7 years in PHS group. Of 119 TEP cases, 98 were indirect inguinal hernia, 15 direct type, 5 femoral hernia and 1 complex hernia; Of 118 PHS cases, 100 indirect, 18 direct type. All in TEP group were performed under general anesthesia and 64% of PHS group were performed under spinal or epidural anesthesia. Preoperatively, 10 cases of recurrent inguinal hernia were involved in our study (4 in TEP, 6 in PHS group). The mean operative time was similar in both groups (74.8 in TEP, 71.2 in PHS group), however mean hospital stay (1.6 days in TEP, 3.2 days in PHS group, P = 0.018) and mean usage of analgesics (0.54 times in TEP, 2.03 times in PHS group, P < 0.01), complications (36 cases in TEP, 6 cases in PHS group, P < 0.01) showed statistical differences. There is only 1 case of postoperative recurrence inguinal hernia in PHS group but it has no statistical significance (P = 0.314).
Conclusion
Compared to PHS repair, laparoscopic TEP repair has some advantages; shorter hospital stay, less frequent need of analgesics; as well as more postoperative complications such as hematoma, seroma, scrotal swelling.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.1.40
PMCID: PMC3268142  PMID: 22324045
Inguinal hernia; Laparoscopy; Surgical mesh
7.  Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in colon 
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is an uncommon mesenchymal solid tumor commonly documented in children and young adults. Here, we report a case of IMT in colon confirmed pathologically after laparoscopic anterior resection. A 35-year-old man presented with anal bleeding after defecation for 2 weeks. Colonoscopy demonstrated a mass with shallow ulceration in the central area and irregular margin accompanied by intact mucosa in the descending colon. Computer tomography showed a well-demarcated and homogenous solitary mass in the descending colon. We performed laparoscopic anterior resection. This case was diagnosed as IMT after microscopic examination. The tumor was composed of a proliferation of spindle-shaped cells arranged in the hyaline material with chronic inflammatory cells, composed mainly of plasma cells and lymphocytes. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for smooth muscle actin, and vimentin, and negative for desmin, CD117 (c-kit), anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.1.45
PMCID: PMC3268143  PMID: 22324046
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor; Colon
8.  Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder presented as small bowel intussusception in adult liver transplant patient 
Intestinal obstruction after liver transplant is a rare complication, with diverse clinical manifestations. Intestinal adhesion is the most common cause. However, internal hernia, abdominal wall hernia, and neoplasm are also reported. Intussusception is another rare cause of intestinal obstruction, which has been reported primarily in pediatric patients. Herein, we report a case of intestinal obstruction from intussusception in an adult liver transplant patient associated with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.1.50
PMCID: PMC3268144  PMID: 22324047
Lymphoproliferative disorders; Intussusception; Liver transplantation
9.  Primary carcinosarcoma of the gallbladder 
Carcinosarcoma of gallbladder (CSGB) is a rare malignancy characterized by malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components. Its pathogenesis is unknown and most CSGBs are associated with poor survival because the disease normally presents at an advanced stage, and as a result, curative resection is uncommon. This report describes a case that underwent curative resection. A 77-year-old woman presented with right upper quadrant pain. The preoperative diagnosis was gallbladder (GB) cancer, and thus, curative radical cholecystectomy was performed. However, pathologic examination of the surgical specimen revealed that the tumor was composed of two histologic components of squamous cell carcinoma and spindle cell sarcoma, which was consistent with a diagnosis of carcinosarcoma. The tumor was found to extend to the perimuscular connective tissue and to have metastasized to one lymph node (LN). The prognosis of CSGB remains poor despite curative resection, and thus, the authors recommend that effort be made to improve surgical outcomes.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.1.54
PMCID: PMC3268145  PMID: 22324048
Carcinosarcoma; Gallbladder; Curative treatment; Prognosis
10.  Successful treatment of type I endoleak of common iliac artery with balloon expandable stent (Palmaz XL stent) during endovascular aneurysm repair 
Type 1 endoleak of common iliac artery (type Ib endoleak) should be treated during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). An 86-year-old female was diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysm measuring 6.6 cm in diameter and right internal iliac artery aneurysm measuring 4.0 cm in diameter. She underwent EVAR after right internal iliac artery embolization. There was type Ib endoleak, which was repaired by balloon-expandable stent, Palmaz XL stent (Cordis). We report successful treatment of type Ib endoleak with Palmaz XL stent, which may be considered as an alternative option for type Ib endoleak after EVAR.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.1.59
PMCID: PMC3268146  PMID: 22324049
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Endovascular procedure; Endoleak
11.  Change of inter-facility transfer pattern in a regional trauma system after designation of trauma centers 
Purpose
The Ministry of Health and Welfare recently designated 35 major trauma-specified centers (MTSC). The purpose of this study is to determine changes in patient flow and designated hospitals, and to describe the role of the emergency medical information center (EMIC) in a regional trauma care system.
Methods
Data of trauma patient inter-facility transfer arrangement by one EMIC were reviewed for 2 months before and after the designation of MTSC. The data included success or failure rates of the arrangement, time used for arrangement, and inquiring and accepting facility.
Results
At pre- and post-designation study period, there were 540 and 433 trauma patient inter-facility transfers arranged by EMIC, respectively. The median time used for arrangement decreased from 9.3 to 7.7 minutes (P = 0.007). Arrangement failure rate was 3.5% and 2.5%, respectively, with no significant interval change (P = 0.377). The percentage of inquiring MTSC decreased from 49.1 to 36.9% (P < 0.001). The percentage of accepting MTSC increased from 20.2 to 37.4% (P < 0.001).
Conclusion
With the designation of MTSC, EMIC could arrange inter-facility transfers more quickly. The hospitals wanted more trauma patients after the designation. There would be a concentration of trauma patients to MTSCs in our region. Further studies are needed for scientific evidence on patient outcome.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.1.8
PMCID: PMC3268147  PMID: 22324040
Trauma centers; Information services; Hospital emergency service; Referral and consultation
12.  Status and prospect of workforce requirement for surgery in republic of Korea 
Purpose
In order to prepare long-term alternatives to surgical residency training and workforce policies in Korea, objective data are needed; in addition, determination of the status of surgical procedures being performed is also needed.
Methods
Cases of surgeries performed by board-certified Korean surgeons for 1 year, from July 2009 to June 2010 were reviewed and analyzed. Variation of the last five years was also investigated against the number of surgery cases of the same item and for data on status of population, medical institutions, and surgeons.
Results
Difficulty in distribution of a given surgery varied according to the classification of medical institution types, and performance of highly difficult surgeries occurred more in tertiary hospitals. The number of surgeries has increased over the last 5 years (28.1%). The number of surgeries among elderly patients (41.5%), high difficulty (41.8%), and tertiary hospitals (34.9%) has especially increased. There has been no increase in the number of diagnosis related group claim cases for the last 5 years (-0.8%). 43.3% of surgeons working at private clinics in Korea did not present surgery as an indicating item of their clinics.
Conclusion
While the demand for surgeons in high risk and highly difficult surgeries is continuously increasing, stagnation is expected in the traditional area. Considering the proportion and current status of surgeons working at private clinics, the need for a realistic reduction in the quota of surgical residents and reconsideration of personnel policies is raised.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.6.363
PMCID: PMC3243852  PMID: 22200036
Quota; Resident; Surgeon
13.  Primary thyroid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; a clinicopathological study of seven cases 
Purpose
Primary thyroid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a very rare subgroup of thyroid lymphoma, accounting for about 6 to 28% of all primary thyroid lymphomas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate its clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes.
Methods
We identified seven patients with thyroid MALT lymphoma who were treated between January 1997 and December 2007, and reviewed their clinicopathological features and follow-up outcomes.
Results
There were five female and two male patients, and their mean age was 73 years. All patients presented with palpable neck mass. Two patients had hoarseness and dyspnea. All patients had a history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with a mean of 175 months. Malignant lymphoma was suspected in only three patients using core needle biopsy. Four patients underwent thyroidectomy in the absence of preoperative pathologic confirmation, and histologic diagnosis was obtained after surgery. As initial treatment, complete surgical resection was performed in five patients, radiotherapy in one, and a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in one. Six patients were alive for the mean follow-up period of 66 months and one patient died of unrelated causes. There were neither recurrences nor disease-specific mortalities.
Conclusion
When primary thyroid MALT lymphoma occurs in the thyroid or is confined to the neck, it responds well to local treatment such as surgical resection and external beam radiation therapy.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.6.374
PMCID: PMC3243853  PMID: 22200037
Primary thyroid MALT lymphoma; Hashimoto's thyroiditis; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
14.  Is it possible to predict hypothyroidism after thyroid lobectomy through thyrotropin, thyroglobulin, anti-thyroglobulin, and anti-microsomal antibody? 
Purpose
We investigated the incidence and risk factors of hypothyroidism after thyroid lobectomy, and evaluated the possibility to predict hypothyroidism preoperatively with serologic markers, such as thyrotropin (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), anti-thyroglobulin (ATA), and anti-microsomal antibody (AMA).
Methods
We enrolled 123 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid lobectomy due to benign conditions between May 2004 and April 2008. Only preoperative euthyroid patients were included. Patients were divided into two groups by postoperative thyroid function outcomes, into hypothyroid (n = 97) and euthyroid groups (n = 26), and analyzed specially for the preoperative levels of TSH, TG, ATA, and AMA.
Results
Twenty-six (21.1%) patients developed hypothyroidism following thyroid lobectomy within 35.7 months of follow-up. The proportion of post-lobectomy hypothyroidism was high in patients with high-normal preoperative TSH level, and the cut-off value was 2.0 mIU/L, with 67% sensitivity and 75% specificity. The quantitative titer of preoperative TG, ATA, and AMA was not significant, but the outcome of categorical analysis of two or more positivities on these three markers was significantly higher in hypothyroid patients than in euthyroid patients (28.6% vs. 3.9%, P = 0.024). The combined positivity of preoperative TSH and two or more positivities of TG, ATA, and AMA possess 100% positive predictive value and 81% negative predictive value.
Conclusion
The incidence of hypothyroidism following thyroid lobectomy was 21.1%. High-normal preoperative TSH and two or more positivities for TG, ATA, and AMA are good pre-operative predictive markers. Such high-risk patients need close TSH monitoring before the onset of clinical hypothyroidism.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.6.380
PMCID: PMC3243854  PMID: 22200038
Hypothyroidism; Thyrotropin; Thyroglobulin; Thyroid microsomal antibodies
15.  Carcinoembryonic antigen level of draining venous blood as a predictor of recurrence in colorectal cancer patient 
Purpose
We designed this study to evaluate the efficacy of carcinoembryonic antigen in draining venous blood (vCEA) as a predictor of recurrence.
Methods
Draining venous and supplying arterial bloods were collected separately during the operation of 82 colorectal cancer patients without distant metastasis from September 2004 to December 2006. Carcinoembryonic antigen was measured and assessed for the efficacy as a prognostic factor of recurrence using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Kaplan-Meier curves.
Results
vCEA is a statistically significant factor that predicts recurrence (P = 0.032) and the optimal cut-off value for vCEA from ROC curve is 8.0 ng/mL. The recurrence-free survival between patients with vCEA levels >8 ng/mL and ≤8 ng/mL significantly differed (P < 0.001). The significance of vCEA as a predictor of recurrence gets higher when limited to patients without lymph node metastasis. The proper cut-off value for vCEA is 4.0 ng/mL if confined to patients without lymph node metastasis. The recurrence-free survival between the patients of vCEA levels >4 ng/mL and ≤4 ng/mL significantly differed (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed vCEA is an independent prognostic factor in patients without lymph node metastasis.
Conclusion
vCEA is an independent prognostic factor of recurrence in colorectal cancer patients especially in patients without lymph node metastases.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.6.387
PMCID: PMC3243855  PMID: 22200039
Colorectal neoplasms; Carcinoembryonic antigen; Prognosis; Recurrence
16.  Factors affecting long-term survival after surgical resection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma 
Purpose
Some patients who undergo surgical resection of pancreatic cancer survive longer than other patients. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that affect long-term survival after resection of histopathologically confirmed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Methods
A single-center, retrospective study was conducted among 164 patients who underwent surgical resection of pancreatic cancer, between May 1995 and December 2004. The patient follow-up process was conducted via telephone survey and review of electronic medical records for at least 5 years or until death.
Results
We compared patients with long-term (≥60 months, n = 19) and short-term survival (<60 months, n = 145). Resection margin status, differentiation of the tumor, tumor stage, pre-operative serum level of albumin, total bilirubin and carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 level are related with survival difference (all factors, P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that a pre-operative serum total bilirubin level <7 mg/dL and a pre-operative serum CA19-9 level <37 U/mL is a statistically significant prognostic factor for long-term survival.
Conclusion
The preoperative serum total bilirubin and serum CA19-9 levels are associated with long-term survival after surgical resection of pancreatic cancer.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.6.394
PMCID: PMC3243856  PMID: 22200040
Pancreatic neoplasms; Bilirubin; CA19-9 antigen
17.  Amylase, lipase, and volume of drainage fluid in gastrectomy for the early detection of complications caused by pancreatic leakage 
Purpose
Pancreatic leakage is a serious complication of gastrectomy due to stomach cancer. Therefore, we analyzed amylase and lipase concentrations in blood and drainage fluid, and evaluated the volume of drainage fluid to discern their usefulness as markers for the early detection of serious pancreatic leakage requiring reoperation after gastrectomy.
Methods
From January 2001 to December 2007, we retrospectively analyzed data from 24,072 patient samples. We divided patients into two groups; 1) complications with pancreatic leakage (CG), and 2) no complications associated with pancreatic leakage (NCG). Values of amylase and lipase in the blood and drainage fluid, volume of the drainage fluid, and relationships among the volumes, amylase values, and lipase values in the drainage fluid were evaluated, respectively in the two groups.
Results
The mean amylase values of CG were significantly higher than those of NCG in blood and drainage fluid (P < 0.05). For lipase, statistically significant differences were observed in drainage fluid (P < 0.05). The mean volume (standard deviation) of the drained fluid through the tube between CG (n = 22) and NCG (n = 236) on postoperative day 1 were 368.41 (266.25) and 299.26 (300.28), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups (P = 0.298). There was a correlation between the amylase and lipase values in the drainage fluid (r = 0.812, P = 0.000).
Conclusion
Among postoperative amylase and lipase values in blood and drainage fluid, and the volume of drainage fluid, the amylase in drainage fluid was better differentiated between CG and NCG than other markers. The volume of the drainage fluid did not differ significantly between groups.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.6.402
PMCID: PMC3243857  PMID: 22200041
Drainage fluid; Pancreatic leakage; Stomach neoplasms; Gastrectomy
18.  Percutaneous ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric nerve block or step-by-step local infiltration anesthesia for inguinal hernia repair: what cadaveric dissection says? 
Purpose
The repair of groin hernias with local anesthesia has gained popularity. Two main methods have been described for local anesthesia. This study was aimed at comparing percutaneous truncular ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric block and step-by-step infiltration technique by using cadaver dissections.
Methods
The study was performed on an adult male cadaver by using blue dye injection. A percutaneous nerve block simulation was done on right side and the dye was given in between the internal oblique and transversus muscles. On the left side, a skin incision was deepened and the dye was injected under the external oblique aponeurosis. Following the injections, stained areas were investigated superficially and within the deeper tissues with dissection.
Results
There was a complete superficial staining covering the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves in the inguinal floor at both sides. On the right side, intraabdominal observation showed a wide and intense peritoneal staining, while almost no staining was seen on the left side. Preperitoneal dissection displayed a massive staining including testicular vascular pedicule and vas deferens on the right side. The dye solution also infiltrated the area of the femoral nerve prominently. On the contrary, a very limited staining was seen on the left.
Conclusion
It may not always be easy to keep the percutaneous block within optimum anatomical limits without causing adverse events. A step-by-step infiltration technique under direct surgical vision seems to be safer than percutaneous inguinal block for patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.6.408
PMCID: PMC3243858  PMID: 22200042
Inguinal hernia; Local anesthesia; Infiltration anesthesia; Nerve block; Femoral nerve
19.  Interstitial lung disease caused by TS-1: a case of long-term drug retention as a fatal adverse reaction 
TS-1 is an oral anti-cancer agent for gastric cancer with a high response rate and low toxicity. We report a case of long-term drug retention of TS-1 causing interstitial lung disease (ILD) as a fatal adverse reaction. A 65-year-old woman underwent a total gastrectomy with pathologic confirmation of gastric adenocarcinoma. She received 6 cycles of TS-1 and low-dose cisplatin for post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy followed by single-agent maintenance therapy with TS-1. After 8 months, the patient complained of a productive cough with sputum and mild dyspnea. A pulmonary evaluation revealed diffuse ILD in the lung fields, bilaterally. In spite of discontinuing chemotherapy and the administration of corticosteroids, the pulmonary symptoms did not improve, and the patient died of pulmonary failure. TS-1-induced ILD can be caused by long-term drug retention that alters the lung parenchyma irreversibly, the outcome of which can be life-threatening. Pulmonary evaluation for early detection of disease is recommended.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.6.414
PMCID: PMC3243859  PMID: 22200043
TS-1; Interstitial lung diseases; Stomach neoplasms; Adverse reaction
20.  Adenocarcinoma derived from gastric hamartomatous polyps 
Most hamartomatous polyps in the stomach occur in patients with adenomatous polyposis coli and dysplasia. The authors report a case of a 57-year-old man without prior history of polyposis coli who presented with adenocarcinomas derived from hamartomatous polyps in the stomach. The patient underwent a radical subtotal gastrectomy with Billroth I anastomosis. Pathology revealed adenocarcinomas with moderate differentiation without evidence of lymph node metastasis in 60 nodes. We report a case of gastric cancers arising from de novo gastric hamartomatous polyps.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.6.419
PMCID: PMC3243860  PMID: 22200044
Hamartoma; Stomach neoplasms; Gastrectomy
21.  Gallbladder pseudolithiasis caused by ceftriaxone in young adult 
Ceftriaxone is a commonly used antibiotic due to some of its advantages. Reversible gallbladder (GB) sludge or stone has been reported after ceftriaxone therapy. Most of these patients have no symptom, but the GB sludge or stone can sometimes cause cholecystitis. We experienced two patients who had newly developed GB stones after ceftriaxone therapy for diverticulitis and pneumonia, and this resolved spontaneously 1 month after discontinuation of the drug. Awareness of this complication could help to prevent unnecessary cholecystectomy.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.6.423
PMCID: PMC3243861  PMID: 22200045
Gallstones; Ceftriaxone; Cholecystolithiasis
22.  Histologic confirmation of huge pancreatic lipoma: a case report and review of literatures 
Pancreatic lipomas are commonly diagnosed based on radiologic images, although the prevalence of lipomas has not been established. Histologic confirmation of pancreatic lipomas is extremely rare because surgical treatment is unnecessary in most cases. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology has been suggested to avoid unnecessary surgery to distinguish between a lipoma and a well-differentiated liposarcoma; however, surgery would be needed when the tumor is associated with symptoms or difficult to distinguish from a liposarcoma. We present a case of a pancreatic lipoma in a 54-year-old male patient that was histologically-confirmed by subtotal pancreatectomy.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.6.427
PMCID: PMC3243862  PMID: 22200046
Lipoma; Pancreas
23.  Abdominal compartment syndrome caused by a bulimic attack in a bulimia nervosa patient 
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society  2011;81(Suppl 1):S1-S5.
We present a rare case of abdominal compartment syndrome due to a bulimic attack in a 19-year-old female patient with bulimia nervosa. She was admitted to our emergency room with complaints of progressive abdominal pain following bulimia. Computed tomography showed dilated stomach with food and air pressed other visceral organs and major abdominal vessels. Decompression using nasogastric tube or gastric lavage tube failed. At laparotomy, we performed gastrotomy and decompression was performed. After decompression, she fell into hypovolemic shock due to bleeding in the intra-gastric and peritoneal cavity. Twelve hours after the operation, the patient died due to refractory hypovolemic shock from uncontrolled bleeding following decompression of abdominal compartment. It should keep in mind that binge-eating habits in patients with bulimic nervosa could cause abdominal compartment syndrome due to gastric distension and this may be a potentially fatal condition.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.Suppl1.S1
PMCID: PMC3267056  PMID: 22319729
Compartment syndromes; Bulimia; Reperfusion injury
24.  Primary papillary carcinoma originated from a branchial cleft cyst 
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society  2011;81(Suppl 1):S12-S16.
Although branchial cleft cysts are common, papillary carcinomas arising from them are rare. Here we report a 41-year-old woman with papillary carcinoma originating from a right lateral branchial cleft cyst without any evidence of a papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland. The patient underwent right lateral neck dissection followed by total thyroidectomy. We then confirmed papillary carcinoma arising from the branchial cleft cyst through microscopic and immunohistochemical staining with thyroglobulin (TG), thyroid-associated transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and p63. It is the 10th case worldwide describing papillary carcinoma in a branchial cleft cyst with a review of the literature on the features of the disease and discussion of the role of immunohistochemical staining with TG, TTF -1 and p63. In conclusion, it should be emphasized that the surgeon must be cautioned of the possibility of primary papillary carcinoma in the branchial cleft cyst.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.Suppl1.S12
PMCID: PMC3267057  PMID: 22319730
Branchioma; Thyroid neoplasms; Papillary carcinoma
25.  Difficult evaluation of thyroid cancer due to cervical paraffin injection 
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society  2011;81(Suppl 1):S17-S20.
Paraffinoma is a well known complication of previous paraffin injection into the subcutaneous layer that presents as various conditions including firm mass formation, edema, induration, ulceration, and skin necrosis. Paraffinoma can mimic neoplasm on physical examination and imaging studies and may complicate ultrasonographic diagnoses due to typical posterior shadowing and high echogenicity. When paraffinomas involve around the thyroid gland, the diagnosis of thyroid tumors is very difficult. We present a case of thyroid cancer, the evaluation of which was complicated by the presence of cervical paraffinoma.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.Suppl1.S17
PMCID: PMC3267058  PMID: 22319731
Thyroid neoplasms; Paraffinoma; Ultrasonography

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