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1.  Management of giant hepatic cysts in the laparoscopic era 
Purpose
We sought to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic resection of giant hepatic cysts and surgical success, focusing on cyst recurrence.
Methods
From February 2004 to August 2011, 37 consecutive patients with symptomatic hepatic cysts were evaluated and treated at Dong-A University Hospital. Indications were simple cysts (n = 20), multiple cysts (n = 6), polycystic disease (n = 2), and cystadenoma (n = 9).
Results
The median patient age was 64 years, with a mean lesion diameter of 11.4 cm. The coincidence between preoperative imaging and final pathologic diagnosis was 54% and half (n = 19) of the cysts were located in segments VII and VIII. Twenty-two patients had American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification I and II, and nine had ASA classification III. Surgical treatment of hepatic cysts were open liver resection (n = 3), laparoscopic deroofing (n = 24), laparoscopic cyst excision (n = 4), laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy (n = 2), hand assisted laparoscopic procedure (n = 2), and single port laparoscopic deroofing (n = 2). The mean fellow-up was 21 months, and six patients (16%) experienced radiographic-apparent recurrence. Reoperation due to recurrence was performed in two patients. Among the factors predicting recurrence, multivariate analysis revealed that interventional radiological procedures and pathologic diagnosis were statistically significant.
Conclusion
Laparoscopic resection of giant hepatic cysts is a simple and effective method to relieve symptoms with minimal surgical trauma. Moreover, the recurrence is dependent on the type of pathology involved, and the sclerotherapy undertaken.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2013.85.3.116
PMCID: PMC3764362  PMID: 24020020
Liver; Hepatic cyst; Laparoscopy
2.  Prognostic factors for gallbladder cancer in the laparoscopy era 
Purpose
Hepatobiliary surgery has changed dramatically in recent decades with the advent of laparoscopic techniques. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare survival rates according to stages, adjusting for important prognostic factors.
Methods
A retrospective study of a 17-year period from January 1994 to April 2011 was carried out. The cases studied were divided into two time period cohorts, those treated in the first 9-years (n = 109) and those treated in the last 7-years (n = 109).
Results
An operation with curative intent was performed on 218 patients. The 5-year survival rates according to the depth of invasion were 86% (T1), 56% (T2), 45% (T3), and 5% (T4). The number of cases of incidental gallbladder cancer found during 3,919 laparoscopic cholecystectomies was 96 (2.4%). Incidental gallbladder cancer revealed a better survival rate (P = 0.003). Iatrogenic bile spillage was found in 20 perforations of the gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomies, 16 preoperative percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainages and 16 percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainages; only percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage patients showed a significantly lower survival rate than patients without iatrogenic bile spillage (P < 0.034). Chemoradiation appeared to improve overall survival (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis also revealed that time period, type of surgery, surgical margin, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node involvement, and chemoradiation therapy had significant effects.
Conclusion
This study found that the prognosis of gallbladder cancer is still determined by the stage at presentation due to the aggressive biology of this tumor. Early diagnosis, radical resection and appropriate adjuvant therapy can increase overall survival.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.4.227
PMCID: PMC3467389  PMID: 23091795
Gallbladder cancer; Laparoscopy; Prognosis
3.  Review of 100 cases of single port laparoscopic cholecystectomy 
Purpose
Single port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC) is a new advanced technique in laparoscopic surgery. Many laparoscopic surgeons seek to gain skill in this new technique. However, little data has been accumulated and published formally yet. This article reports the achievement of 100 cases of SPLC with the hopes it will encourage laparoscopic surgery centers in the early adoption of SPLC.
Methods
A retrospective review of 100 prospectively selected cases of SPLC was carried out. All patients had received elective SPLC by a single surgeon in our center from May 2009 to December 2010. Our review suggests patients' character, perioperative data and postoperative outcomes.
Results
Forty-two men and 58 women with an average age of 45.8 years had received SPLC. Their mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.85 kg/m2. The mean operating time took 76.75 minutes. However, operating time was decreased according to the increase of experience of SPLC cases. Twenty-one cases were converted to multi-port surgery. BMI, age, previous low abdominal surgical history did not seem to affect conversion to multi-port surgery. No cases were converted to open surgery. Mean duration of hospital stay was 2.18 days. Six patients had experienced complications from which they had recovered after conservative treatment.
Conclusion
SPLC is a safe and practicable technique. The operating time is moderate and can be reduced with the surgeon's experience. At first, strict criteria was indicated for SPLC, however, with surgical experience, the criteria and area of SPLC can be broadened. SPLC is occupying a greater domain of conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.3.179
PMCID: PMC3294112  PMID: 22403752
Single port surgery; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
4.  Isolated primary schwannoma arising on the colon: report of two cases and review of the literature 
Primary schwannoma of the large intestine is an extremely rare neoplasm. Here, we report two cases of colonic schwannoma confirmed pathologically after laparoscopic resection. A 52-year-old female and a 59-year-old female were referred by their general practitioners to our coloproctologic clinic for further evaluation and management of colonic submucosal masses. Colonoscopies performed in our institution revealed round submucosal tumors with a smooth and intact mucosa in the mid-ascending and descending colon, respectively. Computed tomography (CT) scans showed an enhancing soft tissue mass measuring 2 × 2 cm in the right colon and well-defined soft tissue nodule measuring 1.5 × 1.7 cm in the proximal descending colon, respectively. We performed laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and segmental left colectomy under the preoperative impression of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Two cases were both diagnosed to be benign schwannoma of the colon after immunohistochemical stains (S-100 (+), smooth muscle actin (-), CD117 (-), and CD34 (-)).
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.80.5.367
PMCID: PMC3204696  PMID: 22066062
Schwannoma; Colon; Immunohistochemical stain
5.  Lessons learned from 100 initial cases of laparoscopic liver surgery 
Purpose
Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) is now widely accepted and is being increasingly performed. The present study describes our experience with LLR at a single center over an eight-year period.
Methods
This retrospective study enrolled 100 patients between October 2002 and February 2010. Forty-six benign lesions and 54 malignant lesions were included. The LLR performed included 58 pure laparoscopy procedures, 18 hand-assisted laparoscopy procedures and 24 hybrid technique procedures.
Results
The mean age of the patients was 57 years; among these patients, 31 were over 65 years of age. The mean operation time was 220 minutes. The overall morbidity was 11% and the mortality was zero. Among the 20 patients with simple hepatic cysts, 50% unexpectedly recurred. Among the 41 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, 21 patients (51%) underwent preoperative radiofrequency ablation therapy or transarterial chemoembolization. During parenchymal-transection, 11 received blood transfusion. The width of the resection margins was under 0.5 cm in 11 cases (27%); 0.5 to 1 cm in 22 cases (54%) and over 1 cm in eight cases (12%). There was no port site seeding, but argon beam coagulation-induced tumor dissemination was observed in two cases. The overall two-year survival rate was 75%.
Conclusion
This study suggests that the applications for LLR can be gradually expanded when assuring that the safety and curability of LLR are equivalent to that of open liver resection.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.80.5.334
PMCID: PMC3204701  PMID: 22066057
Laparoscopic liver resection; Hepatic cyst; Hapatocellular carcinoma; Resection margin

Results 1-5 (5)