The aim of this study is to investigate the hematological manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the risk factors for cytopenia, and the effect of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) on cytopenia.
Medical records of patients treated for HIV at the Seoul National University Hospital from January 2005 to March 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. To determine the impact of HIV itself, we excluded HIV patients who had other conditions that could have resulted in hematological manifestations. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for cytopenia.
A total of 621 cases were investigated, and after exclusion, data of 472 patients were analyzed. The frequency of cytopenia was anemia, 3.0% (14/472); neutropenia, 10.0% (47/472); thrombocytopenia, 2.4% (12/472); lymphopenia, 25.7% (121/470); isolated cytopenia, 11.2% (53/472); and bicytopenia, 2.1% (10/472). The leading risk factor for cytopenia identified by multivariate logistic regression methods was AIDS status at initial presentation. After HAART, cytopenia was reversed in the majority of patients (thrombocytopenia, 100%; neutropenia, 91.1%; and anemia, 84.6%).
This study isolated the impact of HIV infection alone on hematologic manifestations and confirmed that these changes were reversible by HAART. Control of the HIV infection will have the main role in the management of hematological manifestations of the virus.