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1.  Fludarabine-containing chemotherapy for patients with previously untreated low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2011;46(3):180-185.
Background
The clinical efficacy and safety of fludarabine combination chemotherapy was investigated for the treatment of previously untreated patients with low-grade (NHL).
Methods
Twenty-five patients who were newly diagnosed as low-grade NHL were treated with fludarabine combination chemotherapy. Fludarabine combination regimens consisted of fludarabine, mitoxantrone and dexamethasone or fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and mitoxantrone with or without rituximab and repeated every 4 weeks.
Results
The median age was 60 years (range, 35-77 years), with 13 of 25 patients (52%) ≥60 years of age. Seven of 25 patients (28%) with an intermediate risk follicular lymphoma international prognostic index (FLIPI) and 9 of 25 patients (36%) with a high risk FLIPI were enrolled in this study. The delivered median number of chemotherapy was six (range, 2-9 cycles). The overall response rate with fludarabine-based treatment was 88%, including 52% complete remission and 36% partial remission. During the median follow-up of 19 months, the estimated 2-year event-free survival was 63±10% (95% CI, 43-83) and the 2-year overall survival was 78±9% (95% CI, 60-96). Fludarabine combination chemotherapy was frequently associated with grade 3 or 4 neutropenia in 84% patients. However, neutropenic infection was observed in only one (4%) patient. Four patients (16%) showed grade 3 or more non-hematologic toxicities, such as acute coronary syndrome, intracranial hemorrhage, anaphylaxis and gastric cancer.
Conclusion
Fludarabine-combination treatment was a highly active regimen with well toleration in untreated low-grade NHL.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2011.46.3.180
PMCID: PMC3208201  PMID: 22065973
Fludarabine; Primary; Lymphoma
2.  Treatment outcome of all-trans retinoic acid/anthracycline combination chemotherapy and the prognostic impact of FLT3/ITD mutation in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients 
Background
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)/anthracycline chemotherapy is beneficial in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL); however, it is important to identify patients with high-risk disease to increase the cure rate. We investigated the outcome of ATRA/anthracycline chemotherapy and clinicobiological correlations of FLT3/ITD and NPM1 mutations in APL patients.
Methods
Induction therapy included oral ATRA (45 mg/m2/day) and idarubicin (12 mg/m2/day, intravenous, on days 2, 4, and 6). Patients achieving complete remission (CR) received 3 courses of ATRA combined with reinforced consolidation therapy. Mutations were analyzed using GeneScan and polymerasae chain reaction assays of bone marrow samples obtained from patients at diagnosis.
Results
Forty-five (84.9%) of 53 eligible patients achieved CR. The overall relapse rate was 8.9%, and the 3-year overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) were 84.9±4.9% and 77.5±6.0%, respectively. The NPM1 mutation was not found in any patient, while the FLT3/ITD mutation was found in 10 (20.0%) patients. Of the FLT3/ITD+ patients, 80% belonged to the high-risk group, defined according to the presenting WBC and platelet counts. Among the patients who achieved CR, those who were FLT3/ITD+ had a higher relapse rate than those FLT3/ITD-. FLT3/ITD+ patients also had a significantly lower 3-year LFS than FLT3/ITD- patients. Multivariate analysis of the LFS showed that the FLT3/ITD mutation was independently associated with a shorter overall LFS, after adjusting for pretreatment risk stratification.
Conclusion
This study investigated the clinical outcome of newly diagnosed APL patients treated with ATRA/anthracycline chemotherapy. Patients carrying the FLT3/ITD mutation had more aggressive clinical features and a poorer clinical outcome.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2011.46.1.24
PMCID: PMC3065622  PMID: 21461300
Acute promyelocytic leukemia; FLT3; Prognosis
3.  Prognostic significance of nucleophosmin mutations and FLT3 internal tandem duplication in adult patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia 
Background
Nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene and fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 gene-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutations are the most frequent mutations in patients with cytogenetically normal (CN)-AML. We analyzed the prognostic impact of these mutations and their interactions in adults with CN-AML.
Methods
NPM1 mutation (NPM1mut) and FLT3-ITD mutation (FLT3-ITD+) were analyzed by GeneScan and PCR assays of bone marrow samples obtained from 121 adult patients with CN-AML (age≤60 years at diagnosis).
Results
The incidence of FLT3-ITD+ was higher in the NPM1mut group than in the wild-type NPM1 gene (NPM1wt) group. The patients were divided according to their mutation status into the NPM1mut/FLT3-ITD (isolated NPM1mut), NPM1mut/FLT3-ITD+ or NPM1wt/FLT3-ITD-, and NPM1wt/FLT3-ITD+ (isolated FLT3-ITD+) groups. The isolated NPM1mut group showed significantly better clinical outcomes in terms of relapse rate, 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) than the other groups. In contrast, the isolated FLT3-ITD+ group had a higher relapse rate and shorter RFS and OS than the other groups. The 5-year RFS rate was much higher among the patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) than among those treated with high-dose cytarabine chemotherapy (HDAC) only as consolidation therapy in the isolated NPM1mut group and the NPM1mut/FLT3-ITD+ or NPM1wt/FLT3-ITD- group.
Conclusion
Adult patients with CN-AML carrying isolated NPM1mut and isolated FLT3-ITD+ exhibit different clinical outcomes than those with NPM1mut/FLT3-ITD+ or NPM1wt/FLT3-ITD-. Although isolated NPM1mut leads to favorable clinical outcomes of CN-AML, the role of alloSCT in such patients remains to be considered.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2010.45.1.36
PMCID: PMC2983002  PMID: 21120161
NPM1; FLT3-ITD; Acute myeloid leukemia; Normal karyotype

Results 1-3 (3)