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issn:1618-727
1.  Using Java to Generate Globally Unique Identifiers for DICOM Objects 
Digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) specifies that all DICOM objects have globally unique identifiers (UIDs). Creating these UIDs can be a difficult task due to the variety of techniques in use and the requirement to ensure global uniqueness. We present a simple technique of combining a root organization identifier, assigned descriptive identifiers, and JAVA generated unique identifiers to construct DICOM compliant UIDs.
doi:10.1007/s10278-007-9079-7
PMCID: PMC3043668  PMID: 17896137
Digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM); structured reporting; digital imaging
2.  Translating the IHE Teaching File and Clinical Trial Export (TCE) Profile Document Templates into Functional DICOM Structured Report Objects 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2007;21(4):390-407.
The Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) Teaching File and Clinical Trial Export (TCE) integration profile describes a standard workflow for exporting key images from an image manager/archive to a teaching file, clinical trial, or electronic publication application. Two specific digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) structured reports (SR) reference the key images and contain associated case information. This paper presents step-by-step instructions for translating the TCE document templates into functional and complete DICOM SR objects. Others will benefit from these instructions in developing TCE compliant applications.
doi:10.1007/s10278-007-9052-5
PMCID: PMC3043848  PMID: 17805930
Digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM); integrating healthcare enterprise (IHE); extensible markup; language (XML); electronic teaching file; clinical trial; electronic; publishing
3.  Using Applet–Servlet Communication for Optimizing Window, Level and Crop for DICOM to JPEG Conversion 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2007;21(3):348-354.
In the creation of interesting radiological cases in a digital teaching file, it is necessary to adjust the window and level settings of an image to effectively display the educational focus. The web-based applet described in this paper presents an effective solution for real-time window and level adjustments without leaving the picture archiving and communications system workstation. Optimized images are created, as user-defined parameters are passed between the applet and a servlet on the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant teaching file server.
doi:10.1007/s10278-007-9038-3
PMCID: PMC3043843  PMID: 17534682
Electronic teaching file;  image manipulation; web technology
4.  What digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) could look like in common object request broker (CORBA) and extensible markup language (XML) 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2001;14(Suppl 1):89-91.
Common object request broker architecture (CORBA) is a method for invoking distributed objects across a network. There has been some activity in applying this software technology to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), but no documented demonstration of how this would actually work. We report a CORBA demonstration that is functionally equivalent and in some ways superior to the DICOM communication protocol. In addition, in and outside of medicine, there is great interest in the use of extensible markup language (XML) to provide interoperation between databases. An example implementation of the DICOM data structure in XML will also be demonstrated. Using Visibroker ORB from Inprise (Scotts Valley, CA), a test bed was developed to simulate the principle DICOM operations: store, query, and retrieve (SQR). SQR is the most common interaction between a modality device application entity (AE) such as a computed tomography (CT) scanner, and a storage component, as well as between a storage component and a workstation. The storage of a CT study by invoking one of several storage objects residing on a network was simulated and demonstrated. In addition, XML database descriptors were used to facilitate the transfer of DICOM header information between independent databases. CORBA is demonstrated to have great potential for the next version of DICOM. It can provide redundant protection against single points of failure. XML appears to be an excellent method of providing interaction between separate databases managing the DICOM information object model, and may therefore eliminate the common use of proprietary client-server databases in commercial implementations of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS).
doi:10.1007/BF03190305
PMCID: PMC3452692  PMID: 11442131
5.  Automated examination notification of Emergency Department images in a picture archiving and communication system 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2001;14(Suppl 1):143-144.
This study compares the timeliness of radiology interpretation of Emergency Department (ED) imaging examinations in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) before and after implementation of an automated paging system for notification of image availability. An alphanumeric pager for each radiology subspecialty (chest, pediatrics, bone, neuroradiology, and body) was used to alert the responsible radiologist that an ED imaging examination is available to be viewed on the PACS. The paging system was programmed to trigger off of the PACS database when an image is received on the appropriate radiology display station. The pager message includes the radiology accession number and examination description (such as chest, two-view, or c-spine, etc). The PACS paging tool performance was assessed by calculating the time elapsed, for each ED imaging examination, from the Time Imaged to the Time of Interpretation, where the Time Imaged is the actual image completion time measured at the imaging modality, and the Time Interpreted is the time a radiology interpretation is rendered to the ED, and is measured from the Radiology-to-ED fax time stamp. These measures were analyzed pre- and post-paging system implementation to determine any impact of the automated notification tool on radiology service turnaround time. Results show an improved radiology response time from image completion to interpretation rendered to ED clinicians, down from hour(s) to minutes, with the automated paging examination notification system. Examinations are read by the appropriate radiology specialty section in a more timely fashion, and fewer cases go unread by radiology.
doi:10.1007/BF03190319
PMCID: PMC3452701  PMID: 11442076
6.  Computers in imaging and health care: Now and in the future 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2000;13(4):145-156.
Early picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) were characterized by the use of very expensive hardware devices, cumbersome display stations, duplication of database content, lack of interfaces to other clinical information systems, and immaturity in their understanding of the folder manager concepts and workflow reengineering. They were implemented historically at large academic medical centers by biomedical engineers and imaging informaticists. PACS were nonstandard, home-grown projects with mixed clinical acceptance. However, they clearly showed the great potential for PACS and filmless medical imaging. Filmless radiology is a reality today. The advent of efficient softcopy display of images provides a means for dealing with the ever-increasing number of studies and number of images per study. Computer power has increased, and archival storage cost has decreased to the extent that the economics of PACS is justifiable with respect to film. Network bandwidths have increased to allow large studies of many megabytes to arrive at display stations within seconds of examination completion. PACS vendors have recognized the need for efficient workflow and have built systems with intelligence in the mangement of patient data. Close integration with the hospital information system (HIS)-radiology information system (RIS) is critical for system functionality. Successful implementation of PACS requires integration or interoperation with hospital and radiology information systems. Besides the economic advantages, secure rapid access to all clinical information on patients, including imaging studies, anytime and anywhere, enhances the quality of patient care, although it is difficult to quantify. Medical image management systems are maturing, providing access outside of the radiology department to images and clinical information throughout the hospital or the enterprise via the Internet. Small and medium-sized community hospitals, private practices, and outpatient centers in rural areas will begin realizing the benefits of PACS already realized by the large tertiary care academic medical centers and research institutions. Hand-held devices and the Worldwide Web are going to change the way people communicate and do business. The impact on health care will be huge, including radiology. Computer-aided diagnosis, decision support tools, virtual imaging, and guidance systems will transform our practice as value-added applications utilizing the technologies pushed by PACS development efforts. Outcomes data and the electronic medical record (EMR) will drive our interactions with referring physicians and we expect the radiologist to become the informaticist, a new version of the medical management consultant.
doi:10.1007/BF03168389
PMCID: PMC3453069  PMID: 11110253
picture archiving and communication systems (PACS); image storage and retrieval; folder manager; workflow manager; radiology information systems; computers; digital radiology
7.  Simulation of disaster recovery of a picture archiving and communications system using off-site hierarchal storage management 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2000;13(Suppl 1):168-170.
The purpose of this communication is to report on the testing of the disaster recovery capability of our hierarchical storage management (HSM) system. Disaster recovery implementation is a requirement of every mission-critical information technology project. Picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) certainly falls into this category, even though the counterpart, conventional film archive, has no protection against fire, for example. We have implemented a method for hierarchical storage with wavelet technology that maximizes on-site case storage (using lossy compression), retains bit-preserved image data for legal purposes, provides an off-site backup (lossless bit-preserving wavelet transform), and provides for disaster recovery. Recovery from a natural (earthquake and subsequent fire) or technical (system crash and data loss) disaster was simulated by attempting to restore from the off-site image and database backup to clean core PACS components. The only existing loaded software was the operating system. The database application was reloaded locally, and then the database contents and image store were loaded from the off-site component of the HSM system. The following measurements were analyzed: (1) the ability to recover all data; (2) the integrity of the recovered database and image data; (3) the time to recover the database relative to the number of studies and age of the archive, as well as bandwidth between the local and remote site; and (4) the time to recover image data relative to compression ratio, number of studies, number of images, and time depth of the archive. This HSM system, which maximizes on-site storage, maintains a legal record, and provides off-site backup, also facilitates disaster recovery for a PACS.
doi:10.1007/BF03167652
PMCID: PMC3453250  PMID: 10847390
8.  Secure, web-accessible call rosters for academic radiology departments 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2000;13(Suppl 1):233-235.
Traditionally, radiology department call rosters have been posted via paper and bulletin boards. Frequently, changes to these lists are made by multiple people independently, but often not synchronized, resulting in confusion among the house staff and technical staff as to who is on call and when. In addition, multiple and disparate copies exist in different sections of the department, and changes made would not be propagated to all the schedules. To eliminate such difficulties, a paperless call scheduling application was developed. Our call scheduling program allowed Javaenabled web access to a database by designated personnel from each radiology section who have privileges to make the necessary changes. Once a person made a change, everyone accessing the data-base would see the modification. This eliminates the chaos resulting from people swapping shifts at the last minute and not having the time to record or broadcast the change. Furthermore, all changes to the database were logged. Users are given a log-in name and password and can only edit their section; however, all personnel have access to all sections’ schedules. Our applet was written in Java 2 using the latest technology in database access. We access our Interbase database through the DataExpress and DB Swing (Borland, Scotts Valley, CA) components. The result is secure access to the call rosters via the web. There are many advantages to the web-enabled access, mainly the ability for people to make changes and have the changes recorded and propagated in a single virtual location and available to all who need to know.
doi:10.1007/BF03167676
PMCID: PMC3453260  PMID: 10847414
9.  Relevant priors prefetching algorithm performance for a picture archiving and communication system 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2000;13(Suppl 1):73-75.
Proper prefetching of relevant prior examinations from a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) archive, when a patient is scheduled for a new imaging study, and sending the historic images to the display station where the new examination is expected to be routed and subsequently read out, can greatly facilitate interpretation and review, as well as enhance radiology departmental workflow and PACS performance. In practice, it has proven extremely difficult to implement an automatic prefetch as successful as the experienced fileroom clerk. An algorithm based on defined metagroup categories for examination type mnemonics has been designed and implemented as one possible solution to the prefetch problem. The metagroups such as gastrointestinal (GI) tract, abdomen, chest, etc, can represent, in a small number of categories, the several hundreds of examination, types performed by a, typical radiology department. These metagroups can be defined in a table of examination mnemonics that maps a particular mnemonic to a metagroup or groups, and vice versa. This table is used to effect the prefetch rules of relevance. A given examination may relate to several prefetch categories, and preferences are easily configurable for a particular site. The prefetch algorithm metatable was implemented in database structured query language (SQL) using a many-to-many fetch category strategy. Algorithm performance was measured by analyzing the appropriateness of the priors fetched based on the examination type of the current study. Fetched relevant priors, missed relevant priors, fetched priors that were not relevant to the current examination, and priors not fetched that were not relevant were used to calculate sensitivity and specificity for the prefetch method. The time required for real-time requesting of priors not previously prefetched was also measured. The sensitivity of the prefetch algorithm was detarmined to be 98.3% and the specificity 100%. Time required for on-demand requesting of priors was 9.5 minutes on average, although this time varied based on age of the prior examination and on the time of day and database traffic. A prefetch algorithm based on metatable examination mnemonic categories can pull the most appropriate relevant priors, reduce the number of missed relevant priors, and therefore reduce the time involved for the manual task of on-demand requests of priors. Network and database traffic can be reduced as well by decreasing the number of priors selected from the archive and subsequently transmitted to the display stations, through elimination of transactions on examinations not relevant to the current study.
doi:10.1007/BF03167629
PMCID: PMC3453283  PMID: 10847367
10.  PACS databases and enrichment of the folder manager concept 
Journal of Digital Imaging  2000;13(1):3-12.
Current challenges facing picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) center around database design and functionality. Workflow issues and folder manager concepts such as autorouting, prefetching, hanging protocols, and hierarchical storage management are driven by a properly designed database that ultimately directly impacts the clinical utility of a PACS. The key issues in PACS database design that enable radiologist-friendly, cost-effective, and datasecure systems will be discussed, including database difficulties of the DICOM standard, HIS/RIS/PACS (hospital information system/radiology information system) connectivity, and database issues in data acquisition, data dissemination, and data display.
doi:10.1007/BF03168334
PMCID: PMC3453430  PMID: 10696595
picture archiving and communication system; database; folder manager; workflow manager; hospital information system/radiology information system
12.  Continuing quality improvement procedures for a clinical PACS 
Journal of Digital Imaging  1998;11(Suppl 1):111-114.
The University of California at San Francisco (USCF) Department of Radiology currently has a clinically operational picture archiving and communication system (PACS) that is thirty-five percent filmless, with the goal of becoming seventy-five percent filmless within the year. The design and implementation of the clinical PACS has been a collaborative effort between an academic research laboratory and a commercial vendor partner. Images are digitally acquired from three computed radiography (CR) scanners, five computed tomography (CT) scanners, five magnetic resonance (MR) imagers, three digital fluoroscopic rooms, an ultrasound mini-PACS and a nuclear medicine mini-PACS. The DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) standard communications protocol and image format is adhered to throughout the PACS. Images are archived in hierarchical staged fashion, on a RAID (redundant array of inexpensive disks) and on magneto-optical disk jukeboxes. The clinical PACS uses an object-oriented Oracle SQL (systems query language) database, and interfaces to the Radiology Information System using the HL7 (Health Languages 7) standard. Components are networked using a combination of switched and fast ethernet, and ATM (asynchronous transfer mode), all over fiber optics. The wide area network links six UCSF sites in San Francisco. A combination of high and medium resolution dual-monitor display stations have been placed throughout the Department of Radiology, the Emergency Department (ED) and Intensive Care Units (ICU). A continuing quality improvement (CQI) committee has been formed to facilitate the PACS installation and training, workflow modifications, quality assurance and clinical acceptance. This committee includes radiologists at all levels (resident, fellow, attending), radiology technologists, film library personnel, ED and ICU clinian end-users, and PACS team members. The CQI committee has proved vital in the creation of new management procedures, providing a means for user feedback and education, and contributing to the overall acceptance of, and user satisfaction with the system. Well developed CQI procedures have been essential to the successful clinical operation of the PACS as UCSF Radiology moves toward, a filmless department.
doi:10.1007/BF03168275
PMCID: PMC3453403  PMID: 9735446
PACS; continuing quality improvement (CQI); quality assurance (QA); filmless
13.  Viewport: An object-oriented approach to integrate workstation software for tile and stack mode display 
Journal of Digital Imaging  1997;10(Suppl 1):177-179.
Diagnostic workstation design has migrated towards display presentation in one of two modes: tiled images or stacked images. It is our impression that the workstation setup or configuration in each of these two modes is rather distinct. We sought to establish a commonality to simplify software design, and to enable a single descriptor method to facilitate folder manager development of “hanging” protocols. All current workstation designs use a combination of “off-screen” and “on-screen” memory whether or not they use a dedicated display subsystem, or merely a video board. Most diagnostic workstations also have two or more monitors. Our central concept is that of a “logical” viewport that can be smaller than, the same size as, or larger than a single monitor. Each port “views” an image data sequence loaded into offscreen memory. Each viewport can display one or more images in sequence in a one-on-one or traditionally tiled presentation. Viewports can be assigned to the available monitor “real estate” in any manner that fits. For example, a single sequence computed tomography (CT) study could be displayed across all monitors in a tiled appearance by assigning a single large viewport to the monitors. At the other extreme, a multisequence magnetic resonance (MR) study could be compared with a similar previous study by assigning four viewports to each monitor, single image display per viewport, and assigning four of the sequences of the current study to the left monitor viewports, and four of the earlier study to the right monitor viewports. Ergonomic controls activate scrolling through the off-screen image sequence data. Workstation folder manager hanging protocols could then specify viewports, number of images per viewport, and the automatic assignment of appropriately named sequences of current and previous studies to the viewports on a radiologist-specific basis. Furthermore, software development is simplified by common base objects and methods of the tile and stack modes. Prototype workstation display software and folder manager protocol implementation will be described and demonstrated.
doi:10.1007/BF03168692
PMCID: PMC3452803  PMID: 9268874
diagnostic workstation; folder manager; hanging protocols; tile mode; stack mode; display; workstation; object-oriented
14.  Optimization of a low-cost truly preemptive multitasking PC diagnostic workstation 
Journal of Digital Imaging  1997;10(Suppl 1):171-174.
The Windows 95/NT operating systems (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA) currently provide the only low-cost truly preemptive multitasking environment and as such become an attractive diagnostic workstation platform. The purpose of this project is to test and optimize display station graphical user interface (GUI) actions previously designed on the pseudomultitasking Macintosh (Apple Computer, Cupertino, CA) platform, and image data transmission using time slicing/dynamic prioritization assignment capabilities of the new Windows platform. A diagnostic workstation in the clinical environment must process two categories of events: user interaction with the GUI through keyboard/mouse input, and transmission of incoming data files. These processes contend for central processing units (CPU) time resulting in GUI “lockout” during image transmission or delay in transmission until GUI “quiet time.” WinSockets and the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocal (TCP/IP) communication protocol software (Microsoft) are implemented using dynamic priority timeslicing to ensure that GUI delays at the time of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) file transfer do not exceed 1/10 second. Assignment of thread priority does not translate into an absolute fixed percentage of CPU time. Therefore, the relationship between dynamic priority assignment by the processor, and the GUI and communication application threads will be more fully investigated to optimize CPU resource allocation. These issues will be tested using 10 MB/sec Ethernet and 100 MB/sec fast and wide Ethernet transmission. Preliminary results of typical clinical files (10 to 30 MB) over Ethernet show no visually perceptible interruption of the GUI, suggesting that the new Windows PC platform may be a viable diagnostic workstation option.
doi:10.1007/BF03168689
PMCID: PMC3452846  PMID: 9268871
preemptive multitasking; diagnostic workstation; optimization; CPU resources

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