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1.  Serial Expression of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α and Neuronal Apoptosis in Hippocampus of Rats with Chronic Ischemic Brain 
Objective
The purpose of this study is to investigate serial changes of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), as a key regulator of hypoxic ischemia, and apoptosis of hippocampus induced by bilateral carotid arteries occlusion (BCAO) in rats.
Methods
Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to the permanent BCAO. The time points studied were 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after occlusions, with n=6 animals subjected to BCAO, and n=2 to sham operation at each time point, and brains were fixed by intracardiac perfusion fixation with 4% neutral-buffered praraformaldehyde for brain section preparation. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot and terminal uridine deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were performed to evaluate HIF-1α expression and apoptosis.
Results
In IHC and western blot, HIF-1α levels were found to reach the peak at the 2nd week in the hippocampus, while apoptotic neurons, in TUNEL assay, were maximal at the 4th week in the hippocampus, especially in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region. HIF-1α levels and apoptosis were found to fluctuate during the time course.
Conclusion
This study showed that BCAO induces acute ischemic responses for about 4 weeks then chronic ischemia in the hippocampus. These in vivo data are the first to show the temporal sequence of apoptosis and HIF-1α expression.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.481
PMCID: PMC3272506  PMID: 22323932
Bilateral carotid artery occlusion; Hippocampus; Hypoxic ischemia; Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α; Apoptosis
2.  A Genome-Wide Study of Moyamoya-Type Cerebrovascular Disease in the Korean Population 
Objective
Structural genetic variation, including copy-number variation (CNV), constitutes a substantial fraction of total genetic variability, and the importance of structural variants in modulating susceptibility is increasingly being recognized. CNV can change biological function and contribute to pathophysiological conditions of human disease. Its relationship with common, complex human disease in particular is not fully understood. Here, we searched the human genome to identify copy number variants that predispose to moya-moya type cerebrovascular disease.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed patients who had unilateral or bilateral steno-occlusive lesions at the cerebral artery from March, 2007, to September, 2009. For the 20 subjects, including patients with moyamoya type pathologies and three normal healthy controls, we divided the subjects into 4 groups : typical moyamoya (n=6), unilateral moyamoya (n=9), progression unilateral to typical moyamoya (n=2) and non-moyamoya (n=3). Fragmented DNA was hybridized on Human610Quad v1.0 DNA analysis BeadChips (Illumina). Data analysis was performed with GenomeStudio v2009.1, Genotyping 1.1.9, cnvPartition_v2.3.4 software. Overall call rates were more than 99.8%.
Results
In total, 1258 CNVs were identified across the whole genome. The average number of CNV was 45.55 per subject (CNV region was 45.4). The gain/loss of CNV was 52/249, having 4.7 fold higher frequencies in loss calls. The total CNV size was 904,657,868, and average size was 993,038. The largest portion of CNVs (613 calls) were 1M-10M in length. Interestingly, significant association between unilateral moyamoya disease (MMD) and progression of unilateral to typical moyamoya was observed.
Conclusion
Significant association between unilateral MMD and progression of unilateral to typical moyamoya was observed. The finding was confirmed again with clustering analysis. These data demonstrate that certain CNV associate with moyamoya-type cerebrovascular disease.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.486
PMCID: PMC3272507  PMID: 22323933
Copy number variation (CNV); Whole genome association study; Moyamoya disease
3.  Ischemic Complications Occurring in the Contralateral Hemisphere after Surgical Treatment of Adults with Moyamoya Disease 
Objective
Direct revascularization surgery is regarded as the most effective method of treatment of adults with moyamoya disease. These patients, however, have a higher risk of perioperative ischemic complications than do patients with atherosclerotic stroke, and are at risk for ischemic complications in the hemisphere contralateral to the one operated on. We investigated the incidence and risk factors for ischemic stroke in the contralateral hemisphere after surgical treatment of adults with moyamoya disease.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and results of neuroimaging studies on 79 hemispheres of 73 consecutive patients with adult moyamoya disease (mean±SD age, 37.96±11.27 years; range, 18-62 years) who underwent direct bypass surgery over 6 years.
Results
Ischemic complications occurred in 4 of 79 (5.1%) contralateral hemispheres, one with Suzuki stage 3 and three with Suzuki stage 4. Three patients showed posterior cerebral artery (PCA) involvement by moyamoya vessels. Advanced stage of moyamoya disease (Suzuki stages 4/5/6; p=0.001), PCA involvement (p=0.001) and postoperative hypotension (mean arterial blood pressure <80% of preoperative mean arterial blood pressure) on the first (p<0.0001) and second (p=0.003) days after surgery were significantly correlated with postoperative contralateral ischemic complications.
Conclusion
In patients with advanced moyamoya disease and involvement of the PCA, intentional hypotension can result in ischemic stroke in the hemisphere contralateral to the one operated on. Careful control of perioperative blood pressure is crucial for good surgical results.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.492
PMCID: PMC3272508  PMID: 22323934
Cerebral revascularization; Complications; Moyamoya diseases; Perioperative period
4.  Comparative Study of Brain Protection Effect between Thiopental and Etomidate Using Bispectral Index during Temporary Arterial Occlusion 
Objective
This study was conducted to compare the effect of etomidate with that of thiopental on brain protection during temporary vessel occlusion, which was measured by burst suppression rate (BSR) with the Bispectral Index (BIS) monitor.
Methods
Temporary parent artery occlusion was performed in forty one patients during cerebral aneurysm surgery. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups. General anesthesia was induced and maintained with 1.5-2.5 vol% sevoflurane and 50% N2O. The pharmacological burst suppression (BS) was induced by a bolus injection of thiopental (5 mg/kg, group T) or etomidate (0.3 mg/kg, group E) according to randomization prior to surgery. After administration of drugs, the hemodynamic variables, the onset time of BS, the numerical values of BIS and BSR were recorded at every minutes.
Results
There were no significant differences of the demographics, the BIS numbers and the hemodynamic variables prior to injection of drugs. The durations of burst suppression in group E (11.1±6.8 min) were not statistically different from that of group T (11.1±5.6 min) and nearly same pattern of burst suppression were shown in both groups. More phenylephrine was required to maintain normal blood pressure in the group T.
Conclusion
Thiopental and etomidate have same duration and a similar magnitude of burst suppression with conventional doses during temporary arterial occlusion. These findings suggest that additional administration of either drug is needed to ensure the BS when the temporary occlusion time exceed more than 11 minutes. Etomidate can be a safer substitute for thiopental in aneurysm surgery.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.497
PMCID: PMC3272509  PMID: 22323935
Aneurysm; Barbiturate; Bispectral Index (BIS) Burst suppression; Etomidate; Temporary arterial occlusion
5.  Clinical Efficacy of Radiation-Sterilized Allografts for Sellar Reconstruction after Transsphenoidal Surgery 
Objective
The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of radiation-sterilized allografts of iliac bone and fascia lata from cadaver specimens to repair skull base defects after transsphenoidal surgery.
Methods
Between May 2009 and January 2010, 31 consecutive patients underwent endonasal transsphenoidal surgery and all patients received sellar reconstruction using allografts following tumor removal. The allografts were obtained from the local tissue bank and harvested from cadaver donors. The specimens used in our approach were tensor fascia lata and the flat area of iliac bone. For preparation, allografts were treated with gamma irradiation after routine screening by culture, and then stored at -70℃.
Results
The mean follow-up period after surgery was 12.6 months (range, 7.4-16 months). Overall, postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks occurred in three patients (9.7%) and postoperative meningitis in one patient (3.2%). There was no definitive evidence of wound infection at the routine postoperative follow-up examination or during re-do surgery in three patients. Postoperative meningitis in one patient was improved with the use of antibiotics and prolonged CSF diversion.
Conclusion
We suggest that allograft materials can be a feasible alternative to autologous tissue grafts for sellar reconstruction following transsphenoidal surgery under selected circumstances such as no or little intraoperative CSF leaks.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.503
PMCID: PMC3272510  PMID: 22323936
Endoscopic endonasal approach; Transsphenoidal approach; Allograft; Sellar reconstruction; CSF leak
6.  The Effect of Radiofrequency Neurotomy of Lower Cervical Medial Branches on Cervicogenic Headache 
Objective
Cervicogenic headache (CGH) is known to be mainly related with upper cervical problems. In this study, the effect of radiofrequency neurotomy (RFN) for lower cervical (C4-7) medial branches on CGH was evaluated.
Methods
Eleven patients with neck pain and headache, who were treated with lower cervical RFN due to supposed lower cervical zygapophysial joint pain without symptomatic intervertebral disc problem or stenosis, were enrolled in this study. CGH was diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria of the cervicogenic headache international study group. Visual analogue scale (VAS) score and degree of VAS improvement (VASi) (%) were checked for evaluation of the effect of lower cervical RFN on CGH.
Results
The VAS score at 6 months after RFN was 2.7±1.3, which were significantly decreased comparing to the VAS score before RFN, 8.1±1.1 (p<0.001). The VASi at 6 months after RFN was 63.8±17.1%. There was no serious complication.
Conclusion
Our data suggest that lower cervical disorders can play a role in the genesis of headache in addition to the upper cervical disorders or independently.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.507
PMCID: PMC3272511  PMID: 22323937
Cervicogenic headache; Radiofrequency; Neurotomy; Medial branch
7.  Acute-on-Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Not Uncommon Events 
Objective
Patients with asymptomatic chronic subdural hematoma (SDH) are prone to fall or slip. Acute trauma on these patients may develop acute subdural bleeding over the chronic SDH. We recently experienced 9 patients with acute-on-chronic SDH. We report the clinical and radiological features of this lesion.
Methods
We retrospectively examined the computed tomographic (CT) scans of 107 consecutive patients who diagnosed as chronic SDH from January 2008 to December 2010. All cases of CSDH were diagnosed on CT with or without MRI scan.
Results
Acute-on-chronic SDH is not rare, being 8% of chronic SDH. The most common cause of trauma was a slip in drunken state. Alcoholism with multiple episodes of trauma was one of the prominent histories. Acute-on-chronic SDH appeared as a hyperdense layer of clot with irregular blurred margin or lumps in liquefied hematoma. Single or two burr holes was usually effective to remove the hematoma.
Conclusion
Repeated trauma may cause acute bleeding over the chronic SDH. It will be helpful to understand the role of repeated trauma as a mechanism of hematoma enlargement.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.512
PMCID: PMC3272512  PMID: 22323938
Chronic subdural hematoma; Computed tomography; Craniocerebral trauma; Diagnosis
8.  Modified 'Y-Configured Stents with Waffle Cone Technique' for Broad Neck Basilar Top Aneurysm 
Stent assisted coiling on intracranial broad neck aneurysm has been considered as an effective technique and has made the complex aneurysms amenable to coiling. However, stent navigation and application themselves often have the problems especially when the parent vessel angle (entrance between afferent and efferent vessel) is over 90 degrees. We report here a case of a ruptured broad neck basilar top aneurysm that was successfully coiled using two self-expandable stents (Enterprise and Neuroform) placed in a fashion of modified Y-configured stents with waffle cone technique.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.517
PMCID: PMC3272513  PMID: 22323939
Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Complex aneurysm; Modified Y-configured stent
9.  Emergent Endovascular Embolization for Iatrogenic Vertebral Artery Injury during Cervical Discectomy and Fusion 
Injury to the vertebral artery during anterior cervical discectomy is rare but potentially fatal. We report a case of cerebellar infarction after endovascular embolization for iatrogenic vertebral artery injury at C5-C6 during an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. A 61-year-old man had an intraoperative injury of the right vertebral artery that occurred during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion at C5-C6. Hemorrhage was not controlled successfully by packing with surgical hemostatic agents. While the patient was still intubated, an emergency angiogram was performed. The patient underwent endovascular occlusion of the right V2 segment with coils. After the procedure, his course was uneventful and he did not show any neurologic deficits. Brain computed tomographic scans taken 3 days after the operation revealed a right cerebellar infarction. Anti-coagulation medication was administered, and at 3-month follow-up examination, he had no neurologic sequelae in spite of the cerebellar infarction.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.520
PMCID: PMC3272514  PMID: 22323940
Cervical discectomy; Vertebral artery injury; Endovascular occlusion; Cerebellar infarction
10.  Computer-Assisted Modified Mid-Sacrectomy for En Bloc Resection of Chordoma and Preservation of Bladder Function 
A 67-year-old woman presented for evaluation of severe coccygeal pain. The computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging showed an asymmetric midline sacral tumor invading the right lower portion of S2. To preserve both S2 nerve roots and to obtain negative surgical margins, a modified mid-sacrectomy with an aid of a computed navigation system was performed. The sacral tumor was excised en bloc with negative tumor margins. Both S2 nerve roots were preserved and additional reconstruction was not necessary because of minimal resection of the sacroiliac joint. We report a case of a sacral chordoma which was excised en bloc with adequate surgical margins by a computer-assisted modified mid-sacrectomy. The computed navigation system may be a useful tool for tumor targeting and safe osteotomies in sacral tumor surgery via the posterior only approach.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.523
PMCID: PMC3272515  PMID: 22323941
Sacral chordoma; Sacrectomy; En bloc resection; Computed navigation system
11.  Vertical Reduction Using Atlantoaxial Facet Spacer in Basilar Invagination with Atlantoaxial Instability 
Although posterior segmental fixation technique is becoming increasingly popular, surgical treatment of craniovertebral junctional disorders is still challenging because of its complex anatomy and surrounding critical neurovascular structures. Basilar invagination is major pathology of craniovertebral junction that has been a subject of clinical interest because of its various clinical presentations and difficulty of treatment. Most authors recommend a posterior occipitocervical fixation following transoral decompression or posterior decompression and occipitocervical fixation. However, both surgical modalities inadvertently sacrifice C0-1 and C1-2 joint motion. We report two cases of basilar invagination reduced by the vertical distraction between C1-2 facet joint. We reduced the C1-2 joint in an anatomical position and fused the joint with iliac bone graft and C1-2 segmental fixation using the polyaxial screws and rods C-1 lateral mass and the C-2 pedicle.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.528
PMCID: PMC3272516  PMID: 22323942
Atlantoaxial instability; Basilar invagination; Vertical reduction
12.  An Unusual Case of Cerebral Penetrating Injury by a Driven Bone Fragment Secondary to Blunt Head Trauma 
Temple trauma that appears initially localized to the skin might possess intracranial complications. Early diagnosis and management of such complications are important, to avoid neurologic sequelae. Non-penetrating head injuries with intracranial hemorrhage caused by a driven bone fragment are extremely rare. A 53-year-old male was referred to our hospital because of intracerebral hemorrhage. He was a mechanic and one day before admission to a local clinic, tip of metallic rod hit his right temple while cutting the rod. Initial brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated scanty subdural hematoma at right temporal lobe and left falx and intracerebral hematoma at both frontal lobes. Facial CT with 3-D reconstruction images showed a small bony defect at the right sphenoid bone's greater wing and a small bone fragment at the left frontal lobe, crossing the falx. We present the unusual case of a temple trauma patient in whom a sphenoid bone fragment migrated from its origin upward, to the contralateral frontal lobe, producing hematoma along its trajectory.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.532
PMCID: PMC3272517  PMID: 22323943
Head injury; Penetrating; Bone fragment
13.  Moyamoya Syndrome Precipitated by Cranial Irradiation for Craniopharyngioma in Children 
Recently, combination of surgery and radiation therapy (RT) has been recommended in the treatment of craniopharyngioma. RT could be associated with late complications, including vasculopathy. We report two cases of the moyamoya syndrome seen in children with craniopharyngioma who received RT after surgical resection. Thirty-five patients in pediatric age with craniopharyngioma were surgically treated. Fifteen out of 35 patients underwent surgical resection followed by RT or gamma knife surgery. Two of the 15 were found to have symptoms of transient ischemic attack and were diagnosed as moyamoya syndrome through the cerebral angiography. Age at RT was 4 and 13 years, respectively. The latent period for development of the moyamoya syndrome was 27 months and 3 years, respectively, after RT. The RT dose of both patients was 54 Gy. These two patients received bilateral encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis procedures. We report here these two cases of radiation-induced moyamoya syndrome in pediatric craniopharyngioma. Pediatric patients with craniopharyngioma who received RT should be reminded, during follow-up, about the risk of development of the moyamoya syndrome.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.535
PMCID: PMC3272518  PMID: 22323944
Moyamoya syndrome; Craniopharyngioma; Radiation; Vasculopathy
14.  Modified Trans-Middle Temporal Gyrus Approach for Trigonal Tumor to Preserve Visual Field 
Objective
We evaluated a modified trans-middle temporal gyrus (MTG) approach with good postoperative visual preservation for patients with trigonal tumors.
Methods
Three patients with a trigonal tumor were treated via the modified trans-MTG approach guided by a neuro-navigator. Modified trans-MTG approach involve the incision at the MTG within 5 mm to the superior temporal sulcus. This approach makes a proper trajectory to the trigone but also reduces the retraction injury of MTG as little as possible to prevent postoperative visual field defect. Preoperative and postoperative visual field examination using perimetry was performed to evaluate the visual field.
Results
Three patients underwent surgery for lymphoma in the right trigone, meningioma in the left trigone, and focal enhancing nodule in the right paratrigonal area, respectively. In case of lymphoma, preoperative examination showed a left homonymous hemianopsia : one week later after surgery, a visual field examination was performed and revealed improvement of the visual field defect. In case of the meningioma, the preoperative examination showed no visual field defect : one month later, the visual field had no defect. In case of the enhancing nodule, preoperative visual field testing revealed a partial left homonymous hemianopsia. Visual examination within one month after surgery showed no visual field defect. All three patients treated with the modified trans-MTG approach showed no visual deterioration after surgery.
Conclusion
The modified trans-MTG approach provides a safe and useful technique for trigonal tumors without postoperative visual field deterioration and affords adequate exposure of the trigonal tumor with a short trajectory.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.538
PMCID: PMC3272519  PMID: 22323945
Trigonal tumor; Visual field; Preservation
15.  Prior Use of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methyl-Glutaryl-Coenzyme A Reductase Inhibitor, Simvastatin Fails to Improve Outcome after Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage 
Objective
Contrary to some clinical belief, there were quite a few studies regarding animal models of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in vivo suggesting that prior use of statins may improve outcome after ICH. This study reports the effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitor, simvastatin given before experimental ICH.
Methods
Fifty-one rats were subjected to collagenase-induced ICH, subdivided in 3 groups according to simvastatin treatment modality, and behavioral tests were done. Hematoma volume, brain water content and hemispheric atrophy were analyzed. Immunohistochemical staining for microglia (OX-42) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was performed and caspase-3 activity was also measured.
Results
Pre-simvastatin therapy decreased inflammatory reaction and perihematomal cell death, but resulted in no significant reduction of brain edema and no eNOS expression in the perihematomal region. Finally, prior use of simvastatin showed less significant improvement of neurological outcome after experimental ICH when compared to post-simvastatin therapy.
Conclusion
The present study suggests that statins therapy after ICH improves neurological outcome, but prior use of statins before ICH might provide only histological improvement, providing no significant impact on neurological outcome against ICH.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.5.403
PMCID: PMC3259458  PMID: 22259685
Inflammation; Intracerebral hemorrhage; Neuroprotection; Outcome; Rat; Statins
16.  The Effect of Hyaluronate-Carboxymethyl Cellulose on Bone Graft Substitute Healing in a Rat Spinal Fusion Model 
Objective
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of sodium hyaluronate-sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (HA-CMC), an anti-adhesive material for spinal surgery, on bone fusion by applying it to rat spinal models after lumbar posterolateral fusion.
Methods
Lumbar posterolateral fusion was performed at L4-5 using bone graft substitutes in 30 rats. HA-CMC was injected in 15 rats at a dose of 0.2 cc (HA-CMC group) and a saline solution of 0.2 cc in the other 15 rats (control group). Simple radiographs were taken until postoperative 9 weeks with an interval of one week. At postoperative 4 and 9 weeks, three dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) scanning was performed to observe the process of bone fusion. At 9 weeks, bone fusion was confirmed by gross examination and manual palpation.
Results
There were no statistically significant differences in bone fusion between the two groups. 3D CT scanning did not reveal significant differences between the groups. The gross examination and manual palpation after autopsy performed at 9 weeks confirmed bone union in 93.3% of both groups.
Conclusion
The anti-adhesive material used for spinal surgery did not have adverse effects on spinal fusion in rats.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.5.409
PMCID: PMC3259459  PMID: 22259686
Sodium hyaluronate-sodium carboxymethyl cellulose; Posterolateral spinal fusion; Rat model; Anti-adhesive agent
17.  Association of Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Patients with Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesise 
Objective
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible association of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) gene polymorphisms in a cohort of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) patients.
Methods
Accordingly, the authors examined the association between DS and ERα gene polymorphisms in 174 patients diagnosed with DS. The Pvu II and Xba I polymorphisms, bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and biochemical markers were analyzed and compared in the 174 patients with DS and 214 patients with spinal stenosis (SS).
Results
A comparison of genotype frequencies in DS and SS patients revealed a significant difference for the Pvu II polymorphism only (p=0.0452). No significant difference was found between these two groups with respect to the Xba I polymorphism, BMD or biochemical markers. No significant association was found between the Pvu II polymorphism of ERα and BMD, vertebral slip or biochemical markers in patients with DS.
Conclusion
These results suggest that the ERα gene polymorphism using Pvu II restriction enzyme influences the prevalence of DS.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.5.415
PMCID: PMC3259460  PMID: 22259687
Degenerative spondylolisthesis; Estrogen receptor alpha; Polymorphism
18.  Comparison of the Spinal Neuropathic Pain Induced by Intraspinal Injection of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate and Quisquate in Rats 
Objective
Excitatory amino acids play important roles in the development of secondary pathology following spinal cord injury (SCI). This study was designed to evaluate morphological changes in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and assess profiles of pain behaviors following intraspinal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or quisqualate (QUIS) in rats.
Methods
Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups : a sham, and two experimental groups receiving injections of 125 mM NMDA or QUIS into their spinal dorsal horn. Following injection, hypersensitivity to cold and mechanical stimuli, and excessive grooming behaviors were assessed serially for four weeks. At the end of survival periods, morphological changes in the spinal cord were evaluated.
Results
Cold allodynia was developed in both the NMDA and QUIS groups, which was significantly higher in the QUIS group than in the NMDA group. The mechanical threshold for the ipsilateral hind paw in both QUIS and NMDA groups was significantly lower than that in the control group. The number of groomers was significantly higher in the NMDA group than in the QUIS group. The size of the neck region of the spinal dorsal horn, but not the superficial layer, was significantly smaller in the NMDA and QUIS groups than in the control group.
Conclusion
Intraspinal injection of NMDA or QUIS can be used as an excitotoxic model of SCI for further research on spinal neuropathic pain.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.5.420
PMCID: PMC3259461  PMID: 22259688
Neuropathic pain; NMDA; Quisqualate; Rat; Spinal cord injury
19.  Chemotherapy for Malignant Gliomas Based on Histoculture Drug Response Assay : A Pilot Study 
Objective
The Histoculture Drug Response Assay (HDRA), which measures chemosensitivity using minced tumor tissue on drug-soaked gelfoam, has been expected to overcome the limitations of in vitro chemosensitivity test in part. We analyzed interim results of HDRA in malignant gliomas to see if the test can deserve further clinical trials.
Methods
Thirty-three patients with malignant gliomas were operated and their tumor samples were examined for the chemosensitivity to 10 chosen drugs by HDRA. The most sensitive chemotherapy regimen among those pre-established was chosen based on the number of sensitive drugs or total inhibition rate (IR) of the regimen. The response was evaluated by 3 month magnetic resonance image.
Results
Among 13 patients who underwent total resection of the tumor, 12 showed no evidence of disease and one patient revealed progression. The response rate in 20 patients with residual tumors was 55% (3 complete and 8 partial responses). HDRA sensitivity at the cut-off value of more than one sensitive drug in the applied regimen showed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 60% and predictability of 70%. Another cut-off value of >80% of total IR revealed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 69%, and predictability of 80%. For 12 newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients, median progression-free survival of the HDRA sensitive group was 21 months, while that of the non-sensitive group was 6 months (p=0.07).
Conclusion
HDRA for malignant glioma was inferred as a feasible method to predict the chemotherapy response. We are encouraged to launch phase 2 clinical trial with chemosensitivity on HDRA.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.5.426
PMCID: PMC3259462  PMID: 22259689
Chemotherapy; Drug sensitivity tests; Malignant glioma
20.  Efficacy of Decompression and Fixation for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression: Analysis of Factors Prognostic for Survival and Postoperative Ambulation 
Objective
The goals of surgical intervention for metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) are prolonging survival and improving quality of life. Non-ambulatory paraplegic patients, either at presentation or after treatment, have a much shorter life expectancy than ambulatory patients. We therefore analyzed prognostic factors for survival and postoperative ambulation in patients surgically treated for MSCC.
Methods
We assessed 103 patients with surgically treated MSCC who presented with lower extremity weakness between January 2001 and December 2008. Factors prognostic for overall survival (OS) and postoperative ambulation, including surgical method, age, sex, primary tumor site, metastatic spinal site, surgical levels, Tokuhashi score, and treatment with chemo- or radiation therapy, were analyzed retrospectively.
Results
Median OS was significantly longer in the postoperatively ambulatory group [11.0 months; 95% confidence interval (CI), 9.29-12.71 months] than in the non-ambulatory group (5.0 months; 95% CI, 1.80-8.20 months) (p=0.035). When we compared median OS in patients with high (9-11) and low (0-8) Tokuhashi scores, they were significantly longer in the former (15.0 months; 95% CI, 9.29-20.71 months vs. 9.0 months; 95% CI, 7.48-10.52 months; p=0.003). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative ambulation with or without aid [odds ratio (OR) 5.35; 95% CI 1.57-18.17; p=0.007] and hip flexion power greater than grade III (OR 6.23; 95% CI, 1.29-7.35; p=0.038) were prognostic of postoperative ambulation.
Conclusion
We found that postoperative ambulation and preoperative high Tokuhashi score were significantly associated with longer patient survival. In addition, preoperative hip flexion power greater than grade III was critical for postoperative ambulation.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.5.434
PMCID: PMC3259463  PMID: 22259690
Spinal metastasis; Survival; Ambulation; Cord compression; Hip flexion; Prognostic factor
21.  Minimally Invasive Multi-Level Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using a Percutaneously Inserted Spinal Fixation System : Technical Tips, Surgical Outcomes 
Objective
There are technical limitations of multi-level posterior pedicle screw fixation performed by the percutaneous technique. The purpose of this study was to describe the surgical technique and outcome of minimally invasive multi-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and to determine its efficacy.
Methods
Forty-two patients who underwent mini-open PLIF using the percutaneous screw fixation system were studied. The mean age of the patients was 59.1 (range, 23 to 78 years). Two levels were involved in 32 cases and three levels in 10 cases. The clinical outcome was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) and Low Back Outcome Score (LBOS). Achievement of radiological fusion, intra-operative blood loss, the midline surgical scar and procedure related complications were also analyzed.
Results
The mean follow-up period was 25.3 months. The mean LBOS prior to surgery was 34.5, which was improved to 49.1 at the final follow up. The mean pain score (VAS) prior to surgery was 7.5 and it was decreased to 2.9 at the last follow up. The mean estimated blood loss was 238 mL (140-350) for the two level procedures and 387 mL (278-458) for three levels. The midline surgical scar was 6.27 cm for two levels and 8.25 cm for three level procedures. Complications included two cases of asymptomatic medial penetration of the pedicle border. However, there were no signs of neurological deterioration or fusion failure.
Conclusion
Multi-level, minimally invasive PLIF can be performed effectively using the percutaneous transpedicular screw fixation system. It can be an alternative to the traditional open procedures.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.5.441
PMCID: PMC3259464  PMID: 22259691
Posterior lumbar interbody fusion; Percutaneous; Minimally invasive surgery
22.  Percutaneous Radiofrequency Thermocoagulation Under Fluoroscopic Image-Guidance for Idiopathic Trigeminal Neuralgia 
Objective
We retrospectively investigated the long-term results of percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFT) using fluoroscopic image-guidance for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia.
Methods
A total of 38 patients diagnosed and treated with RFT as an idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia were investigated. To minimize the risks related to conventional technique based on cutaneous landmarks, and to eliminate the need to frequent reposition of cannula, we adopted a technique of image-guided fluoroscopic cannulation of the foramen ovale. To minimize sensory complication following thermal lesion, our target response was a generation of a lesion with mild to moderate hypalgesia rather than dense hypalgesia.
Results
The immediate pain-relief was achieved in all patients underwent RFT. With mean duration of follow-up of 38.2 months (range,12-72), 11 (28.9%) experienced recurrence of pain. The mean timing of recurrence was 26.1 months (range,12-46). A 42.7% recurrence rate was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis for the 38 patients at 46 months; 20.2% within 2 years, 29.1% within 3 years. In the long-term, 27 patients (71%) and 6 patients (15.8%) showed Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) score I and BNI score II responses. 3 (7.9%) patients was assessed as BNI score III, 2 patients (5.3%) showed BNI score IV response. As a complication, troublesome dysesthesia occurred in 3 of 38 patients (7.9%), however, there was no permanent cranial nerve palsy or morbidity.
Conclusion
These results indicates that RFT under fluoroscopic image-guided cannulation of foramen ovale is a safe, effective, and reliable means of treating trigeminal neuralgia.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.5.446
PMCID: PMC3259465  PMID: 22259692
Fluoroscopy; Foramen ovale; Radiofrequency; Thermocoagulation; Trigeminal neuralgia
23.  Ruptured Intracranial Dermoid Cyst Associated with Rupture of Cerebral Aneurysm 
Many tumors have been reported to coexist with cerebral aneurysm. However, intracranial dermoid cysts associated with cerebral aneurysm are very rare. We report a case in which rupture of a cerebral aneurysm resulted in a ruptured dermoid cyst. We present this interesting case and review current literature about the relationship between tumors and aneurysm formation.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.5.453
PMCID: PMC3259466  PMID: 22259693
Dermoid cyst; Aneurysm; Rupture
24.  De Novo Aneurysm after Treatment of Glioblastoma 
A rare case of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage from newly developed cerebral aneurysm in glioblastoma patient is presented. A 57-year-old man was presented with headache and memory impairment. On the magnetic resonance image and the magnetic resonance angiography, a large enhancing mass was found at right frontal subcortex and intracranial aneurysm was not found. The mass was removed subtotally and revealed as glioblastoma. He took concurrent PCV chemotherapy and radiation therapy, but the mass recurred one month later after radiotherapy. He was then treated with temozolomide for 7 cycles. Three months after the completion of temozolomide therapy, he suffered from a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a rupture of a small de novo aneurysm at distal anterior cerebral artery. He underwent an aneurysm clipping and discharged without neurologic complication.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.5.457
PMCID: PMC3259467  PMID: 22259694
Glioblastoma; Intracranial aneurysm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Radiation therapy; Chemotherapy
25.  An Unusual Case of Post-Operative Spondylitis Caused by Mycobacterium Intracellulare in an Immunosuppressed Patient 
There are few reported cases of post-operative spondylitis caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare. A 75-year-old female presented to our hospital with low back pain and paraparesis after a fall. The radiologic examination revealed compression fractures of L1, L3 and L4 and an epidural hematoma compressing the spinal cord. The dark-red epidural hematoma was urgently evacuated. Four weeks post-operatively, neurologic deficits recurred with fever. On magnetic resonance image, an epidural abscess and osteomyelitis were detected in the previous operative site. Five weeks post-operatively, revision was performed with multiple biopsies. The specimen were positive for acid-fast bacilli and traditional anti-tuberculous medications were started. Because the Polymerase Chain Reaction for non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) was positive, the anti-tuberculous medications were changed to anti-NTM drugs. However, the neurologic deficits did not improve and persistent elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were noted. Eight weeks after the revision, Mycobacterium intracellulare was detected in the specimen cultures. Despite supportive care with medication, the patient died due to multiple organ failure.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.5.460
PMCID: PMC3259468  PMID: 22259695
Post-operative spondylitis; Mycobacterium intracellulare

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