Density of the chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is variable. It often appears to be mixed density. Multiple densities of cSDH may result from multiple episodes of trauma. We investigated the frequency of mixed density and the causes of head injuries representing each density.
We could collect 242 cases of chronic SDH. The cSDHs were classified into four groups; hypodensity, homogeneous isodensity, layered type, and mixed type on the basis of CT scans.
The density of cSDH was isodense in 115 patients, hypodense in 31 patients, mixed in 79 cases, and layered in 17 cases. The cSDH was on the left side in 115 patients, on the right side in 70 patients, and bilateral in 40 patients. The history of trauma was identifiable in 122 patients. The etiology could be identified in 67.7% of the hypodense hematomas, while it was obscure in 59.5% of the mixed hematomas.
Mixed density of cSDH results from multiple episodes of trauma, usually in the aged. It is hard to remember all the trivial traumas for the patients with the mixed density cSDHs. Although there were membranes within the mixed density hematomas, burr-holes were usually enough to drain the hematomas.
Chronic subdural hematoma; Computed tomography; Craniocerebral trauma; Diagnosis
This study was performed to determine the anatomical landmarks and optimal dissection points of the facial nerve (FN) and the hypoglossal nerve (HGN) in the submandibular region to provide guidance for hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis (HFNA).
Twenty-nine specimens were obtained from 15 formalin-fixed adult cadavers. Distances were measured based on the mastoid process tip (MPT), common carotid artery bifurcation (CCAB), and the digastric muscle posterior belly (DMPB).
The shortest distance from the MPT to the stylomastoid foramen was 14.1±2.9 mm. The distance from the MPT to the FN origin was 8.6±2.8 mm anteriorly and 5.9±2.8 mm superiorly. The distance from the CCAB to the crossing point of the HGN and the internal carotid artery was 18.5±6.7 mm, and that to the crossing point of the HGN and the external carotid artery was 15.1±5.7 mm. The distance from the CCAB to the HGN bifurcation was 26.6±7.5 mm. The distance from the digastric groove to the HGN, which was found under the DMPB, was about 35.8±5.7 mm. The distance from the digastric groove to the HGN, which was found under the DMPB, corresponded to about 65.5% of the whole length of the DMPB.
This study provides useful information regarding the morphometric anatomy of the submandibular region, and the presented morphological data on the nerves and surrounding structures will aid in understanding the anatomical structures more accurately to prevent complications of HFNA.
Facial nerve; Hypoglossal nerve; Morphometric anatomy
The waffle-cone technique is a modified stent application technique, which involves protrusion of the distal portion of a stent into an aneurysm fundus to provide neck support for subsequent coiling. The authors report two cases of wide necked basilar bifurcation aneurysms, which were not amenable to stent assisted coiling, that were treated using the waffle-cone technique with a Solitaire AB stent. A 58-year-old woman presented with severe headache. Brain CT showed subarachnoid hemorrhage and angiography demonstrated a ruptured giant basilar bifurcation aneurysm with broad neck, which was treated with a Solitaire AB stent and coils using the waffle-cone technique. The second case involved an 81-year-old man, who presented with dizziness caused by brain stem infarction. Angiography also demonstrated a large basilar bifurcation unruptured aneurysm with broad neck. Solitaire AB stent deployment using the waffle-cone technique, followed by coiling resulted in near complete obliteration of aneurysm. The waffle-cone technique with a Solitaire AB stent can be a useful alternative to conventional stent application when it is difficult to catheterize bilateral posterior cerebral arteries in patients with a wide-necked basilar bifurcation aneurysm.
Wide-necked aneurysm; Waffle-cone technique; Solitaire AB stent
The treatment of bilateral vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is still challenging. The authors report a rare case of bilateral VADA treated with coil trapping of ruptured VADA and covered stents implantation after multiple unsuccessful stent assisted coiling of the contralateral unruptured VADA. A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of severe headache and sudden stuporous consciousness. Brain CT showed thick SAH and intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography demonstrated bilateral VADA. Based on the SAH pattern and aneurysm configurations, the right VADA was considered ruptured. This was trapped with endovascular coils without difficulty. One month later, the contralateral unruptured VADA was protected using a stent-within-a-stent technique, but marked enlargement of the left VADA was detected by 8-months follow-up angiography. Subsequently two times coil packing for pseudosacs resulted in near complete occlusion of left VADA. However, it continued to grow. Covered stents graft below the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin and a coronary stent implantation across the origin of the PICA resulted in near complete obliteration of the VADA. Covered stent graft can be used as a last therapeutic option for the management of VADA, which requires absolute preservation of VA flow.
Vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm; SAH; Stent assisted coiling; Trapping; Covered stent graft; Endovascular embolization
Patients with asymptomatic chronic subdural hematoma (SDH) are prone to fall or slip. Acute trauma on these patients may develop acute subdural bleeding over the chronic SDH. We recently experienced 9 patients with acute-on-chronic SDH. We report the clinical and radiological features of this lesion.
We retrospectively examined the computed tomographic (CT) scans of 107 consecutive patients who diagnosed as chronic SDH from January 2008 to December 2010. All cases of CSDH were diagnosed on CT with or without MRI scan.
Acute-on-chronic SDH is not rare, being 8% of chronic SDH. The most common cause of trauma was a slip in drunken state. Alcoholism with multiple episodes of trauma was one of the prominent histories. Acute-on-chronic SDH appeared as a hyperdense layer of clot with irregular blurred margin or lumps in liquefied hematoma. Single or two burr holes was usually effective to remove the hematoma.
Repeated trauma may cause acute bleeding over the chronic SDH. It will be helpful to understand the role of repeated trauma as a mechanism of hematoma enlargement.
Chronic subdural hematoma; Computed tomography; Craniocerebral trauma; Diagnosis
Intracranial pial arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are rare vascular lesions of the brain. These lesions consist of one or more arterial connection to a single venous channel without true intervening nidus. A 24-year-old woman visited to our hospital because of headache, vomiting, dizziness and memory disturbance that persisted for three days. She complained several times of drop attack because of sudden weakness on both leg. Cerebral angiograms demonstrated a giant venous aneurysm on right frontal lobe beyond the genu of corpus callosum, multiple varices on both frontal lobes fed by azygos anterior cerebral artery, and markedly dilated draining vein into superior sagittal sinus, suggesting single channel pial AVF with multiple varices. Transarterial coil embolization of giant aneurysm and fistulous portion resulted in complete disappearance of pial AVF without complication.
Pial AVF; Giant venous aneurysm; Varices; Endovascular coils; Embolization
Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are abnormal arteriovenous connections that lie within the dura. Intraosseous DAVFs involving diploic venous system are extremely rare. A 46-year-old woman presented with headache and right pulsatile tinnitus for three weeks. The tinnitus started after yelling. Digital subtraction angiography revealed DAVF within the basal portion of right parietal bone along the middle meningeal artery (MMA) groove. The fistula was fed by frontal branch of right MMA and drained into right transverse sigmoid sinus junction through dilated middle meningeal vein. The intraosseous DAVF involving diploic vein was successfully obliterated with Onyx embolization via transarterial route.
Dural arteriovenous fistulas; Tinnitus; Onyx; Diploic vein; Transarterial embolization
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is known to have a significant recurrence rate. There are different criteria defining the recurrence of CSDH. We evaluated the postoperative course of CSDH and tried to propose the reasonable criteria of recurrence.
We retrospectively examined the medical records and pre- and postoperative CT scans of 149 consecutive patients who underwent surgery from January 2005 to December 2009. Diagnosis was confirmed by CT scanning or MRI. The postoperative courses were either resolved or recurrent. The resolved CSDH was one of the three types; early resolution, delayed resolution, or late resolution. The recurrent CSDH was one of the four types; recurrence without resolution, early recurrence after resolution, late recurrence after resolution, or recurrent-and-resolved type.
The CSDH was resolved within 30 days after surgery in 58 (39%) patients, between 1 to 3 months in 62 (42%), and after 3 months in 11 (7%) patients. The CSDH was recurred in 18 (12%) patients. Late resolution or recurrence was more common in the aged. The recurrent hematoma was seen on the same side in 11 patients, on the different side in 7 patients. Recurrence was significantly more common in the thick hematomas.
For a working criteria of the recurrence of CSDH, we propose the early recurrence as return of symptoms or reaccumulation of the hematoma after a surgery within 3 months regardless of the location, amount or repeated operations. The late recurrence can be defined as reappearance or enlargement of a liquefied hematoma within the cranial cavity surrounded by the membranes or persistent CSDH beyond 3 months after surgery.
Chronic subdural hematoma; Craniocerebral trauma; Diagnosis; Recurrence; Risk Factors
Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma (EDH) due to dural metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma is very rare. A 53-year-old male patient with hepatocellular carcinoma, who was admitted to the department of oncology, was referred to department of neurosurgery because of sudden mental deterioration to semicoma with papillary anisocoria and decerebrate rigidity after transarterial chemoembolization for hepatoma. Brain computed tomography (CT) revealed large amount of acute EDH with severe midline shifting. An emergent craniotomy and evacuation of EDH was performed. Active bleeding from middle cranial fossa floor was identified. There showed osteolytic change on the middle fossa floor with friable mass-like lesion spreading on the overlying dura suggesting metastasis. Pathological examination revealed anaplastic cells with sinusoidal arrangement which probably led to spontaneous hemorrhage and formation of EDH. As a rare cause of spontaneous EDH, dural metastasis from malignancy should be considered.
Spontaneous epidural hematoma; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Dural metastasis
Chronic subdural hematomas (CSDH) are more common on the left hemisphere than on the right. We verified this left predilection of CSDH and tried to explain the reason for this discrepancy.
We investigated the laterality of CSDH in 182 patients who were treated from January 2005 to December 2009. We examined the symmetry of the cranium and the location of the lesion.
CSDH was more common on the left-side. The cranium was symmetric in 63 patients, asymmetric in 119 patients. The asymmetric crania were flat on the right-side in 77 patients, on the left-side in 42 patients. The density of the CSDHs was hypodense in 29 patients, isodense 132 patients, and the others in 21 patients. Bilateral hematomas were more common in the hypodense group. In the right flat crania, the hematoma was more commonly located on the opposite side of the flat side. While in the left flat crania, the hematoma was more common on the same side.
CSDHs occurred more frequently on the left side. The anatomical asymmetry of the cranium influences the left predilection of CSDH.
Chronic subdural hematoma; Computed tomography; Craniocerebral trauma; Diagnosis; Laterality
There have been no clinical studies regarding the epidemiology and treatment outcome for unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) in South Korea yet. Thus, The Korean Society of Cerebrovascular Surgery (KSCVS) decided to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics, and outcome of the treatment of UIA in 2006, using the nationwide multicenter survey in South Korea.
A total of 1,696 cases were enrolled retrospectively over one year at 48 hospitals. The following data were obtained from all patients : age, sex, presence of symptoms, location and size of the aneurysm, treatment modality, presence of risk factors for stroke, and the postoperative 30-day morbidity and mortality.
The demographic data showed female predominance and peak age of seventh and sixth decades. Supraclinoid internal carotid artery was the most common site of aneurysms with a mean size of 5.6 mm. Eight-hundred-forty-six patients (49.9%) were treated with clipping, 824 (48.6%) with coiling, and 26 with combined method. The choice of the treatment modalities was related to hospital (p = 0.000), age (p = 0.000), presence of symptom (p = 0.003), and location of aneurysm (p = 0.000). The overall 30-day morbidity and mortality were 7.4% and 0.3%, respectively. The 30-day mortality was 0.4% for clipping and 0.2% for coiling, and morbidity was 8.4% for clipping and 6.3% for coiling. Age (p = 0.010), presence of symptoms (p = 0.034), size (p = 0.000) of aneurysm, and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.000) were significant prognostic factors, while treatment modality was not.
This first nation-wide multicenter survey on UIAs demonstrates the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, outcome and the prognostic factors of the treatment of UIAs in South Korea. The 30-day postoperative outcome for UIAs seems to be reasonable morbidity and mortality in South Korea.
Aneurysm; Intracranial; Unruptured; National survey; Korea; Multicenter study; Treatment outcome
The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological characteristics of the thalamoperforating arteries that arise from the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery.
Thalamoperforating arteries located in the interpeduncular fossa were dissected in 26 formalin-fixed human cadaver brains. We investigated the origin site of thalamoperforating arteries from the P1 segment, number and diameter, and variations in their origin.
Thalamoperforating arteries arose from the superior, posterior or posterosuperior surfaces of the P1 segment at the mean 1.93 mm (range, 0.41-4.71 mm) distance from the basilar apex and entered the brain through the posterior perforated substance. The average number was 3.6 (range 1-8) and mean diameter was 0.70 mm (range 0.24-1.18 mm). Thalamoperforating arteries could be classified into five different types according to their origin at the P1 segment : Type I (bilateral multiple), 38.5%; Type II (unilateral single, unilateral multiple), 26.9%; Type III (bilateral single), 19.2%; Type IV (unilateral single), 11.5%; Type V (unilateral multiple), 3.8%. In 15.4% of all specimens, thalamoperforating arteries arose from the only one side of P1 segment and were not noted in the other side. In such cases, the branches arising from the one side of P1 segment supplied the opposite side.
Variations in the origin of the thalamoperforating arteries should be keep in mind to perform the surgical clipping, endovascular treatment or operation involving the interpeduncular fossa. In particular, unilateral single branch seems to be very risky and significant for surgical technique or endovascular treatment.
Morphology; Cadaver; Thalamoperforating artery; Posterior cerebral artery
Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) for carotid stenosis has been increasingly used as an alternative treatment in patients not eligible for surgery. Even though CAS can be performed relatively simply in many cases, various complications can occur. We report four cases of CAS using the Carotid Wallstent, which were complicated by delayed shortening of the stent, resulting in restenosis after successful CAS.
Carotid angioplasty and stenting; Stent shortening; Restenosis
Pain has long been regarded as a subjective symptom. Recently, however, some regard a type of intractable chronic pain as a disease. Furthermore, chronic persistent pain becomes a cause of permanent impairment (PI). In 6th edition, the American Medical Association (AMA) Guides has rated the pain as a PI. In Korea, pain has been already been rated as a PI. Here, we examined the present status and the prospect of disability evaluation for the pain in Korea.
Pain can be rated as a PI by the Workmen's Compensation Insurance Act (WCIA) and Patriots and Veterans Welfare Corporation Act (PVWCA) in Korea. We examined the definition, diagnostic criteria and grades of the pain related disability (PRD) in these two acts. We also examined legal judgments, which were made in 2005 for patients with severe pain. We also compared the acts and the judgments to the criteria of the 6th AMA Guides.
The PRD can be rated as one of the 4 grades according to the WCIA. The provisions of the law do not limit the pain only for the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). The PRD can be rated as one of the 3 grades by the PVWCA. If there were objective signs such as osteoporosis, joint contracture and muscle atrophy corresponding to the CRPS, the grade is rated as 6. When the pain always interferes with one's job except easy work, the grade is rated as high as 5. In Korea, judicial precedents dealt the pain as a permanent disability in 2005.
Although there were no objective criteria for evaluation of the PRD, pain has been already rated as a PI by the laws or judicial precedents, in Korea. Thus, we should regulate the Korean criteria of PRD like the AMA 6th edition. We also should develop the objective tools for evaluation of the PRD near in future.
Pain; Disability evaluation; Treatment outcome; Craniocerebral trauma
The serum S100 protein has been known to reflect the severity of neuronal damage. The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic value of the serum S100 protein by Elecsys S100 immunoassay in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and to establish reference value for this new method.
Serum S100 protein value was measured at admission, day 3 and 7 after bleeding in 42 consecutive patients (SAH : 20, ICH : 22) and 74 healthy controls, prospectively. Admission Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, Hunt & Hess grade and Fisher grade for SAH, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage, ICH volume, and outcome at discharge were evaluated. Degrees of serum S100 elevation and their effect on outcomes were compared between two groups.
Median S100 levels in SAH and ICH groups were elevated at admission (0.092 versus 0.283 µg/L) and at day 3 (0.110 versus 0.099 µg/L) compared to healthy controls (0.05 µg/L; p<0001). At day 7, however, these levels were normalized in both groups. Time course of S100 level in SAH patient was relatively steady at least during the first 3 days, whereas in ICH patient it showed abrupt S100 surge on admission and then decreased rapidly during the next 7 days, suggesting severe brain damage at the time of bleeding. In ICH patient, S100 level on admission correlated well with GCS score (r=-0.859; p=0.0001) and ICH volume (r=0.663; p=0.001). A baseline S100 level more than 0.199 µg/L predicted poor outcome with 92% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Logistic regression analyses showed Ln (S100) on admission as the only independent predictor of poor outcome (odd ratio 36.1; 95% CI, 1.98 to 656.3).
Brain damage in ICH patient seems to develop immediately after bleeding, whereas in SAH patients it seems to be sustained for few days. Degree of brain damage is more severe in ICH compared to SAH group based on the S100 level. S100 level is considered an independent predictor of poor outcome in patient with spontaneous ICH, but not in SAH. Further study with large population is required to confirm this result.
S100 protein; Prognosis; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Elecsys S100 immunoassay; Intracerebral hemorrhage
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the surgical outcome and to compare the surgical results between transsylvian and transcortical approaches in patients with putaminal hematomas.
Retrospective review of charts and CT scan images was conducted in 45 patients (20 transsylvian and 25 transcortical approaches) who underwent open surgical evacuation of putaminal hematomas. Mean Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score and hematoma volume were 7.5±3.2 and 78.1±29.3 cc, respectively. The factors affecting the functional mortality were investigated using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In addition, surgical results between transsylvian and transcortical approaches were compared.
None of the patients had a good recovery after the surgery. Overall functional survival rate and mortality were 37.7% and 31%, respectively. The only risk factor for functional mortality was GCS motor score after controlling age, history of hypertension, side of hematoma, hematoma amount, midline shift, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage and surgical approach (p=0.005). Even though a transcortical approach was shorter in operative time (4.4 versus 5.1 hour) and showed a higher mortality rate (40% versus 20%) and lower functional survival (45% versus 35%) compared to the transsylvian approach, the differences were not statistically significant between the two groups.
In patients who have large amounts of hematoma and require open surgical evacuation, the only significant risk factor for functional survival is the preoperative GCS score. Cortical incision methods such as transsylvian and transcortical approaches have no influence on the surgical outcome. To decompress the swollen brain rapidly, transcortical approach seems to be more suitable than transsylvian approach.
Putaminal hemorrhage; Craniotomy; Glasgow coma scale; Mortality
Bone cement leakage is a well-known potential complication of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) in patients with osteoporotic compression fracture. Even though there has been a controversy in the efficacy of antecedent venography to prevent this complication, many authors have performed intraosseous venography before bone cement injection. The goal of this study was to classify the venous drainage patterns of spine before PVP, and compare their patterns at different vertebral levels.
The authors retrospectively reviewed 1,042 intraosseous venographic patterns in 321 patients with 574 osteoporotic compression fractures during six-year period in one institution. To classify venogram patterns, we selected simple lateral X-ray of spine taken immediately after injection of the contrast dye. We classified the venography patterns according to contrast leakage pattern and leakage direction as follows; trabecular (TR), trabecular anterior (TA), trabecular posterior (TP), trabecular anterior-posterior (TAP), trabecular lateral (TL), venous anterior(VA), venous posterior (VP), venous anterior-posterior (VAP), soft tissue (ST). Also, we compared venogram patterns according to different spinal levels.
In overall, the most common pattern was TP type accounting for 37.4% (390/1042) of all intraosseous venograms. This is followed by TAP in 21.5%, TR 17.4%, TA 11.6%, TL 5.8%, ST 4.1%, VA 1.2%, VP 0.6%, and VAP 0.4% in descending order of frequency. According to the spinal level, TR and TAP types were most common in thoracic spine (T6-T10), TP type was most common in thoraco-lumbar spine (T11-L2), and TP and TAP types were most common in lumbo-sacral spine (L3-S1). Contrast dye leakage to soft tissue such as psoas muscle or disc were detected in 43 (4.1%) venograms. Direct venous drainage without staining of vertebral body was found in 23 (2.2%) venograms. The 8.3% of thoracic venogram showed direct venous drainage. Thoracic level showed a more tendency of direct venous drainage than other spine levels (p<0.01).
The authors propose a new classification system of intraosseous venography during PVP. The trabecular-posterior (TP) type is most common through all spine, and venous-filling (V) type was most frequent in thoracic spine. Further study would be necessary to elucidate the efficacy of this classification system to prevent bone cement leakage during PVP.
Percutaneous vertebroplasty; Bone cement leakage; Venography pattern; Osteoporosis; Compression fracture
Even though intracerebral hematoma (ICH) due to ruptured cerebral aneurysm has been treated by aneurysm clipping at the same time of removal of ICH through craniotomy, such management strategy is controversial in an aged patients with poor clinical grade. In this regards, stereotactic aspiration of hematoma following coil embolization can be an alternative treatment modality. Thus, the authors report a case of an aged patient who underwent stereotactic aspiration of ICH following coil embolization for the ruptured aneurysm with a brief review of literature.
Aneurysm; Coil embolization; Stereotactic aspiration; Intracerebral hematoma