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1.  Treatment of Hydrocephalus Associated with Neurosarcoidosis by Multiple Shunt Placement 
A 31-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to hydrocephalus with neurosarcoidosis. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunting was performed in the right lateral ventricle with intravenous methylprednisolone. Subsequently, after 4 months, additional ventriculo-peritoneal shunting in the left lateral ventricle was performed due to the enlarged left lateral ventricle and slit-like right lateral ventricle. After 6 months, he was re-admitted due to upward gaze palsy, and magnetic resonance image showed an isolated fourth ventricle with both the inlet and outlet of fourth ventricle obstructed by recurrent neurosarcoidosis. Owing to the difficulty of using an endoscope, we performed neuronavigator-guided ventriculo-peritoneal shunting via the left lateral transcerebellar approach for the treatment of the isolated fourth ventricle with intravenous methyl prednisolone. The patient was discharged with improved neurological status.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.3.270
PMCID: PMC3483335  PMID: 23115677
Neurosarcoidosis; Hydrocephalus; Ventriculoperitoneal shunt
2.  The Effect of Body Mass Index on Intra-Abdominal Pressure and Blood Loss in Lumbar Spine Surgery 
Objective
The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of body mass index (BMI) on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and intraoperative blood loss (IBL) during lumbar spinal surgery.
Methods
Thirty patients scheduled for single level posterior lumbar interbody fusion were allocated equally to a normal group (Group 1, BMI;18.5-22.9 kg/m2), an overweight group (Group 2, BMI; 23-24.9 kg/m2), and an obese group (Group 3, BMI; 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) according to BMI. IAP was measured using a urinary bladder catheter; 1) supine after anesthesia induction, 2) prone at skin incision, 3) prone at the end of surgery. In addition, IBL was also measured in the three groups.
Results
IAP in the supine position was not significantly different in groups 1, 2, and 3 (2.7 mm Hg, 3.0 mm Hg, and 4.2 mm Hg, respectively) (p=0.258), and IAP in the prone position at incision increased to 7.8 mm Hg, 8.2 mm Hg, and 10.4 mm Hg, respectively, in the three groups, and these intergroup differences were significant, especially for Group 3 (p=0.000). IAP at the end of surgery was slightly lower (7.0 mm Hg, 7.7 mm Hg, and 9.2 mm Hg, respectively). IBLs were not significantly different between the three groups. However, IBLs were found to increase with IAP in the prone position (p=0.022) and BMI (p<0.05).
Conclusion
These results show that BMI affects IAP in the prone position more than in the supine position during lumbar spinal surgery. In addition, IBLs were found to increase with IAP in the prone position and with BMI. Thus, IBLs can be expected to be higher in morbidly obese patients due to an increased IAP.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.51.2.81
PMCID: PMC3322212  PMID: 22500198
Body mass index; Intra-abdominal pressure; Urinary bladder pressure; Intraoperative blood loss; Posterior lumbar interbody fusion
3.  Acute Spontaneous Subdural Hematoma of Arterial Origin 
Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma (SDH) of arterial origin is very rare. We report a case of acute spontaneous SDH that showed contrast media extravasation from cortical artery on angiograms. A 58-year-old male patient developed sudden onset headache and right hemiparesis. Brain CT scan demonstrated acute SDH at left convexity. The patient was drowsy mentality on admission. He had no history of head trauma. Cerebral angiography was performed and revealed a localized extravasation of the contrast media from distal cortical MCA branch. After angiography, the patient deteriorated to comatose mentality. Decompressive craniectomy for removal of SDH was performed. We verified the arterial origin of the bleeding and coagulated the bleeding focus. The histological diagnosis was aneurysmal artery. He recovered after surgery with mild disability. In a case of acute spontaneous SDH, the possibility of a cortical artery origin should be considered.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.51.2.91
PMCID: PMC3322214  PMID: 22500200
Acute subdural hematoma; Spontaneous; Cortical artery
4.  An Unusual Case of Post-Operative Spondylitis Caused by Mycobacterium Intracellulare in an Immunosuppressed Patient 
There are few reported cases of post-operative spondylitis caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare. A 75-year-old female presented to our hospital with low back pain and paraparesis after a fall. The radiologic examination revealed compression fractures of L1, L3 and L4 and an epidural hematoma compressing the spinal cord. The dark-red epidural hematoma was urgently evacuated. Four weeks post-operatively, neurologic deficits recurred with fever. On magnetic resonance image, an epidural abscess and osteomyelitis were detected in the previous operative site. Five weeks post-operatively, revision was performed with multiple biopsies. The specimen were positive for acid-fast bacilli and traditional anti-tuberculous medications were started. Because the Polymerase Chain Reaction for non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) was positive, the anti-tuberculous medications were changed to anti-NTM drugs. However, the neurologic deficits did not improve and persistent elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were noted. Eight weeks after the revision, Mycobacterium intracellulare was detected in the specimen cultures. Despite supportive care with medication, the patient died due to multiple organ failure.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.5.460
PMCID: PMC3259468  PMID: 22259695
Post-operative spondylitis; Mycobacterium intracellulare
5.  Guillain-Barre Syndrome Following Spinal Fusion for Thoracic Vertebral Fracture 
There have been very few reports in the literature of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) after spinal surgery. We present a unique case of GBS following spinal fusion for thoracic vertebral fracture. The aim of this report is to illustrate the importance of early neurological assessment and determining the exact cause of a new neurological deficit that occurs after an operation.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.5.464
PMCID: PMC3259469  PMID: 22259696
Guillain-Barre syndrome; Spinal surgery; Vertebral fracture
6.  Primary Extramedullary Ependymoma of the Cervical Spine : Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Intradural extramedullary (IDEM) ependymomas occur very rarely and little has been reported about their clinical characteristics. The authors present a case of a 57-year-old woman with an IDEM ependymoma. She was referred for the evaluation of a 4-month history of increasing neck pain and muscular weakness of the left extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine demonstrated an IDEM tumor with spinal cord compression. At the time of surgery, an encapsulated IDEM tumor without a dural attachment or medullary infiltration was noted, but the tumor capsule adherent to the spinal cord and root was left in place to minimize the risk of neurological sequelae. Histologic examination revealed a benign classic ependymoma. The post-operative course was uneventful and radiotherapy was performed. The patient showed an excellent clinical recovery, with no recurrence after 5 years of follow-up.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.1.57
PMCID: PMC3159884  PMID: 21892408
Intradural extramedullary; Ependymoma; Cervical spine
7.  Neurologic Complication Following Spinal Epidural Anesthesia in a Patient with Spinal Intradural Extramedullary Tumor 
Paraplegia following spinal epidural anesthesia is extremely rare. Various lesions for neurologic complications have been documented in the literature. We report a 66-year-old female who developed paraplegia after left knee surgery for osteoarthritis under spinal epidural anesthesia. In the recovery room, paraplegia and numbness below T4 vertebra was checked. A magnetic resonance image (MRI) scan showed a spinal thoracic intradural extramedullary (IDEM) tumor. After extirpation of the tumor, the motor weakness improved to the grade of 3/5. If a neurologic deficit following spinal epidural anesthesia does not resolve, a MRI should be performed without delay to accurately diagnose the cause of the deficit and optimal treatment should be rendered for the causative lesion.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.6.544
PMCID: PMC3053553  PMID: 21430985
Spinal epidural anesthesia; Spinal intradural extramedullary tumor
8.  Epidermoid Tumors in the Cerebellopontine Angle Presenting with Trigeminal Neuralgia 
Objective
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics and surgical outcome of cerebellopontine angle (CPA) epidermoids presenting with trigeminal neuralgia.
Methods
Between 1996 and 2004, 10 patients with typical symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia were found to have cerebellopontine angle epidermoids and treated surgically at our hospital. We retrospectively analyzed the clinico-radiological records of the patients.
Results
Total resection was done in 6 patients (60%). Surgical removal of tumor and microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve were performed simultaneously in one case. One patient died due to postoperative aseptic meningitis. The others showed total relief from pain. During follow-up, no patients experienced recurrence of their trigeminal neuralgia (TN).
Conclusion
The clinical features of TN from CPA epidermoids are characterized by symptom onset at a younger age compared to TN from vascular causes. In addition to removal of the tumor, the possibility of vascular compression at the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve should be kept in mind. If it exists, a microvascular decompression (MVD) should be performed. Recurrence of tumor is rare in both total and subtotal removal cases, but long-term follow-up is required.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.4.271
PMCID: PMC2864819  PMID: 20461167
Epidermoid; Cerebellopontine angle; Trigeminal neuralgia; Microvascular vascular decompression
9.  Cavernous Malformation of the Optic Chiasm : Case Report 
Cavernous malformations (CMs) arising from the optic nerve and chiasm are extremely rare. The authors present a case of 39-year-old woman with CMs of the optic chiasm. She was referred due to sudden onset of bitemporal hemianopsia and headache, the so-called 'chiasmal apoplexy'. MRI findings suggested a diagnosis of hemorrhage and vascular malformation of the optic chiasm. Pterional craniotomy revealed an intrachiasmatic cavernous malformation with hemorrhage. The malformation was totally excised, but field deficits remained unchanged after surgery.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.2.88
PMCID: PMC2588336  PMID: 19096699
Cavernous malformation; Optic chiasm; Apoplexy
10.  Giant Cavernous Malformation : A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Giant cavernous malformations (GCMs) occur very rarely and little has been reported about their clinical characteristics. The authors present a case of a 20-year-old woman with a GCM. She was referred due to two episodes of generalized seizure. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance image demonstrated a heterogeneous multi-cystic lesion of 7 × 5 × 5 cm size in the left frontal lobe and basal ganglia, and enhancing vascular structure abutting medial portion of the mass. These fingings suggested a diagnosis of GCM accompanying venous angioma. After left frontal craniotomy, transcortical approach was done. Total removal was accomplished and the postoperative course was uneventful. GCMs do not seem differ clinically, surgically or histopathologically from small cavernous angiomas, but imaging appearance of GCMs may be variable. The clinical, radiological feature and management of GCMs are described based on pertinent literature review.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.4.198
PMCID: PMC2588260  PMID: 19096644
Cavernous hemangioma; Venous angioma; Seizure

Results 1-10 (10)