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1.  Which One Is Better to Reduce the Infection Rate, Early or Late Cranioplasty? 
Objective
Decompressive craniectomy is an effective therapy to relieve high intracranial pressure after acute brain damage. However, the optimal timing for cranioplasty after decompression is still controversial. Many authors reported that early cranioplasty may contribute to improve the cerebral blood flow and brain metabolism. However, despite all the advantages, there always remains a concern that early cranioplasty may increase the chance of infection. The purpose of this retrospective study is to investigate whether the early cranioplasty increase the infection rate. We also evaluated the risk factors of infection following cranioplasty.
Methods
We retrospectively examined the results of 131 patients who underwent cranioplasty in our institution between January 2008 and June 2015. We divided them into early (≤90 days) and late (>90 days after craniectomy) groups. We examined the risk factors of infection after cranioplasty. We analyzed the infection rate between two groups.
Results
There were more male patients (62%) than female (38%). The mean age was 49 years. Infection occurred in 17 patients (13%) after cranioplasty. The infection rate of early cranioplasty was lower than that of late cranioplasty (7% vs. 20%; p=0.02). Early cranioplasty, non-metal allograft materials, re-operation before cranioplasty and younger age were the significant factors in the infection rate after cranioplasty (p<0.05). Especially allograft was a significant risk factor of infection (odds ratio, 12.4; 95% confidence interval, 3.24–47.33; p<0.01). Younger age was also a significant risk factor of infection after cranioplasty by multivariable analysis (odds ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.96–0.99; p=0.02).
Conclusion
Early cranioplasty did not increase the infection rate in this study. The use of non-metal allograft materials influenced a more important role in infection in cranioplasty. Actually, timing itself was not a significant risk factor in multivariate analysis. So the early cranioplasty may bring better outcomes in cognitive functions or wound without raising the infection rate.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2016.59.5.492
PMCID: PMC5028610  PMID: 27651868
Cranioplasty; Infection; Decompressive craniectomy; Hydroxyapatities
2.  Endovascular Treatment of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Single Center Experience 
Objective
Treatment of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) remains a challenge. However, after introduction of Onyx, transarterial approach is the preferred treatment option in many centers. We report our experience of dAVFs embolization with special emphasis on transarterial approach.
Methods
Seventeen embolization procedures were performed in 13 patients with dAVFs between Jan 2009 and Oct 2014. Clinical symptoms, location and type of fistulas, embolization methods, complications, radiological and clinical outcomes were evaluated using charts and PACS images.
Results
All 13 patients had symptomatic lesions. The locations of fistulas were transverse-sigmoid sinus in 6, middle fossa dura in 4, cavernous sinus in 2, and superior sagittal sinus in 1 patient. Cognard types were as follows : I in 4, IIa in 2, IIa+IIb in 5, and IV in 2. Embolization procedures were performed ≥2 times in 3 patients. Nine patients were treated with transarterial Onyx embolization alone. One of these required direct surgical puncture of middle meningeal artery. Complete obliteration of fistulas was achieved in 11/13 (85%) patients. There were no complications except for 1 case of Onyx migration in cavernous dAVF. Modified Rankin scale score at post-operative 3 months were 0 in 11, and 3 in 2 patients.
Conclusion
Transarterial Onyx embolization can be a first line therapeutic option in patients with dAVFs. However, transvenous approach should be tried first in cavernous sinus dAVF because of the risk of intracranial migration of liquid embolic materials. Furthermore, combined surgical endovascular approach can be considered as a useful option in inaccessible route.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2016.59.1.17
PMCID: PMC4754583  PMID: 26885282
Endovascualr; Dural arteriovenous fistulas; Onyx; Embolization; Transarterial
3.  Transcranial Direct Middle Meningeal Artery Puncture for the Onyx Embolization of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Involving the Superior Sagittal Sinus 
A 66-year-old woman presented with intermittent paraparesis and generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Cerebral angiography demonstrated dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) involving superior sagittal sinus (SSS), which was associated with SSS occlusion on the posterior one third. The dural AVF was fed by bilateral middle meningeal arteries (MMAs), superficial temporal arteries (STAs) and occipital arteries with marked retrograde cortical venous reflux. Transfemoral arterial Onyx embolization was performed through right MMA and STA, but it was not successful, which resulted in partial obliteration of dural AVF because of tortuous MMA preventing the microcatheter from reaching the fistula closely enough. Second procedure was performed through left MMA accessed by direct MMA puncture following small decortications of cranium overlying the MMA using diamond drill one week later. Microcatheter could be located far distally to the fistula through 5 F sheath placed into the MMA and complete obliteration of dural AVF was achieved using 3.9 cc of Onyx.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2015.57.1.54
PMCID: PMC4323506  PMID: 25674345
Dural arteriovenous fistula; Superior sagittal sinus; Transcranial; Middle meningeal artery; Onyx embolization
4.  Waffle-Cone Technique Using Solitaire AB Stent 
The waffle-cone technique is a modified stent application technique, which involves protrusion of the distal portion of a stent into an aneurysm fundus to provide neck support for subsequent coiling. The authors report two cases of wide necked basilar bifurcation aneurysms, which were not amenable to stent assisted coiling, that were treated using the waffle-cone technique with a Solitaire AB stent. A 58-year-old woman presented with severe headache. Brain CT showed subarachnoid hemorrhage and angiography demonstrated a ruptured giant basilar bifurcation aneurysm with broad neck, which was treated with a Solitaire AB stent and coils using the waffle-cone technique. The second case involved an 81-year-old man, who presented with dizziness caused by brain stem infarction. Angiography also demonstrated a large basilar bifurcation unruptured aneurysm with broad neck. Solitaire AB stent deployment using the waffle-cone technique, followed by coiling resulted in near complete obliteration of aneurysm. The waffle-cone technique with a Solitaire AB stent can be a useful alternative to conventional stent application when it is difficult to catheterize bilateral posterior cerebral arteries in patients with a wide-necked basilar bifurcation aneurysm.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.51.4.222
PMCID: PMC3377880  PMID: 22737303
Wide-necked aneurysm; Waffle-cone technique; Solitaire AB stent
5.  Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms Presenting with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treated by Staged Coil Trapping and Covered Stents Graft 
The treatment of bilateral vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is still challenging. The authors report a rare case of bilateral VADA treated with coil trapping of ruptured VADA and covered stents implantation after multiple unsuccessful stent assisted coiling of the contralateral unruptured VADA. A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of severe headache and sudden stuporous consciousness. Brain CT showed thick SAH and intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography demonstrated bilateral VADA. Based on the SAH pattern and aneurysm configurations, the right VADA was considered ruptured. This was trapped with endovascular coils without difficulty. One month later, the contralateral unruptured VADA was protected using a stent-within-a-stent technique, but marked enlargement of the left VADA was detected by 8-months follow-up angiography. Subsequently two times coil packing for pseudosacs resulted in near complete occlusion of left VADA. However, it continued to grow. Covered stents graft below the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin and a coronary stent implantation across the origin of the PICA resulted in near complete obliteration of the VADA. Covered stent graft can be used as a last therapeutic option for the management of VADA, which requires absolute preservation of VA flow.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.51.3.155
PMCID: PMC3358603  PMID: 22639713
Vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm; SAH; Stent assisted coiling; Trapping; Covered stent graft; Endovascular embolization
6.  A Case of Pial Arteriovenous Fistula with Giant Venous Aneurysm and Multiple Varices Treated with Coil Embolization 
Intracranial pial arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are rare vascular lesions of the brain. These lesions consist of one or more arterial connection to a single venous channel without true intervening nidus. A 24-year-old woman visited to our hospital because of headache, vomiting, dizziness and memory disturbance that persisted for three days. She complained several times of drop attack because of sudden weakness on both leg. Cerebral angiograms demonstrated a giant venous aneurysm on right frontal lobe beyond the genu of corpus callosum, multiple varices on both frontal lobes fed by azygos anterior cerebral artery, and markedly dilated draining vein into superior sagittal sinus, suggesting single channel pial AVF with multiple varices. Transarterial coil embolization of giant aneurysm and fistulous portion resulted in complete disappearance of pial AVF without complication.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.3.248
PMCID: PMC3218187  PMID: 22102958
Pial AVF; Giant venous aneurysm; Varices; Endovascular coils; Embolization
7.  A Case of Intraosseous Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas Involving Diploic Vein Treated with Transarterial Onyx Embolization 
Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are abnormal arteriovenous connections that lie within the dura. Intraosseous DAVFs involving diploic venous system are extremely rare. A 46-year-old woman presented with headache and right pulsatile tinnitus for three weeks. The tinnitus started after yelling. Digital subtraction angiography revealed DAVF within the basal portion of right parietal bone along the middle meningeal artery (MMA) groove. The fistula was fed by frontal branch of right MMA and drained into right transverse sigmoid sinus junction through dilated middle meningeal vein. The intraosseous DAVF involving diploic vein was successfully obliterated with Onyx embolization via transarterial route.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.3.260
PMCID: PMC3218190  PMID: 22102961
Dural arteriovenous fistulas; Tinnitus; Onyx; Diploic vein; Transarterial embolization
8.  Morphological Characteristics of the Thalamoperforating Arteries 
Objective
The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological characteristics of the thalamoperforating arteries that arise from the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery.
Methods
Thalamoperforating arteries located in the interpeduncular fossa were dissected in 26 formalin-fixed human cadaver brains. We investigated the origin site of thalamoperforating arteries from the P1 segment, number and diameter, and variations in their origin.
Results
Thalamoperforating arteries arose from the superior, posterior or posterosuperior surfaces of the P1 segment at the mean 1.93 mm (range, 0.41-4.71 mm) distance from the basilar apex and entered the brain through the posterior perforated substance. The average number was 3.6 (range 1-8) and mean diameter was 0.70 mm (range 0.24-1.18 mm). Thalamoperforating arteries could be classified into five different types according to their origin at the P1 segment : Type I (bilateral multiple), 38.5%; Type II (unilateral single, unilateral multiple), 26.9%; Type III (bilateral single), 19.2%; Type IV (unilateral single), 11.5%; Type V (unilateral multiple), 3.8%. In 15.4% of all specimens, thalamoperforating arteries arose from the only one side of P1 segment and were not noted in the other side. In such cases, the branches arising from the one side of P1 segment supplied the opposite side.
Conclusion
Variations in the origin of the thalamoperforating arteries should be keep in mind to perform the surgical clipping, endovascular treatment or operation involving the interpeduncular fossa. In particular, unilateral single branch seems to be very risky and significant for surgical technique or endovascular treatment.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.1.36
PMCID: PMC2817513  PMID: 20157376
Morphology; Cadaver; Thalamoperforating artery; Posterior cerebral artery
9.  Disability Evaluation of the Pain : The Present and Prospect in Korea 
Objective
Pain has long been regarded as a subjective symptom. Recently, however, some regard a type of intractable chronic pain as a disease. Furthermore, chronic persistent pain becomes a cause of permanent impairment (PI). In 6th edition, the American Medical Association (AMA) Guides has rated the pain as a PI. In Korea, pain has been already been rated as a PI. Here, we examined the present status and the prospect of disability evaluation for the pain in Korea.
Methods
Pain can be rated as a PI by the Workmen's Compensation Insurance Act (WCIA) and Patriots and Veterans Welfare Corporation Act (PVWCA) in Korea. We examined the definition, diagnostic criteria and grades of the pain related disability (PRD) in these two acts. We also examined legal judgments, which were made in 2005 for patients with severe pain. We also compared the acts and the judgments to the criteria of the 6th AMA Guides.
Results
The PRD can be rated as one of the 4 grades according to the WCIA. The provisions of the law do not limit the pain only for the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). The PRD can be rated as one of the 3 grades by the PVWCA. If there were objective signs such as osteoporosis, joint contracture and muscle atrophy corresponding to the CRPS, the grade is rated as 6. When the pain always interferes with one's job except easy work, the grade is rated as high as 5. In Korea, judicial precedents dealt the pain as a permanent disability in 2005.
Conclusion
Although there were no objective criteria for evaluation of the PRD, pain has been already rated as a PI by the laws or judicial precedents, in Korea. Thus, we should regulate the Korean criteria of PRD like the AMA 6th edition. We also should develop the objective tools for evaluation of the PRD near in future.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.45.5.293
PMCID: PMC2693789  PMID: 19516947
Pain; Disability evaluation; Treatment outcome; Craniocerebral trauma
10.  Prognostic Value of Serum S100 Protein by Elecsys S100 Immunoassay in Patients with Spontaneous Subarachnoid and Intracerebral Hemorrhages 
Objective
The serum S100 protein has been known to reflect the severity of neuronal damage. The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic value of the serum S100 protein by Elecsys S100 immunoassay in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and to establish reference value for this new method.
Methods
Serum S100 protein value was measured at admission, day 3 and 7 after bleeding in 42 consecutive patients (SAH : 20, ICH : 22) and 74 healthy controls, prospectively. Admission Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, Hunt & Hess grade and Fisher grade for SAH, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage, ICH volume, and outcome at discharge were evaluated. Degrees of serum S100 elevation and their effect on outcomes were compared between two groups.
Results
Median S100 levels in SAH and ICH groups were elevated at admission (0.092 versus 0.283 µg/L) and at day 3 (0.110 versus 0.099 µg/L) compared to healthy controls (0.05 µg/L; p<0001). At day 7, however, these levels were normalized in both groups. Time course of S100 level in SAH patient was relatively steady at least during the first 3 days, whereas in ICH patient it showed abrupt S100 surge on admission and then decreased rapidly during the next 7 days, suggesting severe brain damage at the time of bleeding. In ICH patient, S100 level on admission correlated well with GCS score (r=-0.859; p=0.0001) and ICH volume (r=0.663; p=0.001). A baseline S100 level more than 0.199 µg/L predicted poor outcome with 92% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Logistic regression analyses showed Ln (S100) on admission as the only independent predictor of poor outcome (odd ratio 36.1; 95% CI, 1.98 to 656.3).
Conclusion
Brain damage in ICH patient seems to develop immediately after bleeding, whereas in SAH patients it seems to be sustained for few days. Degree of brain damage is more severe in ICH compared to SAH group based on the S100 level. S100 level is considered an independent predictor of poor outcome in patient with spontaneous ICH, but not in SAH. Further study with large population is required to confirm this result.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.5.308
PMCID: PMC2612568  PMID: 19119467
S100 protein; Prognosis; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Elecsys S100 immunoassay; Intracerebral hemorrhage
11.  Open Surgical Evacuation of Spontaneous Putaminal Hematomas: Prognostic Factors and Comparison of Outcomes between Transsylvian and Transcortical Approaches 
Objective
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the surgical outcome and to compare the surgical results between transsylvian and transcortical approaches in patients with putaminal hematomas.
Methods
Retrospective review of charts and CT scan images was conducted in 45 patients (20 transsylvian and 25 transcortical approaches) who underwent open surgical evacuation of putaminal hematomas. Mean Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score and hematoma volume were 7.5±3.2 and 78.1±29.3 cc, respectively. The factors affecting the functional mortality were investigated using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In addition, surgical results between transsylvian and transcortical approaches were compared.
Results
None of the patients had a good recovery after the surgery. Overall functional survival rate and mortality were 37.7% and 31%, respectively. The only risk factor for functional mortality was GCS motor score after controlling age, history of hypertension, side of hematoma, hematoma amount, midline shift, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage and surgical approach (p=0.005). Even though a transcortical approach was shorter in operative time (4.4 versus 5.1 hour) and showed a higher mortality rate (40% versus 20%) and lower functional survival (45% versus 35%) compared to the transsylvian approach, the differences were not statistically significant between the two groups.
Conclusion
In patients who have large amounts of hematoma and require open surgical evacuation, the only significant risk factor for functional survival is the preoperative GCS score. Cortical incision methods such as transsylvian and transcortical approaches have no influence on the surgical outcome. To decompress the swollen brain rapidly, transcortical approach seems to be more suitable than transsylvian approach.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.1.1
PMCID: PMC2588287  PMID: 19096649
Putaminal hemorrhage; Craniotomy; Glasgow coma scale; Mortality
12.  The Patterns of Intraosseous Venography before Percutaneous Vertebroplasty for Osteoporotic Compression Fractures 
Objective
Bone cement leakage is a well-known potential complication of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) in patients with osteoporotic compression fracture. Even though there has been a controversy in the efficacy of antecedent venography to prevent this complication, many authors have performed intraosseous venography before bone cement injection. The goal of this study was to classify the venous drainage patterns of spine before PVP, and compare their patterns at different vertebral levels.
Methods
The authors retrospectively reviewed 1,042 intraosseous venographic patterns in 321 patients with 574 osteoporotic compression fractures during six-year period in one institution. To classify venogram patterns, we selected simple lateral X-ray of spine taken immediately after injection of the contrast dye. We classified the venography patterns according to contrast leakage pattern and leakage direction as follows; trabecular (TR), trabecular anterior (TA), trabecular posterior (TP), trabecular anterior-posterior (TAP), trabecular lateral (TL), venous anterior(VA), venous posterior (VP), venous anterior-posterior (VAP), soft tissue (ST). Also, we compared venogram patterns according to different spinal levels.
Results
In overall, the most common pattern was TP type accounting for 37.4% (390/1042) of all intraosseous venograms. This is followed by TAP in 21.5%, TR 17.4%, TA 11.6%, TL 5.8%, ST 4.1%, VA 1.2%, VP 0.6%, and VAP 0.4% in descending order of frequency. According to the spinal level, TR and TAP types were most common in thoracic spine (T6-T10), TP type was most common in thoraco-lumbar spine (T11-L2), and TP and TAP types were most common in lumbo-sacral spine (L3-S1). Contrast dye leakage to soft tissue such as psoas muscle or disc were detected in 43 (4.1%) venograms. Direct venous drainage without staining of vertebral body was found in 23 (2.2%) venograms. The 8.3% of thoracic venogram showed direct venous drainage. Thoracic level showed a more tendency of direct venous drainage than other spine levels (p<0.01).
Conclusion
The authors propose a new classification system of intraosseous venography during PVP. The trabecular-posterior (TP) type is most common through all spine, and venous-filling (V) type was most frequent in thoracic spine. Further study would be necessary to elucidate the efficacy of this classification system to prevent bone cement leakage during PVP.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.6.288
PMCID: PMC2588255  PMID: 19096634
Percutaneous vertebroplasty; Bone cement leakage; Venography pattern; Osteoporosis; Compression fracture
13.  Coil Embolization of Aneurysm Followed by Stereotactic Aspiration of Hematoma in a Patient with Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Presenting with SAH and ICH 
Even though intracerebral hematoma (ICH) due to ruptured cerebral aneurysm has been treated by aneurysm clipping at the same time of removal of ICH through craniotomy, such management strategy is controversial in an aged patients with poor clinical grade. In this regards, stereotactic aspiration of hematoma following coil embolization can be an alternative treatment modality. Thus, the authors report a case of an aged patient who underwent stereotactic aspiration of ICH following coil embolization for the ruptured aneurysm with a brief review of literature.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.1.41
PMCID: PMC2588157  PMID: 19096545
Aneurysm; Coil embolization; Stereotactic aspiration; Intracerebral hematoma

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