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1.  Acute Spontaneous Spinal Subdural Hematoma with Vague Symptoms 
Spinal subdural hematoma is a rarely reported disease and spontaneous spinal subdural hematomas (SSDH) without underlying pathological changes are even rarer. The patients usually show typical symtoms such as back pain, quadriplegia, paraplegia or sensory change. But rarely, patients may show atypical symptoms such as hemiparesis and misdiagnosed to cerebrovascular accident. We recently experienced a case of SSDH, where the patient initially showed vague symptoms, such as the sudden onset of headache which we initially misdiagnosed as subarachnoid hemorrhage. In this case, the headache of patient improved but the neck pain persisted until hospital day 5. Therefre, we conducted the MRI of cervical spine and finally confirmed SSDH. The patient was managed conservatively and improved without recurrence. In this case report, we discuss the clinical features of SSDH with emphasis on the importance of an early diagnosis.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.56.3.269
PMCID: PMC4217068  PMID: 25368774
Spinal subdural hematoma; Spontaneous; Diagnosis
2.  Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Medical and Surgical Management of Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Korea 
The purpose of this clinical practice guideline (CPG) is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the medical and surgical management of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Since the release of the first Korean CPGs for stroke, evidence has been accumulated in the management of ICH, such as intracranial pressure control and minimally invasive surgery, and it needs to be reflected in the updated version. The Quality Control Committee at the Korean Society of cerebrovascular Surgeons and the Writing Group at the Clinical Research Center for Stroke (CRCS) systematically reviewed relevant literature and major published guidelines between June 2007 and June 2013. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence and the grade of the recommendation were determined using the methods adapted from CRCS. A draft guideline was scrutinized by expert peer reviewers and also discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. CPGs based on scientific evidence are presented for the medical and surgical management of patients presenting with primary ICH. This CPG describes the current pertinent recommendations and suggests Korean recommendations for the medical and surgical management of a patient with primary ICH.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.56.3.175
PMCID: PMC4217052  PMID: 25368758
Clinical; Guideline; Treatment; Spontaneous; Intracerebral hemorrhage
3.  Rotational Vertebral Artery Compression : Bow Hunter's Syndrome 
Bow hunter's syndrome (BHS) is rare cause of vertebrobasilar insufficiency that arises from mechanical compression of the vertebral artery by head rotation. There is no standardized diagnostic regimen or treatment of BHS. Recently, we experienced 2 cases resisted continues medication and treated by surgical approach. In both cases, there were no complications after surgery and there were improvements in clinical symptoms. Thus, we describe our cases with surgical decompression with a review of the relevant medical literature.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.54.3.243
PMCID: PMC3836934  PMID: 24278656
Bow hunter's syndrome; Rotational vertebral artery stroke; Vertebrobasilar insufficiency; Decompression; Surgical treatment
4.  The Analysis of Patterns and Risk Factors of Newly Developed Vertebral Compression Fractures after Percutaneous Vertebroplasty 
Objective
The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and the risk factors of newly developed vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) after percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP).
Methods
We performed a retrospective review of the 244 patients treated with PVP from September 2006 to February 2011. Among these patients, we selected 49 patients with newly developed VCFs following PVP as the new VCFs group, and the remaining 195 patients as the no VCFs group. The new VCFs group was further divided into 2 groups : an adjacent fractures group and a nonadjacent fractures group. The following data were collected from the groups : age, gender, body weight/height, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD) score of the spine and femur, level of initial fracture, restoration rate of anterior/middle vertebral height, and intradiscal cement leakage, volume of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA).
Results
Age, gender, mean body height/weight, mean BMI and volume of PMMA of each of the group are not statistically significantly associated with fractures. In comparison between the new VCFs group and the no VCFs group, lower BMD, intradiscal cement leakage and anterior vertebral height restoration were the significant predictive factors of the fracture. In addition, new VCFs occurrence at the adjacent spines was statistically significant, when the initial fracture levels were confined to the thoracolumbar junction, among the subgroups of new VCFs.
Conclusion
Lower spinal BMD, the greater anterior vertebral height restoration rate and intradiscal cement leakage were confirmed as risk factors for newly formed VCFs after PVP.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.4.339
PMCID: PMC3488642  PMID: 23133722
Compression fracture; Vertebroplasty; Risk factor; Osteoporosis; Pattern
5.  Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Third and Fourth Decades of Life 
Objective
The aim of this study was to compare clinical characteristics of ruptured aneurysms in young adults, of the third and fourth decades of life, and to compare several clinical characteristics affecting the outcome of patients.
Methods
We retrospectively investigated 1459 patients who underwent surgery and endovascular treatment for ruptured cerebral aneurysms from June 1992 to December 2010 and compared clinical characteristics. We also reviewed pre-existing medical conditions and perioperative complications.
Results
Among 1459 patients, there were 21 patients (1.44%) in the third decade and 104 patients (7.13%) in the fourth decade of life. Within two age groups, 88 (70.4%) were male and 37 (29.6%) were female, a ratio of 2.37 : 1. In both groups, we observed the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysm with the most frequency (p=0.028). In general, favorable outcome was achieved in both age groups (90.5% and 81.7%, respectively). An initial univariate analysis showed Hunt-Hess grade, Fisher grade, location of aneurysm, and rebleeding significantly associated with outcome after aneurysm rupture. Further, multivariate analysis demonstrated that only Hunt-Hess grade (grade 4-5) was a risk factor for the outcome (odds ratio=9.730, 95% confidence interval 2.069-45.756, p=0.004).
Conclusion
The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was higher in the male population of the third and fourth decades of life. Aneurysms on the ACA were most frequently occurred in both age groups and the outcome of aneurysmal SAH among the third and fourth decades was favorable. Multivariate analysis revealed that high Hunt-Hess grade was a risk factor for patient's outcome.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.3.167
PMCID: PMC3483314  PMID: 23115656
Aneurysm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Young adult
6.  Inferolateral Entry Point for C2 Pedicle Screw Fixation in High Cervical Lesions 
Objective
The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of atlantoaxial stabilization using a new entry point for C2 pedicle screw fixation.
Methods
Data were collected from 44 patients undergoing posterior C1 lateral mass screw and C2 screw fixation. The 20 cases were approached by the Harms entry point, 21 by the inferolateral point, and three by pars screw. The new inferolateral entry point of the C2 pedicle was located about 3-5 mm medial to the lateral border of the C2 lateral mass and 5-7 mm superior to the inferior border of the C2-3 facet joint. The screw was inserted at an angle 30° to 45° toward the midline in the transverse plane and 40° to 50° cephalad in the sagittal plane. Patients received followed-up with clinical examinations, radiographs and/or CT scans.
Results
There were 28 males and 16 females. No neurological deterioration or vertebral artery injuries were observed. Five cases showed malpositioned screws (2.84%), with four of the screws showing cortical breaches of the transverse foramen. There were no clinical consequences for these five patients. One screw in the C1 lateral mass had a medial cortical breach. None of the screws were malpositioned in patients treated using the new entry point. There was a significant relationship between two group (p=0.036).
Conclusion
Posterior C1-2 screw fixation can be performed safely using the new inferolateral entry point for C2 pedicle screw fixation for the treatment of high cervical lesions.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.4.341
PMCID: PMC3243838  PMID: 22200017
Atlantoaxial fixation; C2 pedicle screw; Entry point
7.  Is Titanium Mesh Cage Safe in Surgical Management of Pyogenic Spondylitis? 
Objective
To report our experience with pyogenic spondylitis treated with anterior radical debridement and insertion of a titanium mesh cage and to demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of the use of a titanium mesh cage in the surgical management of pyogenic spondylitis.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of 19 patients who underwent surgical treatment in our department between January 2004 and December 2008. The average follow-up period was 11.16 months (range, 6-64 months). We evaluated risk factors, cultured organisms, lab data, clinical outcomes, and radiographic results. Surgical techniques for patients with pyogenic spondylitis were anterior radical debridement and reconstruction with titanium mesh cage insertion and screw fixation. All patients received intravenous antibiotics for at least 6 weeks postoperatively, and some patients received oral antibiotics.
Results
The infections resolved in all of the patients as noted by normalization of their erythrocyte sedimentation rates and C-reactive protein levels. The mean pain score on a Visual Analog Scale was 7.8 (range, 4-10) before surgery and 2.4 (range, 1-5) after surgery. The Frankel grade was improved by one grade in seven patients. After surgery, the average difference of the angle was improved about 6.96° in all patients. At the last follow-up, the mean loss of correction was 4.86°.
Conclusion
Anterior radical debridement followed by the placement of instrumentation with a titanium mesh cage may be a safe and effective treatment for selected patients with pyogenic spondylitis. This surgical therapy does not lead to recurrent pyogenic spondylitis.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.4.357
PMCID: PMC3243840  PMID: 22200019
Pyogenic spondylitis; Corpectomy; Titanium
8.  Laparotomy versus Laparoscopic Placement of Distal Catheter in Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Procedure 
Objective
Traditionally, peritoneal catheter is inserted with midline laparotomy incision in ventriculoperitoneal (V-P) shunt procedures. Complications of V-P shunt is not uncommon and have been reported to occur in 5-37% of cases. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical outcomes and the operation time between laparotomy and laparoscopic groups.
Methods
A total of 155 V-P shunt procedures were performed to treat hydrocephalic patients of various origins in our institute between June 2006 to January 2010; 95 of which were laparoscopically guided and 65 were not. We reviewed the operation time, surgery-related complications, and intraoperative and postoperative problems.
Results
In the laparoscopy group, the mean duration of the procedure (52 minutes) was significantly shorter (p < 0.001) than the laparotomy group (109 minutes). There were two cases of malfunctions and one incidence of diaphragm injury in the laparotomy group. In contrast, there were neither malfunction nor any internal organ injuries in the laparoscopy group (p = 0.034). There were total of two cases of infections from both groups (p = 0.7).
Conclusion
Laparoscopically guided insertions of distal shunt catheter is considered a fast and safe method in contrast to the laparotomy technique. This method allows the exact localization of the peritoneal catheter and a confirmation of its patency.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.4.325
PMCID: PMC2982910  PMID: 21113359
Hydrocephalus; Laparoscopy; Peritoneal catheter
9.  Intraarterial Nimodipine Infusion to Treat Symptomatic Cerebral Vasospasm after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 
Objective
Cerebral vasospasm leading to cerebral ischemic infarction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the patients who suffer with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Despite adequate treatment, some patients deteriorate and they develop symptomatic vasospasm. The objective of the present study was to investigate the efficacy and clinical outcome of intraarterial nimodipine infusion on symptomatic vasospasm that is refractory to hemodynamic therapy.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the procedure reports, the clinical charts and the transcranial doppler, computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography results for the patients who underwent endovascular treatment for symptomatic cerebral vasospasm due to aneurysmal SAH. During the 36 months between Jan. 2005 and Dec. 2007, 19 patients were identified who had undergone a total of 53 procedures. We assessed the difference in the arterial vessel diameter, the blood flow velocity and the clinical outcome before and after these procedures.
Results
Vascular dilatation was observed in 42 of 53 procedures. The velocities of the affected vessels before and after procedures were available in 33 of 53 procedures. Twenty-nine procedures exhibited a mean decrease of 84.1 cm/s. We observed clinical improvement and an improved level of consciousness with an improved GCS score after 23 procedures.
Conclusion
Based on our results, the use of intraarterial nimodipine is effective and safe in selected cases of vasospasm following aneurysmal SAH. Prospective, randomized studies are needed to confirm these results.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.3.239
PMCID: PMC2764023  PMID: 19844625
Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Vasospasm; Intraarterial nimodipine infusion
10.  Stereotactic Multiplanar Reformatted Computed Tomography-Guided Catheter Placement and Thrombolysis of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hematomas 
Objective
The authors present their experiences with stereotactic multiplanar reformatted (MPR) computed tomography (CT)-guided catheter placement for thrombolysis of spontaneous intracerebral hematoma (sICH) and their clinical results.
Methods
In 23 patients with sICH, MPR CT-guided catheter placement was used to select the trajectory and target point of hematoma drainage. This group was comprised of 11 men and 12 women, and the mean age was 57.5 years (range, 31-79 years). The patients' initial Glasgow Coma Scale scores ranged from 7 to 15 with a median of 11. The volume of the hematoma ranged from 24 mL to 86 mL (mean 44.5 mL). A trajectory along the main axis of the hematoma was considered to be optimal for thrombolytic therapy. The trajectory was calculated from the point of entry through the target point of the hematoma using reformatted images.
Results
The hematoma catheter was left in place for a median duration of 48.9 hours (range 34 to 62 hours). In an average of two days, the average residual hematoma volume was 6.2 mL (range 1.4 mL to 10.2 mL) and was reduced by an average of 84.7% (range 71.6% to 96.3%). The residual hematoma at postoperative seven days was less than 5 mL in all patients. There was no treatment-related death during hospitalization.
Conclusion
The present study indicates that stereotactic MPR CT-guided catheter placement for thrombolysis is an accurate and safe procedure. We suggest that this procedure for stereotactic removal of sICH should be considered for the optimization of the trajectory selection in the future.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.4.185
PMCID: PMC2588315  PMID: 19096674
Intracerebral hematoma; Stereotactic aspiration; Surgical treatment; Thrombolysis
11.  Discal Cyst of the Lumbar Spine 
Discal cysts are rare lesions that can cause radiating leg pain. Because they are very rare, their natural history and the details of the therapeutic guidelines for the treatment of these cysts are still unknown. A 30-year-old male patient presented to our institute with radiating pain in his left leg and mild back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an intraspinal extradural cystic mass with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images at the L5-S1 level. The partial hemilaminectomy and cyst resection were performed. We report a patient with low back pain and radiating leg pain caused by a lumbar discal cyst and discuss the treatment of this cyst.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.4.262
PMCID: PMC2588320  PMID: 19096689
Discal cyst; Intraspinal; Lumbar spine
12.  Familial Intracranial Aneurysms 
Objective
Numerous studies have compared the characteristics of familial intracranial aneurysms with those of non-familial aneurysms. To better understand familial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), we studied a series of patients with SAH who had at least one first-degree relative with SAH, and compared our results with those of previous studies.
Methods
We identified patients treated for SAH at our hospital between January 1993 and October 2006 and analyzed those patients with one or more first-degree relatives with SAH. We retrospectively collected data from patients with a family history and searched for patients who had relatives with aneurysms or who had been treated at other hospitals for SAH.
Results
We identified 12 patients from six families with at least two first-degree relatives with SAH. All patients had affected first-degree relatives; in five families, they were siblings. The mean age at the time of rupture was 49.75 years; in four families, the age difference was within 5 years. In five patients (42%), the aneurysm was located in the middle cerebral artery. Only one patient had an aneurysm in the anterior communicating artery.
Conclusion
In agreement with previous studies, our results showed that familial aneurysms, in comparison with non-familiar aneurysms, ruptured at a younger age and smaller size, had a high incidence in the middle cerebral artery, and were underrepresented in the anterior communicating artery. Interestingly, the age at the time of rupture was similar between relatives. Screening should be considered in the fifth or sixth decade for those who have a sibling with SAH.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.3.136
PMCID: PMC2588294  PMID: 19096663
Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Familial; Aneurysm; Screening
13.  Clinical Experiences and Usefulness of Cervical Posterior Stabilization with Polyaxial Screw-Rod System 
Objective
The objective of this study is to investigate the safety, surgical efficacy, and advantages of a polyaxial screw-rod system for posterior occipitocervicothoracic arthrodesis.
Methods
Charts and radiographs of 32 patients who underwent posterior cervical fixation between October 2004 and February 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Posterior cervical polyaxial screw-rod fixation was applied on the cervical spine and/or upper thoracic spine. The surgical indication was fracture or dislocation in 18, C1-2 ligamentous injury with trauma in 5, atlantoaxial instability by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) in 4, cervical spondylosis with myelopathy in 4, and spinal metastatic tumor in 1. The patients were followed up and evaluated based on their clinical status and radiographs at 1, 3, 6 months and 1 year after surgery.
Results
A total of 189 screws were implanted in 32 patients. Fixation was carried out over an average of 3.3 spinal segment (range, 2 to 7). The mean follow-up interval was 20.2 months. This system allowed for screw placement in the occiput, C1 lateral mass, C2 pars, C3-7 lateral masses, as well as the lower cervical and upper thoracic pedicles. Satisfactory bony fusion and reduction were achieved and confirmed in postoperative flexion-extension lateral radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans in all cases. Revision surgery was required in two cases due to deep wound infection. One case needed a skin graft due to necrotic change. There was one case of kyphotic change due to adjacent segmental degeneration. There were no other complications, such as cord or vertebral artery injury, cerebrospinal fluid leak, screw malposition or back-out, or implant failure, and there were no cases of postoperative radiculopathy due to foraminal stenosis.
Conclusion
Posterior cervical stabilization with a polyaxial screw-rod system is a safe and reliable technique that appears to offer several advantages over existing methods. Further biomechanical testings and clinical experiences are needed in order to determine the true benefits of this procedure.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2007.42.4.311
PMCID: PMC2588202  PMID: 19096562
Cervical spine; Lateral mass; Polyaxial screw-rod

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