We report perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) findings of nonenhanced anaplastic astrocytoma in a 30-year-old woman. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a nonenhanced brain tumor with mild peritumoral edema on the right medial frontal lobe and right genu of corpus callosum, suggesting a low-grade glioma. However, PWI showed increased relative cerebral blood volume, relative cerebral blood flow, and permeability of nonenhanced brain tumor compared with contralateral normal brain parenchyma, suggesting a high-grade glioma. After surgery, final histopathological analysis revealed World Health Organization grade III anaplastic astrocytoma. This case demonstrates the importance of PWI for preoperative evaluation of nonenhanced brain tumors.
Anaplastic astrocytoma; MRI; Perfusion weighted MRI
To evaluate the efficacy of temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy for recurrent anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA).
A multi-center retrospective trial enrolled seventy-two patients with histologically proven AO/AOA who underwent TMZ chemotherapy for their recurrent tumors from 2006 to 2010. TMZ was administered orally (150 to 200 mg/m2/day) for 5 days per 28 days until unacceptable toxicity occurred or tumor progression was observed.
TMZ chemotherapy cycles administered was median 5.3 (range, 1-41). The objective response rate was 24% including 8 cases (11%) of complete response and another 23 patients (32%) were remained as stable disease. Severe side effects (≥grade 3) occurred only in 9 patients (13%). Progression-free survival (PFS) of all patients was a median 8.0 months (95% confidence interval, 6.0-10.0). The time to recurrence of a year or after was a favorable prognostic factor for PFS (p<0.05). Overall survival (OS) was apparently differed by the patient's histology, as AOA patients survived a median OS of 18.0 months while AO patients did not reach median OS at median follow-up of 11.5 months (range 2.7-65 months). Good performance status of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0 and 1 showed prolonged OS (p<0.01).
For recurrent AO/AOA after surgery followed by radiation therapy, TMZ could be recommended as a salvage therapy at the estimated efficacy equal to procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy at first relapse. For patients previously treated with PCV, TMZ is a favorable therapeutic option as 2nd line salvage chemotherapy with an acceptable toxicity rate.
Anaplastic oligodendroglioma; Anaplastic oligoastrocytoma; Chemotherapy; Recurrence; Temozolomide
Radiation therapy has been widely applied for cancer treatment. Childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), characterized by frequent central nervous system involvement, is a well documented disease for the effect of prophylactic cranio-spinal irradiation. Irradiation, however, acts as an oncogenic factor as a delayed effect and it is rare that glioblastoma multiforme develops during the remission period of ALL. We experienced a pediatric radiation-induced GBM patient which developed during the remission period of ALL, who were primarily treated with chemotherapeutic agents and brain radiation therapy for the prevention of central nervous system (CNS) relapse. Additionally, we reviewed the related literature regarding on the effects of brain irradiation in childhood and on the prognosis of radiation induced GBM.
Radiation; Glioblastoma multiforme; Acute lymphocytic leukemia
In recent years the immunocompromised population has increased rapidly to include people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), drug abusers, and transplant patients. Accordingly, the incidence of intracranial fungal infection has increased. Our institution experienced 2 cases of internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion due to invasion of the cavernous sinus by an intracranial fungal infection. The first case was a 60-year-old man who presented with headache, eye pain, conjunctival injection, right-sided diplopia, and blurred vision. Infected tissues within the frontal and ethmoid sinuses were removed via bifrontal craniotomy and endoscopic sinus surgery through the Caldwell Luc approach. The second case was a 63-year-old woman who developed right-sided facial pain after a tooth extraction. The infection was not controlled despite continuous use of antifungal agents, resulting in death from sepsis. We believe that when intracranial fungal infection is suspected in a patient with orbital symptoms and a focal neurologic deficit, immediate angiographic investigation of possible ICA occlusion is warranted. Aggressive treatment with antifungal agents is the only way to improve prognosis.
Internal carotid artery occlusion; Fungal infection
A 43-year-old male presenting with headache and dizziness underwent craniotomy and gross total resection of an extraaxial tumor was achieved via left occipital interhemispheric approach. The tumor was diagnosed as papillary meningioma arising from the left falcotentorium with such pathologic characteristics of bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma. At postoperative day 40, he developed generalized tonic clonic seizure and then progressed to a status epilepticus pattern. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed irregular leptomeningeal enhancement with a significant peritumoral area. Through a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study, we identified the meningioma cells of the papillary type from the CSF. At the postoperative day 60, he fell into semicomatose state, and the computed tomography imaging showed low density on both cerebral hemispheres, except the basal ganglia and cerebellum, with overall brain swelling and an increased intracranial pressure. He died on the following day. We experienced a rare case of a papillary meningioma with leptomeningeal seeding.
Papillary meningioma; Leptomeningeal seeding; Leptomeningeal enhancement; Generalized tonic clonic seizure; Status epilepticus
Glutamate is a key excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and its excessive release plays a key role in the development of neuronal injury. In order to define the effect of nimodipine on glutamate release, we monitored extracellular glutamate release in real-time in a global ischemia rat model with eleven vessel occlusion.
Twelve rats were randomly divided into two groups: the ischemia group and the nimodipine treatment group. The changes of extracellular glutamate level were measured using microdialysis amperometric biosensor, in coincident with cerebral blood flow (CBF) and electroencephalogram. Nimodipine (0.025 µg/100 gm/min) was infused into lateral to the CBF probe, during the ischemic period. Also, we performed Nissl staining method to assess the neuroprotective effect of nimodipine.
During the ischemic period, the mean maximum change in glutamate concentration was 133.22±2.57 µM in the ischemia group and 75.42±4.22 µM (p<0.001) in the group treated with nimodipine. The total amount of glutamate released was significantly different (p<0.001) between groups during the ischemic period. The %cell viability in hippocampus was 47.50±5.64 (p<0.005) in ischemia group, compared with sham group. But, the %cell viability in nimodipine treatment group was 95.46±6.60 in hippocampus (p<0.005).
From the real-time monitoring and Nissl staining results, we suggest that the nimodipine treatment is responsible for the protection of the neuronal cell death through the suppression of extracellular glutamate release in the 11-VO global ischemia model of rat.
Nimodipine; Glutamate; Eleven vessel occlusion ischemia model; Real-time monitoring; Nissl staining
Although cerebellar hemangioblastomas are histopathologically benign, they yield a degree of malignant clinical behavior in long-term follow-up. We present two cases of long-term progression of renal cell carcinoma, which had been diagnosed as renal cysts during treatment for cerebellar hemangioblastoma. A 14-year-old male with von Hippel-Lindau disease was admitted for a cerebellar hemangioblastoma with multiple spinal hemangioblastomas and a renal cyst. After primary total resection of the cerebellar hemangioblastoma, the patient required two further surgeries after 111 and 209 months for a recurrent cerebellar hemangioblastoma. Furthermore, he underwent radical nephrectomy as his renal cyst had progressed to renal cell carcinoma 209 months after initial diagnosis. A 26-year-old male presented with multiple cerebellar hemangioblastomas associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease and accompanied by multiple spinal hemangioblastomas and multiple cystic lesions in the liver, kidney, and pancreas. He underwent primary resection of the cerebellar hemangioblastoma in association with craniospinal radiation for multiple intracranial/spinal masses. Unexpectedly, a malignant glioma developed 83 months after discovery of the cerebellar hemangioblastoma. At the same time, renal cell carcinoma, which had developed from an initial renal cyst, was diagnosed, and a radical nephrectomy was performed. In the view of long term clinical course, cerebellar hemangioblastoma associated with von Hipple-Lindau disease may redevelop even after primary total resection. In addition, associated lesions such as renal cysts may also progress to malignancy after the passing of a sufficient length of time.
Cerebellar hemangioblastoma; von Hippel-Lindau disease; Renal cyst; Renal cell carcinoma
In surgical planning of the parasagittal meningioma, invasion and occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus are important factors. When tumor is located within anterior 1/3, or when angiographic finding shows total occlusion of superior sagittal sinus, it is regarded that the ligation of superior sagittal sinus is safe. We report a case of parasagittal meningioma in 59-year-old male patient with complete occlusion of superior sagittal sinus which was confirmed by preoperative angiography, who developed temporary neurologic deterioration after superior sagittal sinus ligation and resection.
Parasagittal meningioma; Superior sagittal sinus ligation; Transient neurologic deterioration
Orbital solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare tumor originating from the mesenchyme. We describe the clinical presentations, radiological and operative findings, and pathological features of a patient with orbital SFT. The patient was a 46-year-old female who presented with progressive proptosis advanced for 20 months. On ophthalmological examination, no visual impairment was detected, but left eye was found to be obviously protruded on exophthalmometry. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging showed a 2.5 × 2 × 2 cm, intensely enhanced mass in the left orbit, which compressed the eyeball forward and the optic nerve downward. The patient underwent frontal craniotomy with superior orbitotomy and gross total resection was performed for the tumor. The histopathological diagnosis including immunohistochemistry was a SFT. After the surgery, proptosis was markedly relieved without visual impairment. Although orbital SFT is extremely rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of orbital tumors. Clinical presentations such as painless proptosis and CD34 immunoreactivity play a significant role in differentiating orbital SFT from other spindle-cell neoplasms of the orbit.
Orbital; Solitary fibrous tumor; Mesenchymal origin tumor; CD34
We present an extremely rare case of the atypical choroid plexus papilloma in an adult which developed at the trigone of right lateral ventricle. A 62-year-old woman presented with the history of intermittent and gradually progressive headache and left side hemiparesis for 6 months. The brain magnetic resonance image showed highly enhanced and well demarcated mass at the trigone of lateral ventricle attached to the choroid plexus. Gross total resection was performed by transcortical approach via the middle temporal gyrus. The tumor was diagnosed as an atypical choroid plexus papilloma. She had no neurologic deficit after the surgery. We report a case of atypical choroid plexus papilloma in adult and introduce newly classified pathologic characteristics of this tumor.
Atypical choroid plexus papilloma; Lateral ventricle; Diffusion tensor imaging; Neuronavigation
Gas forming brain abscess is a rare disease caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae occurring in patients with impaired host defense mechanism such as diabetes mellitus or liver cirrhosis. A 59-year-old man with 2-year history of diabetes mellitus and 20-year history of liver cirrhosis presented to the hospital with headache. On the day after admission, severe headache was developed and he deteriorated rapidly. Brain CT showed a non-enhanced mass including multiple air density as well as surrounding edema seen in the right occipital lobe, and isodensity air-fluid level seen in the right lateral ventricle. Despite emergent ventricular drainage and intraventricular and intravenous administration of antibiotics, his condition progressively worsened to sepsis and to death after 5 days. Bacterial culture of blood and ventricular fluids disclosed a Gram (-) rod, Klebsiella pneumoniae. In this report we review the pathogenic mechanism and its management.
Brain abscess; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Air
This study was designed to compare the efficacy of micro-vascular decompression (MVD) and Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for elderly idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia patients by analyzing the clinical outcome.
In the past 10 years, 27 elderly patients were treated with MVD while 18 patients were treated with GKRS (>65-years-old). We reviewed their clinical characteristics and clinical courses after treatment as well as the treatment outcomes. For patients who were treated with MVD, additional treatment methods such as rhizotomy were combined in some areas. In GKRS, we radiated the root entry zone (REZ) with the mean maximum dose of 77.8 (70-84.3) Gy and one 4 mm collimator.
The mean age was 68.1 years for MVD, and 71.1 years for GKS group. The average time interval between first presenting symptom and surgery was 84.1 (1-361) months, and 51.4 (1-120) months, respectively. The mean follow-up period after the surgery was 35.9 months for MVD, and 33.1 months for GKRS. According to Pain Intensity Scale, MVD group showed better prognosis with 17 (63%) cases in grade I-II versus 10 (55.6%) cases in GKRS group after the treatment. The pain recurrence rate during follow up did not show much difference with 3 (11.1%) in MVD, and 2 (11.1%) in GKRS. After the treatment, 2 cases of facial numbness, and 1 case each of herpes zoster, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, hearing disturbance, and subdural hematoma occurred in MVD Group. In GKRS, there was 1 (5.6%) case of dysesthesia but was not permanent. Three cases were retreated by GKRS but the prognosis was not as good as when the surgery was used as primary treatment, with 1 case of grade I-II, and 1 case of recurrence. The maximal relieve of pain was seen just after surgery in MVD group, and 1 year after treatment in GKRS group.
For trigeminal neuralgia patients with advanced age, MVD showed advantages in immediately relieving the pain. However, in overall, GKRS was preferable, despite the delayed pain relief, due to the lower rate of surgical complications that arise owing to the old age.
Elderly patient; Idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia; Micro-vascular decompression; Gamma knife radiosurgery
Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is considered as a reversible pathophysiological condition mainly induced by continuous vascular compression of the facial nerve root exit zone (REZ) at the cerebellopontine angle. As an offending vessel, vertebrobasilar artery tends to compress much more heavily than others. The authors analyzed HFS caused by vertebrobasilar artery and described the relationships between microsurgical findings and clinical courses.
Out of 1,798 cases treated with microvascular decompression (MVD) from Jan. 1980 to Dec. 2004, the causative vessels were either vertebral artery or basilar artery in 87 patients. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled in this study. Preoperatively, computed tomography (CT) or brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with 3-dimentional short range MR technique was performed and CT was checked immediately or 2-3 days after anesthetic recovery. The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, the compression patterns of the vessels at the time of surgery and treatment outcomes.
There were 47 were male and 32 female patients. HFS developed on the left side in 52 cases and on the right side in 27. The mean age of onset was 52.3 years (range 19-60) and the mean duration of symptoms was 10.7 years. Many patients (39 cases; 49.1%) had past history of hypertension. HFS caused only by the vertebral artery was 8 cases although most of the other cases were caused by vertebral artery (VA) in combination with its branching arteries. Most frequently, the VA and the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were the simultaneous causative blood vessels comprising 32 cases (40.5%), and in 27 cases (34.2%) the VA and the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) were the offenders. Facial symptoms disappeared in 61 cases (77.2%) immediately after the operation and 68 cases (86.1%) showed good outcome after 6 months. Surgical outcome just after the operation was poor in whom the perforators arose from the offending vessels concurrently (p<0.05).
In case where the vertebral artery is a cause of HFS, commonly branching arteries associated with main arterial compression on facial REZ requires more definite treatment for proper decompression because of its relatively poor results compared to the condition caused by other vascular compressive origins.
Hemifacial spasm; Vertebrobasilar artery
Cause of pituitary apoplexy has been known as hemorrhage, hemorrhagic infarction or infarction of pituitary adenoma or adjacent tissues of pituitary gland. However, pituitary apoplexy caused by pure infarction of pituitary adenoma has been rarely reported. Here, we present the two cases pituitary apoplexies caused by pituitary adenoma infarction that were confirmed by transsphenoidal approach (TSA) and pathologic reports. Pathologic report of first case revealed total tumor infarction of a nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma and second case partial tumor infarction of ACTH secreting pituitary macroadenoma. Patients with pituitary apoplexy which was caused by pituitary adenoma infarction unrelated to hemorrhage or hemorrhagic infarction showed good response to TSA treatment. Further study on the predisposing factors of pituitary apoplexy and the mechanism of infarction in pituitary adenoma is necessary.
Pituitary apoplexy; Pituitary adenoma infarction