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1.  Semi-Quantitative Analyses of Hippocampal Heat Shock Protein-70 Expression Based on the Duration of Ischemia and the Volume of Cerebral Infarction in Mice 
Objective
We investigated the expression of hippocampal heat shock protein 70 (HSP-70) infarction volume after different durations of experimental ischemic stroke in mice.
Methods
Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in mice by occluding the middle cerebral artery with the modified intraluminal filament technique. Twenty-four hours after ischemia induction, both hippocampi were extracted for HSP-70 protein analyses. Slices from each hemisphere were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (2%), and infarction volumes were calculated. HSP-70 levels were evaluated using western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HSP-70 subtype (hsp70.1, hspa1a, hspa1b) mRNA levels in the hippocampus were measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Results
Cerebral infarctions were found ipsilateral to the occlusion in 10 mice exposed to transient ischemia (5 each in the 30-min and 60-min occlusion groups), whereas no focal infarctions were noted in any of the sham mice. The average infarct volumes of the 2 ischemic groups were 22.28±7.31 mm3 [30-min group±standard deviation (SD)] and 38.06±9.53 mm3 (60-min group±SD). Western blot analyses and ELISA showed that HSP-70 in hippocampal tissues increased in the infarction groups than in the sham group. However, differences in HSP-70 levels between the 2 infarction groups were statistically insignificant. Moreover, RT-PCR results demonstrated no relationship between the mRNA expression of HSP-70 subtypes and occlusion time or infarction volume.
Conclusion
Our results indicated no significant difference in HSP-70 expression between the 30- and 60-min occlusion groups despite the statistical difference in infarction volumes. Furthermore, HSP-70 subtype mRNA expression was independent of both occlusion duration and cerebral infarction volume.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.6.307
PMCID: PMC4166325  PMID: 25237425
Cerebral infarction volume; Heat shock protein; Occlusion time
2.  Standards for Endovascular Neurosurgical Training and Certification of the Society of Korean Endovascular Neurosurgeons 2013 
The need for standard endovascular neurosurgical (ENS) training programs and certification in Korea cannot be overlooked due to the increasing number of ENS specialists and the expanding ENS field. The Society of Korean Endovascular Neurosurgeons (SKEN) Certification Committee has prepared training programs and certification since 2010, and the first certificates were issued in 2013. A task force team (TFT) was organized in August 2010 to develop training programs and certification. TFT members researched programs and systems in other countries to develop a program that best suited Korea. After 2 years, a rough draft of the ENS training and certification regulations were prepared, and the standard training program title was decided. The SKEN Certification Committee made an official announcement about the certification program in March 2013. The final certification regulations comprised three major parts: certified endovascular neurosurgeons (EN), certified ENS institutions, and certified ENS training institutions. Applications have been evaluated and the results were announced in June 2013 as follows: 126 members received EN certification and 55 hospitals became ENS-certified institutions. The SKEN has established standard ENS training programs together with a certification system, and it is expected that they will advance the field of ENS to enhance public health and safety in Korea.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.3.117
PMCID: PMC4024809  PMID: 24851145
Endovascular Neurosurgery; Certification Committee; Society of Korean Endovascular Neurosurgeons
3.  Rupture of De Novo Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm 8 Days after the Clipping of Ruptured Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm 
Rapidly developed de novo aneurysm is very rare. We present a rapidly developed and ruptured de novo anterior communicating aneurysm 8 days after the rupture of another aneurysm. This de novo aneurysm was not apparent in the initial 3-dimensional computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography. We reviewed the literature and discussed possible mechanisms for the development of this de novo aneurysm.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.54.3.236
PMCID: PMC3836932  PMID: 24278654
De novo aneurysm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Aneurysm formation; Computed tomography angiography; Digital subtraction angiography
4.  Fatal Case of Cerebral Aspergillosis : A Case Report and Literature Review 
Cerebral aspergillosis is rare and usually misdiagnosed because its presentation is similar to that of a tumor. The correct diagnosis is usually made intra-operatively. Cerebral abscess with fungal infection is extremely rare and few cases have been reported, but it carries a poor prognosis.
A 73 year-old man presented with decreased visual acuity and paresis of the right cranial nerve III. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass in the right cavernous sinus, extened to the anterior crainial fossa and the superior orbital fissure. During surgery, a well encapsulated pus pocket was found, and histopathological examination of the mass resulted in the diagnosis of aspergillosis. Despite appropriate anti-fungal treatment, the patient eventually died from fatal cerebral ischemic change and severe brain swelling.
The correct diagnosis of cerebral aspergillosis can only be achieved by histopathological examination because clinical and radiological findings including MRI are not specific. Surgical intervention and antifungal therapy should be considered the optimal treatment. Early diagnosis and aggressive antifungal treatment provide good results.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.4.420
PMCID: PMC3488657  PMID: 23133737
Aspergillosis; Brain abscess; Neuroaspergillosis; Voriconazole
5.  Angiographic Features and Clinical Outcomes of Intra-Arterial Nimodipine Injection in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Vasospasm 
Objective
The aim of this study was to determine the role of intra-arterial (IA) nimodipine injections for cerebral vasospasm secondary to ruptured subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to investigate the factors that influence vasodilation and clinical outcomes.
Methods
We enrolled 29 patients who underwent aneurysm clipping for ruptured cerebral aneurysms between 2009 and 2011, and who received IA nimodipine after subsequently presenting with symptomatic vasospasm. The degree of vasodilation shown in angiography was measured, and the correlation between the degree of vasodilation and both the interval from SAH to cerebral vasospasm and the interval from clipping to cerebral vasospasm was determined. The change in blood flow rate after IA injection was assessed by transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Multiple clinical parameters were completed before and after IA nimodipine injection to evaluate any improvements in clinical symptoms.
Results
For eight patients, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores increased by two or more points. The regression analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between the change in GCS scores after IA nimodipine injection and the change in blood vessel diameter (p=0.025). A positive correlation was also observed between the interval from SAH to vasospasm and the change in diameter (p=0.040); and the interval from clipping to vasospasm and the change in diameter (p=0.022).
Conclusion
IA nimodipine injection for SAH-induced vasospasm led to significant vasodilation in angiography and improvement in clinical symptoms without significant complications. Our findings suggest that IA nimodipine injection should be utilized when intractable vasospasm develops despite rigorous conservative management.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.3.172
PMCID: PMC3483315  PMID: 23115657
Cerebral angiograms; Intra-arterial injection; Nimodipine; Ruptured aneurysm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Vasospasm
6.  Decompressive Hemicraniectomy and Duroplasty in Toddlers and Preschool Children with Refractory Intracranial Hypertension after Unilateral Hemispheric Stroke 
Objective
Life-threatening hemispheric stroke is associated with a high mortality and morbidity. Decompressive hemicraniectomy has been regarded as an effective treatment option for refractory intracranial hypertension. Here, we reported the clinical course of 5 children with decompressive craniectomy and duroplasty after non-traumatic refractory intracranial hypertension.
Methods
Four toddlers and one preschool-girl were included in this study; there were 3 boys and 2 girls with a mean age of 34.6 months (range 17-80). Decompressive craniectomy including duroplasty was performed in cases of dilatation of pupil size after intensified standard medical therapy had proven insufficient. All children had a Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale score <8 at pre-operation state. The mean time-point of craniectomy after stroke attack was 12 hours (range 4-19).
Results
During the long-term follow-up period (mean 47.6 months), no children died. One year later, when we checked their Glasgow Outcome Scale scores, only one toddler received a score of 4 (moderate disability). But the others had good recoveries although they had minor physical or mental deficits. According to the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category Scale, 4 children received a score of 2 (mild disability).
Conclusion
Despite our small cases, we suggest that decompressive hemicraniectomy and duroplasty is an acceptable and life-saving treatment for refractory intracranial hypertension after unilateral hemispheric stroke in toddlers and preschool children.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.51.2.86
PMCID: PMC3322213  PMID: 22500199
Decompressive craniectomy; Stroke; Pediatric; Outcome
7.  Supratentorial Cortical Ependymoma in a 21-Month-Old Boy 
Two-thirds of ependymomas arise in the infratentorial or intraventricles, whereas one-third are located supratentorially. But supratentorial "cortical" ependymomas are very rare. We report a case of a cortical ependymoma in a 21-month-old boy. The patient presented with simple partial seizures. This tumor was located in the postcentral gyrus and he had gross total excision. Microscopy and immunohistochemistry showed grade II differentiation ependymoma.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.3.244
PMCID: PMC3218186  PMID: 22102957
Ependymoma; Pediatrics; Supratentorial neoplasm; Immunohistochemistry
8.  Rapid Atypical Progression of Neuro-Behçet's Disease Involving Whole Brainstem and Bilateral Thalami 
We present a case of Neuro-Behçet's disease with an unpredictable clinical course. A 47-year-old man was admitted to the neurosurgery department of our hospital with a mild headache. Three days after admission, his consciousness suddenly decreased and respiratory distress progressed rapidly. A brain MRI revealed that the previously observed abnormal signal had extended markedly to both the thalamic areas and the entire brain stem, and the surrounding brain parenchyma were compressed by cerebral edema. Based on the patient's symptoms of recurrent oral and genital ulcers, skin lesions, and uveitis, a rheumatologist made a diagnosis of Behçet's disease with CNS involvement. The patient was treated with high-dose methylprednisolone with respiratory assistance in the intensive care unit for 9 days and his neurologic symptoms improved remarkably. Neuro-Behçet's disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis in rapidly deteriorated young neurological patients along with a stroke, low-grade glioma, multiple sclerosis, and occlusive venous disease.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.1.68
PMCID: PMC3159888  PMID: 21892411
Behçet's disease; Neuro-Behçet's disease; Central Nerve System manifestation; Neurological deterioration
9.  Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization for the Proximal Middle Cerebral Artery Fusiform Aneurysm 
Middle cerebral artery (MCA) fusiform aneurysms often have an unfavorable geometry that may limit surgical or endovascular treatment. Herein, we present a case of a fusiform aneurysm of the proximal MCA, which was successfully treated using stent-assisted coil embolization. A 42-year-old man presented with repeated headache and syncope. Five years earlier, a right MCA aneurysm had been treated by aneurismal wrapping. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) revealed a partially-thrombosed proximal MCA aneurysm at the right perisylvian region. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed a multilobulated fusiform-shaped aneurysm. The patient underwent stent-assisted coil embolization under general anesthesia and symptoms resolved postoperatively. A three-month follow-up angiography revealed no recanalization of the aneurysm and indicated tolerable blood flow through the right MCA, as compared to the preoperative angiography. We suggest that in selected patients, stent-assisted coil embolization of proximal MCA fusiform aneurysms can be an effective treatment modality.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.5.406
PMCID: PMC2883067  PMID: 20539806
Middle cerebral artery; Fusiform aneurysm; Therapeutic embolization; Stent
10.  Treatment of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms in South Korea in 2006 : A Nationwide Multicenter Survey from the Korean Society of Cerebrovascular Surgery 
Objective
There have been no clinical studies regarding the epidemiology and treatment outcome for unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) in South Korea yet. Thus, The Korean Society of Cerebrovascular Surgery (KSCVS) decided to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics, and outcome of the treatment of UIA in 2006, using the nationwide multicenter survey in South Korea.
Methods
A total of 1,696 cases were enrolled retrospectively over one year at 48 hospitals. The following data were obtained from all patients : age, sex, presence of symptoms, location and size of the aneurysm, treatment modality, presence of risk factors for stroke, and the postoperative 30-day morbidity and mortality.
Results
The demographic data showed female predominance and peak age of seventh and sixth decades. Supraclinoid internal carotid artery was the most common site of aneurysms with a mean size of 5.6 mm. Eight-hundred-forty-six patients (49.9%) were treated with clipping, 824 (48.6%) with coiling, and 26 with combined method. The choice of the treatment modalities was related to hospital (p = 0.000), age (p = 0.000), presence of symptom (p = 0.003), and location of aneurysm (p = 0.000). The overall 30-day morbidity and mortality were 7.4% and 0.3%, respectively. The 30-day mortality was 0.4% for clipping and 0.2% for coiling, and morbidity was 8.4% for clipping and 6.3% for coiling. Age (p = 0.010), presence of symptoms (p = 0.034), size (p = 0.000) of aneurysm, and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.000) were significant prognostic factors, while treatment modality was not.
Conclusion
This first nation-wide multicenter survey on UIAs demonstrates the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, outcome and the prognostic factors of the treatment of UIAs in South Korea. The 30-day postoperative outcome for UIAs seems to be reasonable morbidity and mortality in South Korea.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.2.112
PMCID: PMC2836445  PMID: 20224709
Aneurysm; Intracranial; Unruptured; National survey; Korea; Multicenter study; Treatment outcome
11.  Risk of Stroke with Temporary Arterial Occlusion in Patients Undergoing Craniotomy for Cerebral Aneurysm 
Objective
This study was performed to elucidate the technical and patient-specific risk factors for postoperative ischemia in patients undergoing temporary arterial occlusion (TAO) during the surgical repair of their aneurysms.
Methods
Eighty-nine consecutive patients in whom TAO was performed during surgical repair of an aneurysm were retrospectively analyzed. The demographics of the patients were analyzed with respect to age, Hunt and Hess grade on admission, Fisher grade of hemorrhage, aneurysm characteristics, timing of surgery, duration of temporary occlusion, and number of temporary occlusive episodes. Outcome was analyzed at the 3-month follow-up, along with the occurrence of symptomatic and radiological stroke.
Results
In overall, twenty-seven patients (29.3%) had radiologic ischemia attributable to TAO and fifteen patients (16.3%) had symptomatic ischemia attributable to TAO. Older age and poor clinical grade were associated with poor clinical outcome. There was a significantly higher rate of symptomatic ischemia in patients who underwent early surgery (p = 0.007). The incidence of ischemia was significantly higher in patients with TAO longer than 10 minutes (p = 0.01). In addition, patients who underwent repeated TAO, which allowed reperfusion, had a lower incidence of ischemia than those who underwent single TAO lasting for more than 10 minutes (p = 0.011).
Conclusion
Duration of occlusion is the only variable that needs to be considered when assessing the risk of postoperative ischemic complication in patients who undergo temporary vascular occlusion. Attention must be paid to the patient's age, grade of hemorrhage, and the timing of surgery. In addition, patients undergoing dissection when brief periods of temporary occlusion are performed may benefit more from intermittent reperfusion than continuous clip application. With careful planning, the use of TAO is a safe technique when used for periods of less than 10 minutes.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.1.31
PMCID: PMC2729821  PMID: 19707491
Temporary arterial occlusion; Intracranial aneurysm; Cerebral ischemia
12.  Biomechanical Study of Lumbar Spinal Arthroplasty with a Semi-Constrained Artificial Disc (Activ L) in the Human Cadaveric Spine 
Objective
The goal of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical features of human cadaveric spines implanted with the Activ L prosthesis.
Methods
Five cadaveric human lumbosacral spines (L2-S2) were tested for different motion modes, i.e. extension and flexion, right and left lateral bending and rotation. Baseline measurements of the range of motion (ROM), disc pressure (DP), and facet strain (FS) were performed in six modes of motion by applying loads up to 8 Nm, with a loading rate of 0.3 Nm/second. A constant 400 N axial follower preload was applied throughout the loading. After the Activ L was implanted at the L4-L5 disc space, measurements were repeated in the same manner.
Results
The Activ L arthroplasty showed statistically significant decrease of ROM during rotation, increase of ROM during flexion and lateral bending at the operative segment and increase of ROM at the inferior segment during flexion. The DP of the superior disc of the operative site was comparable to those of intact spine and the DP of the inferior disc decreased in all motion modes, but these were not statistically significant. For FS, statistically significant decrease was detected at the operative facet during flexion and at the inferior facet during rotation.
Conclusion
In vitro physiologic preload setting, the Activ L arthroplasty showed less restoration of ROM at the operative and adjacent levels as compared with intact spine. However, results of this study revealed that there are several possible theoretical useful results to reduce the incidence of adjacent segment disease.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.45.3.169
PMCID: PMC2666119  PMID: 19352479
Biomechanics; Lumbar spinal arthroplasty; Activ L; Range of motion; Disc pressure; Facet strain
13.  Radiologic Assessment of Subsidence in Stand-Alone Cervical Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Cage 
Objective
Aim of study was to find a proper method for assessing subsidence using a radiologic measurement following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK), Solis™ cage.
Methods
Forty-two patients who underwent ACDF with Solis™ cage were selected. With a minimum follow-up of 6 months, the retrospective investigation was conducted for 37 levels in 32 patients. Mean follow-up period was 18.9 months. Total intervertebral height (TIH) of two fused vertebral bodies was measured on digital radiographs with built-in software. Degree of subsidence (ΔTIH) was reflected by the difference between the immediate postoperative and follow-up TIH. Change of postoperative disc space height (CT-MRΔTIH) was reflected by the difference between TIH of the preoperative mid-sagittal 2D CT and that of the preoperative mid-sagittal T1-weighted MRI.
Results
Compared to preoperative findings, postoperative disc height was increased in all cases and subsidence was observed only in 3 cases. For comparison of subsidence and non-subsidence group, TIH and CT-MRΔTIH of each group were analyzed. There was no statistically significant difference in TIH and CT-MRΔTIH between each group at 4 and 8 weeks, but a difference was observed at the last follow-up TIH (p=0.0497).
Conclusion
ACDF with Solis™ cage was associated with relatively good radiologic long-term results. Fusion was achieved in 94.5% and subsidence occurred in 8.1% by the radiologic assessment. Statistical analysis reveals that the subsidence seen later than 8 weeks after surgery and the development of subsidence does not correlate statistically with the change of the postoperative disc space height.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.6.370
PMCID: PMC2615140  PMID: 19137081
Cervical PEEK cage; Radiologic assessment; subsidence; Fusion rate; Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion
14.  Surgical Treatment for Acute, Severe Brain Infarction 
Objective
Stroke is the most prevalent disease involving the central nervous system. Since medical modalities are sometimes ineffective for the acute edema following massive infarction, surgical decompression may be an effective option when medical treatments fail. The present study was undertaken to assess the outcome and prognostic factors of decompressive surgery in life threatening acute, severe, brain infarction.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed twenty-six patients (17 males and 9 females; average age, 49.7yrs) who underwent decompressive surgery for severe cerebral or cerebellar infarction from January 2003 to December 2006. Surgical indication was based on the clinical signs such as neurological deterioration, pupillary reflex, and radiological findings. Clinical outcome was assessed by Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS).
Results
Of the 26 patients, 5 (19.2%) showed good recovery, 5 (19.2%) showed moderate disability, 2 (7.7%) severe disability, 6 (23.1%) persistent experienced vegetative state, and 8 (30.8%) death. In this study, the surgical decompression improved outcome for cerebellar infarction, but decompressive surgery did not show a good result for MCA infarction (30.8% overall mortality vs 100% mortality). The dominant-hemisphere infarcts showed worse prognosis, compared with nondominant-hemisphere infarcts (54.5% vs 70%). Poor prognostic factors were diabetes mellitus, dominant-hemisphere infarcts and low preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score.
Conclusion
The patients who exhibit clinical deterioration despite aggressive medical management following severe cerebral infarction should be considered for decompressive surgery. For better outcome, prompt surgical treatment is mandatory. We recommend that patients with severe cerebral infarction should be referred to neurosurgical department primarily in emergency setting or as early as possible for such prompt surgical treatment.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2007.42.4.326
PMCID: PMC2588211  PMID: 19096564
Cerebral infarct; Brain edema; Decompression; Surgery; Craniectomy

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