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1.  Paradoxical Exacerbation of Symptoms with Obstruction of the Venous Outflow after Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Treatment of a Dural Arteriovenous Fistula of the Cavernous Sinus 
A 59-year-old female presented with progressive right proptosis, chemosis and ocular pain. An imaging work-up including conventional catheter angiography showed a right-sided dural arteriovenous fistula of the cavernous sinus, which drained into the right superior petrosal sinus, right superior ophthalmic vein, and right inferior ophthalmic vein, and cortical venous reflux was seen via the right petrosal vein in the right posterior fossa. After failure of transvenous embolization, the patient underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). At one month after GKRS, she developed increasing ocular pain and occipital headache. Repeat angiography showed partial obliteration of the fistula and loss of drainage via the superior and inferior ophthalmic veins with severe congestion, resulting in slow flow around the right cerebellar hemisphere. Prompt transarterial embolization relieved the patient's ocular symptoms and headache. We report on a case of paradoxical exacerbation of symptoms resulting from obstruction of the venous outflow after GKRS for treatment of a dural arteriovenous fistula of the cavernous sinus.
PMCID: PMC4345191  PMID: 25733995
Dural arteriovenous fistula; Gamma Knife; Stereotactic radiosurgery
2.  Emergent Recanalization with Stenting for Acute Stroke due to Athero-Thrombotic Occlusion of the Cervical Internal Carotid Artery : A Single Center Experience 
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of emergent carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) for acute stroke due to athero-thrombotic occlusion of the cervical internal carotid artery (ICA).
Review of medical records identified 17 patients who underwent emergent CAS for treatment of athero-thrombotic occlusion of the cervical ICA with acute stroke between 2009 and 2013. Eleven patients (64.7%) presented with concomitant intracranial artery occlusion, which was treated primarily by mechanical thrombectomy after CAS.
Successful revascularization of the cervical ICA with emergent CAS was achieved in all patients. After CAS, intracranial recanalization with Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction ≥2b flow was achieved in four of the 11 patients (36.4%). The overall recanalization rate (cervical ICA and intracranial artery) was 10 of 17 patients (58.8%). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in two patients (11.8%), resulting in death. Ten patients (58.8%) showed improvement (decrease in NIHSS score of ≥4 points) at seven days after recanalization. Nine patients (52.9%) showed a favorable outcome (mRS ≤2) at the last follow-up. A favorable outcome (mRS ≤2) was obtained in four of the six patients with isolated cervical ICA occlusion (4/6, 66.7%) and five of 11 patients with intracranial tandem occlusion (5/11, 45.5%).
Emergent CAS for acute stroke due to athero-thrombotic occusion of the cervical ICA showed a good technical feasibility and favorable clinical outcome.
PMCID: PMC4166326  PMID: 25237426
Carotid stent; Stroke; Carotid occlusion; Thrombolysis
3.  Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysms Arising from the Proximal Segment of the Anterior Cerebral Artery 
Aneurysms arising from the proximal segment of the anterior cerebral artery (A1) are rare and challenging to treat. The aim of this study was to report our experience with endovascular treatment of A1 Aneurysms.
From August 2007 through May 2012, eleven A1 aneurysms in eleven patients were treated endovascularly. Six aneurysms were unruptured and 5 were ruptured. One patient with an unruptured A1 aneurysm presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Procedural data, clinical and angiographic results were reviewed retrospectively.
All of the aneurysms were successfully treated with coil embolization. Six were treated with a simple technique while the remaining 5 required adjunctive technique : double catheters (n=2), balloon-assisted (n=2), and stent-assisted (n=1). The immediate angiographic control showed a complete occlusion in all cases. Procedure-related complication occurred in only one patient : parent artery occlusion, which was not clinically significant. All patients had excellent clinical outcomes but one patient was discharged with a slight disability. No neurologic deterioration or bleeding was seen during the follow-up period in this cohort of patients. Follow-up angiography (mean, 20 months) was available in ten patients and revealed stable occlusion in all cases.
Endovascular treatment is a feasible and effective therapeutic modality for A1 aneurysms. Tailored microcatheter shaping and/or adjunctive techniques are necessary for successful aneurysm embolization because of the projection and location of A1 aneurysms.
PMCID: PMC3809447  PMID: 24175019
Endovascular treatment; Intracranial aneurysm; Anterior cerebral artery aneurysm
4.  Retained Microcatheter after Onyx Embolization of Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformation 
Endovascular embolization is being increasingly used to treat intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, we experienced two patients with retained microcatheters after AVM embolization using Onyx.
PMCID: PMC3424180  PMID: 22949969
Arteriovenous malformation; Onyx; Retained microcatheter
5.  Urgent Recanalization with Stenting for Severe Intracranial Atherosclerosis after Transient Ischemic Attack or Minor Stroke 
Stenting of symptomatic intracranial stenosis has recently become an alternative treatment modality. However, urgent intracranial stenting in patients with intracranial stenosis following a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke is open to dispute. We sought to assess the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of urgent intracranial stenting for severe stenosis (>70%) in TIA or minor stroke patients.
Between June 2009 and October 2010, stent-assisted angioplasty by using a balloon-expandable coronary stent for intracranial severe stenosis (>70%) was performed in 7 patients after TIA and 5 patients after minor stroke (14 stenotic lesions). Technical success rates, complications, angiographic findings, and clinical outcomes were retrospectively analyzed.
Stenting was successful in all 12 patients. The mean time from symptom onset to stenting was 2.1 days (1-8 days). Post-procedural angiography showed restoration to a normal luminal diameter in all patients. In-stent thrombosis occurred in one patient (n=1, 8.3%), and was lysed with abciximab. No device-related complications, such as perforations or dissections at the target arteries or intracranial hemorrhaging, occurred in any patient. The mortality rate was 0%. No patient had an ischemic event over the mean follow-up period of 12.5 months (range, 7-21 months), and follow-up angiography (n=7) revealed no significant in-stent restenosis (>50%).
Urgent recanalization with stenting is feasible, safe, and effective in patients with TIA or acute minor stroke with intracranial stenosis of ≥70%.
PMCID: PMC3243835  PMID: 22200014
Acute ischemic stroke; Transient ischemic attack; Intracranial atherosclerosis; Intracranial stenting
6.  Endovascular Treatment Using Graft-Stent for Pseudoaneurysm of the Cavernous Internal Carotid Artery 
A 57-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of left oculomotor palsy. Digital subtraction angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm of the left cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) measuring 37×32 mm. The pseudoaneurysm was treated with a balloon expandable graft-stent to occlude the aneurysmal neck and preserve the parent artery. A post-procedure angiogram confirmed normal patency of the ICA and complete sealing of the aneurysmal neck with no opacification of the sac. After the procedure, the oculomotor palsy improved gradually, and had completely resolved 3 months after the procedure. A graft-stent can be an effective treatment for a pseudoaneurysm of the cavernous ICA with preservation of the parent artery.
PMCID: PMC3159881  PMID: 21892405
Internal carotid artery; Pseudoaneurysm; Graft-stent; Oculomotor palsy
7.  Glue Embolization of Ruptured Anterior Thalamoperforating Artery Aneurysm in Patient with Both Internal Carotid Arteries Occlusion 
Thalamoperforating artery aneurysms are rarely reported in the literature. We report an extremely rare case of ruptured distal anterior thalamoperforating artery aneurysm which was treated by endovascular obliteration in a patient with occlusion of both the internal carotid arteries (ICAs) : A 72-year-old woman presented with severe headache and loss of consciousness. Initial level of consciousness at the time of admission was drowsy and the Glasgow Coma Scale score was 14. Brain computed tomography (CT) scan was performed which revealed intracerebral hemorrhage in right basal ganglia, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intraventricular hemorrhage. The location of the aneurysm was identified as within the globus pallidus on CT angiogram. Conventional cerebral angiogram demonstrated occlusion of both the ICAs just distal to the fetal type of posterior communicating artery and the aneurysm was arising from right anterior thalamoperforating artery (ATPA). A microcatheter was navigated into ATPA and the ATPA proximal to aneurysm was embolized with 20% glue. Post-procedural ICA angiogram demonstrated no contrast filling of the aneurysm sac. The patient was discharged without any neurologic deficit. Endovascular treatment of ATPA aneurysm is probably a more feasible and safe treatment modality than surgical clipping because of the deep seated location of aneurysm and the possibility of brain retraction injury during surgical operation.
PMCID: PMC3115150  PMID: 21716902
Anterior thalamoperforating artery; Aneurysm; Glue embolization
8.  Safety and Efficacy of Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty Using a Compliant Balloon for Severe Cerebral Vasospasm after an Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 
Vasospasm of cerebral vessels remains a major source of morbidity and mortality after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of transluminal balloon angioplasty (TBA) for SAH-induced vasospasm.
Eleven patients with an angiographically confirmed significant vasospasm (>50% vessel narrowing and clinical deterioration) were studied. A total of 54 vessel segments with significant vasospasm were treated by TBA. Digital subtraction angiography was used to confirm the presence of vasospasm, and TBA was performed to dilate vasospastic arteries. Medical and angiographic reports were reviewed to determine technical efficacy and for procedural complications.
TBA using Hyper-Glide or Hyper-Form balloons (MicroTherapeutics, Irvine, CA) was successfully accomplished in 88.9% vasospastic segments (48 of 54), namely, in the distal internal carotid artery (100%, n=7), the middle cerebral artery (100%), including the M1 (n=10), M2 (n=10), and M3 segments (n=4), in the vertebral artery (100%, n=2), basilar artery (100%, n=1), and in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), including the A1 (66%), A2 (66%), and A3 segments (100%). Vessel diameters significantly increased after TBA. There were no cases of vessel rupture or thromboembolic complications. GCS at one day after TBA showed an improvement in all patients except one.
This study suggests that TBA using Hyper-Glide or Hyper-Form balloons is a safe and effective treatment for subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm.
PMCID: PMC3085811  PMID: 21556235
Transluminal balloon angioplasty; Vasospasm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Endovascular procedure
9.  Fusiform Aneurysm Presenting with Cervical Radiculopathy in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome 
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV is characterized by its clinical manifestations, which are easy bruising, thin skin with visible veins, and rupture of arteries, uterus, or intestines. Arterial complications are the leading cause of death in vascular EDS because they are unpredictable and surgical repair is difficult due to tissue fragility. The authors report a case presented with cervical radiculopathy due to a segmental fusiform aneurysm of the cervical vertebral artery. Transfemoral cerebral angiography (TFCA) was done to verify the aneurysmal dilatation. However, during TFCA, bleeding at the puncture site was not controlled, skin and underlying muscle was disrupted and profound bleeding occurred during manual compression after femoral catheter removal. Accordingly, surgical repair of the injured femoral artery was performed. At this time it was possible to diagnose it as an EDS with fusiform aneurysm on cervical vertebral artery. Particularly, cervical fusiform aneurysm is rare condition, and therefore, connective tissue disorder must be considered in such cases. If connective tissue disorder is suspected, the authors suggest that a noninvasive imaging modality, such as, high quality computed tomography angiography, be used to evaluate the vascular lesion to avoid potential arterial complications.
PMCID: PMC3053548  PMID: 21430980
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome; Cervical radiculopathy; Fusiform aneurysm; Vascular reconstruction
10.  Endovascular Treatment of Wide-Necked Intracranial Aneurysms Using Balloon-Assisted Technique with HyperForm Balloon 
To assess the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of the balloon-assisted technique with HyperForm balloon in the endovascular treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms.
A total of 34 patients with 34 wide-necked intracranial aneurysms were treated with endovascular coil embolization using balloon-assisted technique with Hyperform balloon. Twenty-nine aneurysms (85.3%) were located in the anterior circulation. The group of patients was comprised of 16 men and 18 women, aged 33 to 72 years (mean : 60.6 years). The size of aneurysms was in the range of 2.0 to 22.0 mm (mean 5.5 mm) and one of neck was 2.0 to 11.9 mm (mean 3.8 mm). The dome to neck ratio was ranged from 0.83 to 1.43 (1.15). Sixteen patients were treated for unruptured aneurysms and the remaining 18 presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage.
In the 34 aneurysms treated by the remodeling technique with HyperForm balloon, immediate angiographic results consisted of total occlusion in 31 cases (91.2%) and partial occlusion in three cases (8.8%). There were five procedure-related complications (14.7%), including two coil protrusions and three thromboembolisms; Except one patient, all were successfully resolved without permanent neurologic deficit. No new bleeding occurred during the follow-up. Twenty patients (59%) underwent angiographic follow-up from 2 to 33 months (mean 9.2 months) after treatment. Focal recanalization with coil compaction of the neck portion was observed in 5 cases (25%). Only one case showed major recanalization and underwent stent-assisted coil embolization.
The balloon-assisted technique with Hyperform balloon is a feasible, safe, and effective endovascular treatment of wide-necked cerebral aneurysms.
PMCID: PMC2966720  PMID: 21082046
Intracranial aneurysms; Wide-necked aneurysms; Endovascular treatment; Balloon-assisted technique
11.  Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms with Oculomotor Nerve Palsy : Clinical Outcome between Surgical Clipping and Coil Embolization 
To evaluate the clinical outcome of coil embolization for unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) with oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) compared with surgical clipping.
A total of 19 patients presented with ONP caused by UIAs between Jan 2004 and June 2008. Ten patients underwent coil embolization and nine patients surgical clipping. The following parameters were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate the differences in clinical outcome observed in both coil embolization and surgical clipping : 1) gender, 2) age, 3) location of the aneurysm, 4) duration of the symptom, and 5) degree of ONP.
Following treatment, complete symptomatic recovery or partial relief from ONP was observed in 15 patients. Seven of the ten patients were treated by coil embolization, compared to eight of the nine patients treated by surgical clipping (p = 0.582). Patient's gender, age, location of the aneurysm, size of the aneurysm, duration of symptom, and degree of the ONP did not statistically correlate with recovery of symptoms between the two groups. No significant differences were observed in mean improvement time in either group (55 days in coil embolization and 60 days in surgical clipping).
This study indicates that no significant differences were observed in the clinical outcome between coil embolization and surgical clipping techniques in the treatment of aneurysms causing ONP. Coil embolization seems to be more feasible and safe treatment modality for the relief and recovery of oculomotor nerve palsy.
PMCID: PMC2941851  PMID: 20856657
Oculomotor nerve palsy; Intracranial aneurysm; Surgical clipping; Coil embolization
12.  Endovascular Graft-Stent Placement for Treatment of Traumatic Carotid Cavernous Fistulas 
Detachable balloon-based endovascular fistula occlusion is a widely accepted treatment for traumatic carotid cavernous fistulas (CCF). However, more recently coils have been used to obliterate the lesion, especially in case detachable balloon is not available. We failed balloon-assisted coil embolization for CCF because of large fistulas and herniation of coil loops into the parent artery. The authors describe our experiences of balloonexpandable graft-stents to treat CCF, and place emphasis on arterial wall reconstruction. Three traumatic CCF patients were treated using a graft-stent with/without coils, and underwent angiographic follow-up to evaluate the patency of the internal carotid artery (ICA). In all cases, symptoms related to CCF regressed after stent deployment and did not recur during follow-up. Follow-up angiography revealed good patency of the ICA in all patients. Graft-stents should be considered as an alternative means of treating CCF and preserving the parent artery by arterial wall reconstruction especially in patients with a fistula that cannot be successfully occluded with detachable balloons or coils.
PMCID: PMC2803275  PMID: 20062575
Carotid cavernous fistulas; Graft-stent; Endovascular treatment
13.  External Carotid Artery Angioplasty and Stenting Followed by Superficial Temporal Artery to Middle Cerebral Artery Anastomosis 
A 31-year-old man presented with right hemiparesis, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small infarct at left basal ganglia. Digital subtraction angiography showed left cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion and severe stenosis of the ipsilateral external carotid artery (ECA) with collateral cerebral circulation fed by ECAs. Based on the results of a functional evaluation of cerebral blood flow, we performed preventive ECA angioplasty and stenting for advanced ECA stenosis to ensure sufficient blood flow to the superficial temporal artery. Eight weeks later, superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis was performed. His postoperative course was uneventful and no additional transient ischemic attacks have occurred. To our knowledge, this is the first report of preventive angioplasty and stenting for advanced narrowing of an ECA before STA-MCA anastomosis for ipsilateral ICA occlusion.
PMCID: PMC2796357  PMID: 20041061
Angioplasty; External carotid artery; Internal carotid artery; Middle cerebral artery
14.  Assessment of the Intracranial Stents Patency and Re-Stenosis by 16-Slice CT Angiography with Optimized Sharp Kernel : Preliminary Study 
Our retrospective study aimed to determine whether 16-slice computerized tomography (CT) angiography optimized sharp kernel is suitable for the evaluation of visibility, luminal patency and re-stenosis of intracranial stents in comparison with conventional angiography.
Fifteen patients with symptomatic intracranial stenotic lesions underwent balloon expandable stent deployment of these lesions (10 middle cerebral arteries, 2 intracranial vertebral arteries, and 3 intracranial internal carotid arteries). CT angiography follow-up ranged from 6 to 15 months (mean follow-up, 8 months) after implantation of intracranial stents and conventional angiography was confirmed within 2 days. Curved multiplanar reformations with maximal intensity projection (MIP) with optimal window settings for assessment of lumen of intracranial stents were evaluated for visible lumen diameter, stent patency (contrast distal to the stent as an indirect sign), and re-stenosis by two experienced radiologists who blinded to the reports from the conventional angiography.
All of stents deployed into symptomatic stenotic lesions. All stents were classified as patent and no re-stenosis, which was correlated with results of conventional angiography. Parts of the stent lumen could be visualized in all cases. On average, 57% of the stent lumen diameter was visible using optimized sharp kernel. Significant improvement of lumen visualization (22%, p<0.01) was observed using the optimized sharp kernel compared with the standard sharp kernel. Inter-observer agreements on the measurement of lumen diameter and density were judged as good, respectively (p<0.05).
Sixteen-slice CT using the optimized sharp kernel may provide a useful information for evaluation of lumen diameter patency, and re-stenosis of intracranial stents.
PMCID: PMC2693787  PMID: 19516945
Intracranial atherosclerosis; Stents; Multislice CT; CT angiography; Cerebral angiography
15.  Fusiform Intracanalicular Ophthalmic Artery Aneurysm; Case Report and Review of Literature 
A 35-year-old man's vision had progressively deteriorated over a 3-month period. His left visual acuity was 5/20. Enhanced orbital computed tomographic (CT) scans revealed a fusiform dilatation of the ophthalmic artery in the left optic canal. Cerebral Angiography revealed a fusiform aneurysm on the left ophthalmic artery in the optic canal, measuring 6.2 × 4.6 mm in size. Four days after admission, visual acuity dropped to hand-motion. Endovascular treatment was chosen and a microcatheter was guided into the proximal segment of the ophthalmic artery. Using 4 detachable coils, parent artery occlusion was done. Three months after the intervention, the visual acuity in his left eye improved to 20/20. Dramatic recovery of visual acuity is exceptional with an ophthalmic artery trunk aneurysm. When an occlusion of the proximal ophthalmic artery is the only treatment option in such a situation, the endovascular occlusion of the proximal ophthalmic artery is quite feasible in the sense that it does not require any optic nerve manipulation.
PMCID: PMC2588290  PMID: 19096656
Detachable coil; Fusiform aneurysm; Intracanalicular portion; Ophthalmic artery trunk aneurysm

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