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1.  Acute Spontaneous Subdural Hematoma due to Rupture of a Tiny Cortical Arteriovenous Malformation 
Acute subdural hematoma (SDH) of arterial origin is rare, especially SDH associated with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is extremely rare. The authors report a case of acute spontaneous SDH due to rupture of a tiny cortical AVM. A 51-year-old male presented with sudden onset headache and mentality deterioration without a history of trauma. Brain CT revealed a large volume acute SDH compressing the right cerebral hemisphere with subfalcine and tentorial herniation. Emergency decompressive craniectomy was performed to remove the hematoma and during surgery a small (5 mm sized) conglomerated aciniform mass with two surrounding enlarged vessels was identified on the parietal cortex. After warm saline irrigation of the mass, active bleeding developed from a one of the vessel. The bleeding was stopped by coagulation and the vessels were removed. Histopathological examination confirmed the lesion as an AVM. We concluded that a small cortical AVM existed at this area, and that the cortical AVM had caused the acute SDH. Follow up conventional angiography confirmed the absence of remnant AVM or any other vascular abnormality. This report demonstrates rupture of a cortical AVM is worth considering when a patient presents with non-traumatic SDH without intracerebral hemorrhage or subarachnoid hemorrhage.
PMCID: PMC4728093  PMID: 26819690
Acute subdural hematoma; Arteriovenous malformation; Surgical resection
2.  Eleven Year's Single Center Experience of Endovascular Treatment of Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms: Focused on Digital Subtraction Angiography Follow-Up Results 
Anterior communicating artery (AcomA) aneurysms represent the most common intracranial aneurysms and challenging to treat due to complex vascularity. The purpose of this study was to report our experience of endovascular treatment of AcomA aneurysms.
Between January 2003 and December 2013, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 134 AcomA aneurysm patients available more than 6 months conventional angiographic and clinical follow-up results. We focused on aneurismal or AcomA vascular characters, angiographic and clinical follow-up results, and retreatment.
The rate of ruptured cases was 75.4%, and the small (<10 mm) aneurysms were 96.3%. Based on the subtypes defined by dominance of A1, 79 patients (59%) had contralateral A1 hypoplasia or agenesis. The immediate post-procedural angiography confirmed complete occlusion in 75.4%, partial occlusion in 24.6%. Procedure related complications were observed in 25 (18.6%) patients. Most of the adverse events were asymptomatic. Follow-up conventional angiography at ≥6 months was performed in all patients (mean 16.3 months) and major recanalization was noted in 6.7% and regrowth in one case. The aneurysm size (p=0.016), and initial treatment results (p=0.00) were statistically significant risk factors related to aneurysm recurrence. An overall improvement in mRS was observed during the clinical follow-up period and no rebleeding episode occurred.
This study demonstrated that endovascular treatment is an effective treatment modality for AcomA aneurysms with low morbidity. Patients should take long term clinical and angiographic follow-up in order to assess the recurrence and warrant retreatment, especially ruptured, large, and initially incomplete occluded aneurysms.
PMCID: PMC4630347  PMID: 26539259
Endovascular treatment; Anterior communicating artery aneurysm; DSA follow up
3.  Intracranial Extension of Spinal Subarachnoid Hematoma Causing Severe Cerebral Vasospasm 
Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) can extend into the intracranial subarachnoid space, but, severe cerebral vasospasm is rare complication of the extension of intracranial SAH from a spinal subarachnoid hematoma. A 67-year-old woman started anticoagulant therapy for unstable angina. The next day, she developed severe back pain and paraplegia. MRI showed intradural and extramedullar low signal intensity at the T2-3, consistent with intradural hematoma. High signal intensity was also noted in the spinal cord from C5 to T4. We removed subarachnoid hematoma compressing the spinal cord. The following day, the patient complained of severe headache. Brain CT revealed SAH around both parietal lobes. Three days later, her consciousness decreased and left hemiplegia also developed. Brain MRI demonstrated multiple cerebral infarctions, mainly in the right posterior cerebral artery territory, left parietal lobe and right watershed area. Conventional cerebral angiography confirmed diffuse severe vasospasm of the cerebral arteries. After intensive care for a month, the patient was transferred to the rehabilitation department. After 6 months, neurologic deterioration improved partially. We speculate that surgeons should anticipate possible delayed neurological complications due to cerebral vasospasm if intracranial SAH is detected after spinal subarachnoid hematoma.
PMCID: PMC4303733  PMID: 25628817
Spinal subarachnoid hematoma; Intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage; Vasospasm; Cerebral infarction
4.  Fatal Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage due to Acute Rebleeding of a Pseudoaneurysm Arising from the Distal Basilar Artery 
Isolated traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the basilar artery are extremely rare but often fatal resulting in a mortality rate as high as 50%. A 51-year-old man presented with craniofacial injury after blunt trauma. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan showed thick basal subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with multiple craniofacial fractures, while CT angiography revealed contrast extravasation at the distal basilar artery with pseudoaneurysm formation. After this primary survey, the condition of the patient suddenly deteriorated. Conventional angiography confirmed the contrast extravasation resulted from pseudoaneurysm formation, which was successfully treated with endovascular coil embolization. Decompressive craniectomy and coma therapy with propofol were also performed. However, the patient died on the 7th hospital day because of the poor initial clinical condition. The current case is the first report of acute pseudoaneurysm rupture arising from the basilar artery within the first day after trauma. Our findings suggest the possibility that pseudoaneurysm rupture should be considered if brain CT shows thick traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage on the basal cistern with a basal skull fracture.
PMCID: PMC4273003  PMID: 25535522
Traumatic brain injury; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Basilar artery; Pseudoaneurysm
5.  Emergent Recanalization with Stenting for Acute Stroke due to Athero-Thrombotic Occlusion of the Cervical Internal Carotid Artery : A Single Center Experience 
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of emergent carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) for acute stroke due to athero-thrombotic occlusion of the cervical internal carotid artery (ICA).
Review of medical records identified 17 patients who underwent emergent CAS for treatment of athero-thrombotic occlusion of the cervical ICA with acute stroke between 2009 and 2013. Eleven patients (64.7%) presented with concomitant intracranial artery occlusion, which was treated primarily by mechanical thrombectomy after CAS.
Successful revascularization of the cervical ICA with emergent CAS was achieved in all patients. After CAS, intracranial recanalization with Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction ≥2b flow was achieved in four of the 11 patients (36.4%). The overall recanalization rate (cervical ICA and intracranial artery) was 10 of 17 patients (58.8%). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in two patients (11.8%), resulting in death. Ten patients (58.8%) showed improvement (decrease in NIHSS score of ≥4 points) at seven days after recanalization. Nine patients (52.9%) showed a favorable outcome (mRS ≤2) at the last follow-up. A favorable outcome (mRS ≤2) was obtained in four of the six patients with isolated cervical ICA occlusion (4/6, 66.7%) and five of 11 patients with intracranial tandem occlusion (5/11, 45.5%).
Emergent CAS for acute stroke due to athero-thrombotic occusion of the cervical ICA showed a good technical feasibility and favorable clinical outcome.
PMCID: PMC4166326  PMID: 25237426
Carotid stent; Stroke; Carotid occlusion; Thrombolysis
6.  Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysms Arising from the Proximal Segment of the Anterior Cerebral Artery 
Aneurysms arising from the proximal segment of the anterior cerebral artery (A1) are rare and challenging to treat. The aim of this study was to report our experience with endovascular treatment of A1 Aneurysms.
From August 2007 through May 2012, eleven A1 aneurysms in eleven patients were treated endovascularly. Six aneurysms were unruptured and 5 were ruptured. One patient with an unruptured A1 aneurysm presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Procedural data, clinical and angiographic results were reviewed retrospectively.
All of the aneurysms were successfully treated with coil embolization. Six were treated with a simple technique while the remaining 5 required adjunctive technique : double catheters (n=2), balloon-assisted (n=2), and stent-assisted (n=1). The immediate angiographic control showed a complete occlusion in all cases. Procedure-related complication occurred in only one patient : parent artery occlusion, which was not clinically significant. All patients had excellent clinical outcomes but one patient was discharged with a slight disability. No neurologic deterioration or bleeding was seen during the follow-up period in this cohort of patients. Follow-up angiography (mean, 20 months) was available in ten patients and revealed stable occlusion in all cases.
Endovascular treatment is a feasible and effective therapeutic modality for A1 aneurysms. Tailored microcatheter shaping and/or adjunctive techniques are necessary for successful aneurysm embolization because of the projection and location of A1 aneurysms.
PMCID: PMC3809447  PMID: 24175019
Endovascular treatment; Intracranial aneurysm; Anterior cerebral artery aneurysm
7.  In-Stent Stenosis of Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization of the Supraclinoid Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm 
The intracranial stent functions primarily to prevent protrusion of coils into the parent vessel during the embolization of wide-necked cerebral aneurysms and might also reduce aneurysm recanalization rate. In spite of these advantages, little is known about the long-term interaction of the stent with the parent vessel wall. We present a rare case of severe in-stent stenosis occurring as a delayed complication of Neuroform stent-assisted coil embolization of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm.
PMCID: PMC3424179  PMID: 22949968
Cerebral aneurysms; In-stent stenosis; Stent
8.  Retained Microcatheter after Onyx Embolization of Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformation 
Endovascular embolization is being increasingly used to treat intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, we experienced two patients with retained microcatheters after AVM embolization using Onyx.
PMCID: PMC3424180  PMID: 22949969
Arteriovenous malformation; Onyx; Retained microcatheter
9.  Massive Intracerebral Hemorrhage Caused by a Cavernous Malformation 
We present a rare case of massive intracerebral hemorrhage resulting from a small, superficially-located supratentorial cavernous malformation, or cavernoma. These lesions rarely lead to massive, life-threatening intracerebral hemorrhages. A 17-year-old female presented with a 3-week history of declining mental status. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sizable intracranial hemorrhage, within the right occipital region, associated with a small nodule at the hematoma's posterior margin. An emergency operation removed the entire hematoma and nodule. Histological examination of the nodule was compatible with a diagnosis of cavernous malformation. The patient's post-operative course was uneventful.
PMCID: PMC3291704  PMID: 22396841
Cavernous malformation; Intracerebral hemorrhage
10.  An Unusual Case of Cerebral Penetrating Injury by a Driven Bone Fragment Secondary to Blunt Head Trauma 
Temple trauma that appears initially localized to the skin might possess intracranial complications. Early diagnosis and management of such complications are important, to avoid neurologic sequelae. Non-penetrating head injuries with intracranial hemorrhage caused by a driven bone fragment are extremely rare. A 53-year-old male was referred to our hospital because of intracerebral hemorrhage. He was a mechanic and one day before admission to a local clinic, tip of metallic rod hit his right temple while cutting the rod. Initial brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated scanty subdural hematoma at right temporal lobe and left falx and intracerebral hematoma at both frontal lobes. Facial CT with 3-D reconstruction images showed a small bony defect at the right sphenoid bone's greater wing and a small bone fragment at the left frontal lobe, crossing the falx. We present the unusual case of a temple trauma patient in whom a sphenoid bone fragment migrated from its origin upward, to the contralateral frontal lobe, producing hematoma along its trajectory.
PMCID: PMC3272517  PMID: 22323943
Head injury; Penetrating; Bone fragment
11.  Endovascular Treatment Using Graft-Stent for Pseudoaneurysm of the Cavernous Internal Carotid Artery 
A 57-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of left oculomotor palsy. Digital subtraction angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm of the left cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) measuring 37×32 mm. The pseudoaneurysm was treated with a balloon expandable graft-stent to occlude the aneurysmal neck and preserve the parent artery. A post-procedure angiogram confirmed normal patency of the ICA and complete sealing of the aneurysmal neck with no opacification of the sac. After the procedure, the oculomotor palsy improved gradually, and had completely resolved 3 months after the procedure. A graft-stent can be an effective treatment for a pseudoaneurysm of the cavernous ICA with preservation of the parent artery.
PMCID: PMC3159881  PMID: 21892405
Internal carotid artery; Pseudoaneurysm; Graft-stent; Oculomotor palsy
12.  Glue Embolization of Ruptured Anterior Thalamoperforating Artery Aneurysm in Patient with Both Internal Carotid Arteries Occlusion 
Thalamoperforating artery aneurysms are rarely reported in the literature. We report an extremely rare case of ruptured distal anterior thalamoperforating artery aneurysm which was treated by endovascular obliteration in a patient with occlusion of both the internal carotid arteries (ICAs) : A 72-year-old woman presented with severe headache and loss of consciousness. Initial level of consciousness at the time of admission was drowsy and the Glasgow Coma Scale score was 14. Brain computed tomography (CT) scan was performed which revealed intracerebral hemorrhage in right basal ganglia, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intraventricular hemorrhage. The location of the aneurysm was identified as within the globus pallidus on CT angiogram. Conventional cerebral angiogram demonstrated occlusion of both the ICAs just distal to the fetal type of posterior communicating artery and the aneurysm was arising from right anterior thalamoperforating artery (ATPA). A microcatheter was navigated into ATPA and the ATPA proximal to aneurysm was embolized with 20% glue. Post-procedural ICA angiogram demonstrated no contrast filling of the aneurysm sac. The patient was discharged without any neurologic deficit. Endovascular treatment of ATPA aneurysm is probably a more feasible and safe treatment modality than surgical clipping because of the deep seated location of aneurysm and the possibility of brain retraction injury during surgical operation.
PMCID: PMC3115150  PMID: 21716902
Anterior thalamoperforating artery; Aneurysm; Glue embolization
13.  Safety and Efficacy of Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty Using a Compliant Balloon for Severe Cerebral Vasospasm after an Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 
Vasospasm of cerebral vessels remains a major source of morbidity and mortality after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of transluminal balloon angioplasty (TBA) for SAH-induced vasospasm.
Eleven patients with an angiographically confirmed significant vasospasm (>50% vessel narrowing and clinical deterioration) were studied. A total of 54 vessel segments with significant vasospasm were treated by TBA. Digital subtraction angiography was used to confirm the presence of vasospasm, and TBA was performed to dilate vasospastic arteries. Medical and angiographic reports were reviewed to determine technical efficacy and for procedural complications.
TBA using Hyper-Glide or Hyper-Form balloons (MicroTherapeutics, Irvine, CA) was successfully accomplished in 88.9% vasospastic segments (48 of 54), namely, in the distal internal carotid artery (100%, n=7), the middle cerebral artery (100%), including the M1 (n=10), M2 (n=10), and M3 segments (n=4), in the vertebral artery (100%, n=2), basilar artery (100%, n=1), and in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), including the A1 (66%), A2 (66%), and A3 segments (100%). Vessel diameters significantly increased after TBA. There were no cases of vessel rupture or thromboembolic complications. GCS at one day after TBA showed an improvement in all patients except one.
This study suggests that TBA using Hyper-Glide or Hyper-Form balloons is a safe and effective treatment for subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm.
PMCID: PMC3085811  PMID: 21556235
Transluminal balloon angioplasty; Vasospasm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Endovascular procedure
14.  Transient Global Aphasia with Hemiparesis Following Cerebral Angiography : Relationship to Blood Brain Barrier Disruption 
Temporary disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after cerebral angiography is presumably caused by nonionic radiographic contrast medium (CM). We hereby report a case of 58-year-old woman who developed decreased mentality, global aphasia and aggravated right hemiparesis after cerebral angiography. Brain CT examination demonstrated gyriform enhancement throughout the left cerebral cortex and thalamus. MR diffusion did not reveal acute infarction. MR angiography did not show any stenosis, spasm or occlusion at the major cerebral vessels. Follow-up CT scan after 1 day did not show any gyriform enhancement. Worsened neurologic signs and symptoms were improved completely after 7 days. In the present study, disruption of the BBB with contrast medium after angiography seems to be the causative factor of transient neurologic deterioration.
PMCID: PMC3053547  PMID: 21430979
Blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption; Contrast medium; Transient global aphasia; Transient hemiparesis; Cerebral angiography
15.  Endovascular Treatment of Wide-Necked Intracranial Aneurysms Using Balloon-Assisted Technique with HyperForm Balloon 
To assess the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of the balloon-assisted technique with HyperForm balloon in the endovascular treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms.
A total of 34 patients with 34 wide-necked intracranial aneurysms were treated with endovascular coil embolization using balloon-assisted technique with Hyperform balloon. Twenty-nine aneurysms (85.3%) were located in the anterior circulation. The group of patients was comprised of 16 men and 18 women, aged 33 to 72 years (mean : 60.6 years). The size of aneurysms was in the range of 2.0 to 22.0 mm (mean 5.5 mm) and one of neck was 2.0 to 11.9 mm (mean 3.8 mm). The dome to neck ratio was ranged from 0.83 to 1.43 (1.15). Sixteen patients were treated for unruptured aneurysms and the remaining 18 presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage.
In the 34 aneurysms treated by the remodeling technique with HyperForm balloon, immediate angiographic results consisted of total occlusion in 31 cases (91.2%) and partial occlusion in three cases (8.8%). There were five procedure-related complications (14.7%), including two coil protrusions and three thromboembolisms; Except one patient, all were successfully resolved without permanent neurologic deficit. No new bleeding occurred during the follow-up. Twenty patients (59%) underwent angiographic follow-up from 2 to 33 months (mean 9.2 months) after treatment. Focal recanalization with coil compaction of the neck portion was observed in 5 cases (25%). Only one case showed major recanalization and underwent stent-assisted coil embolization.
The balloon-assisted technique with Hyperform balloon is a feasible, safe, and effective endovascular treatment of wide-necked cerebral aneurysms.
PMCID: PMC2966720  PMID: 21082046
Intracranial aneurysms; Wide-necked aneurysms; Endovascular treatment; Balloon-assisted technique
16.  Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms with Oculomotor Nerve Palsy : Clinical Outcome between Surgical Clipping and Coil Embolization 
To evaluate the clinical outcome of coil embolization for unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) with oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) compared with surgical clipping.
A total of 19 patients presented with ONP caused by UIAs between Jan 2004 and June 2008. Ten patients underwent coil embolization and nine patients surgical clipping. The following parameters were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate the differences in clinical outcome observed in both coil embolization and surgical clipping : 1) gender, 2) age, 3) location of the aneurysm, 4) duration of the symptom, and 5) degree of ONP.
Following treatment, complete symptomatic recovery or partial relief from ONP was observed in 15 patients. Seven of the ten patients were treated by coil embolization, compared to eight of the nine patients treated by surgical clipping (p = 0.582). Patient's gender, age, location of the aneurysm, size of the aneurysm, duration of symptom, and degree of the ONP did not statistically correlate with recovery of symptoms between the two groups. No significant differences were observed in mean improvement time in either group (55 days in coil embolization and 60 days in surgical clipping).
This study indicates that no significant differences were observed in the clinical outcome between coil embolization and surgical clipping techniques in the treatment of aneurysms causing ONP. Coil embolization seems to be more feasible and safe treatment modality for the relief and recovery of oculomotor nerve palsy.
PMCID: PMC2941851  PMID: 20856657
Oculomotor nerve palsy; Intracranial aneurysm; Surgical clipping; Coil embolization
17.  Skull Base Invasion of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Lacrimal Gland : A Case Report 
Although adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the lacrimal gland is a rarely encountered orbital tumor, it invades intracranially more frequently than carcinomas of other glands in the head and neck. A 52-year-old man underwent orbital exenteration and resection of intracranially extended tumor via a fronto-orbito-zygomatic approach in combination with a transfacial approach. Histopathologically, the tumor showed perineural, vascular, and lymphatic invasion. Additionally, he received radiotherapy (60 Gy) and adjuvant systemic cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy due to residual tumor in the orbit and systemic metastases (lung, ribs, and spines). He was free of progression and recurrence at 6 months after treatment. The authors report a case of skull base invasion by an ACC of the lacrimal gland to remind neurosurgeons planning intervention that this disease shows a tendency to invade intracranially.
PMCID: PMC2588318  PMID: 19096692
Adenoid cystic carcinoma; Skull base; Metastasis; Prognosis

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