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1.  Significance of C-Reactive Protein and Transcranial Doppler in Cerebral Vasospasm Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 
Objective
Cerebral vasospasm is a common and potentially devastating complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Inflammatory processes seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of vasospasm. C-reactive protein (CRP) constitutes a highly sensitive inflammatory marker. Elevation of serum CRP levels has been demonstrated in patients with aSAH. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the possible relationship between CRP levels in the serum and transcranial Doppler (TCD) and the development of vasospasm in patients with aSAH.
Methods
A total of 61 adult patients in whom aSAH was diagnosed were included in the study from November 2008 to May 2011. The patients' demographics, Hunt and Hess grade, Fisher grade, CT scans, digital subtraction angiography studies, and daily neurological examinations were recorded. Serial serum CRP measurements were obtained on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 and TCD was measured on days 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13. All patients underwent either surgical or endovascular treatment within 24 hours of their hemorrhagic attacks.
Results
Serum CRP levels peaked on the 3rd postoperative day. There were significant differences between the vasospasm group and the non-vasospasm group on the 1st, 3rd and 5th day. There were significant differences between the vasospasm group and the non-vasospasm group on the 3rd day in the mean middle cerebral artery velocities on TCD.
Conclusion
Patients with high levels of CRP on the 1st postoperative day and high velocity of mean TCD on the 3rd postoperative day may require closer observation to monitor for the development of vasospasm.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.54.4.289
PMCID: PMC3841270  PMID: 24294451
Cerebral aneurysms; C-reactive protein; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Vasospasm
2.  Transient Adverse Neurologic Effects of Spinal Pain Blocks 
Objective
Chronic neck or back pain can be managed with various procedures. Although these procedures are usually well-tolerated, a variety of side effects have been reported. In this study we reviewed cases of unexpected temporary adverse events after blocks and suggest possible causes.
Methods
We reviewed the records of patients treated with spinal pain blocks between December 2009 and January 2011. The types of blocks performed were medial branch blocks, interlaminar epidural blocks and transforaminal epidural blocks. During the first eight months of the study period (Group A), 2% mepivacaine HCL and triamcinolone was used, and during the last six months of the study period (Group B), mepivacaine was diluted to 1% with normal saline.
Results
There were 704 procedures in 613 patients. Ten patients had 12 transient neurologic events. Nine patients were in Group A and one was in Group B. Transient complications occurred in four patients after cervical block and in eight patients after lumbar block. Side effects of lumbar spine blocks were associated with the concentration of mepivacaine (p<0.05). The likely causes were a high concentration of mepivacaine in five patients, inadvertent vascular injection in three patients, intrathecal leak of local anesthetics in one, and underlying conversion disorder in one.
Conclusion
Spinal pain blocks are a good option for relieving pain, but clinicians should always keep in mind the potential for development of inevitable complications. Careful history-taking, appropriate selection of the anesthetics, and using real-time fluoroscopy could help reduce the occurrence of adverse events.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.3.228
PMCID: PMC3483324  PMID: 23115666
Adverse effect; Spinal pain; Conversion disorder; Medial branch blocks; Paralysis; C2 ganglion block
3.  Radiological Apoplexy and Its Correlation with Acute Clinical Presentation, Angiogenesis and Tumor Microvascular Density in Pituitary Adenomas 
Objective
Pituitary apoplexy is life-threatening clinical syndrome caused by the rapid enlargement of a pituitary tumor due to hemorrhage and/or infarction. The pathogenesis of pituitary apoplexy is not completely understood. We analyzed the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pituitary tumors and subsequently correlated the radiological findings with the clinical presentation. Additionally, immunohistochemistry was also performed to determine whether certain biomarkers are related to radiological apoplexy.
Methods
Thirty-four cases of pituitary adenoma were enrolled for retrospective analysis. In this study, the radiological apoplexy was defined as cases where hemorrhage, infarction or cysts were identified on MRI. Acute clinical presentation was defined as the presence of any of the following symptoms: severe sudden onset headache, decreased visual acuity and/or visual field deficit, and acute mental status changes. Angiogenesis was quantified by immunohistochemical expression of fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk-1), neuropilin (NRP) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, while microvascular density (MVD) was assessed using Endoglin and CD31.
Results
Clinically, fourteen patients presented with acute symptoms and 20 for mild or none clinical symptoms. Radiologically, fifteen patients met the criteria for radiological apoplexy. Of the fifteen patients with radiologic apoplexy, 9 patients presented acute symptoms whereas of the 19 patient without radiologic apoplexy, 5 patients presented acute symptoms. Of the five biomarkers tracked, only VEGF was found to be positively correlated with both radiological and nonradiological apoplexy.
Conclusion
While pituitary apoplexy is currently defined in cases where clinical symptoms can be histologically confirmed, we contend that cases of radiologically identified pituitary hemorrhages that present with mild or no symptoms should be designated subacute or subclinical apoplexy. VEGF is believed to have a positive correlation with pituitary hemorrhage. Considering the high rate of symptomatic or asymptomatic pituitary tumor hemorrhage, additional studies are needed to detect predictors of the pituitary hemorrhage.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.4.281
PMCID: PMC3243828  PMID: 22200007
Pituitary adenoma; Pituitary apoplexy; Pituitary hemorrhage; Angiogenesis; Microvascular density; VEGF
4.  Supratentorial Clear Cell Ependymoma Mimicking Oligodendroglioma : Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Clear cell ependymomas (CCEs) are rare variants of ependymomas. Tumors show anaplastic histological features and behave as an aggressive manner. CCEs have a predilection for extraneural metastases and early recurrence, and they demonstrate characteristic radiographic features. These tumors should be radiologically and pathologically differentiated from oligodendrogliomas. On microscopic examination, CCEs are composed of sheets of cells and resemble oligodendroglioma. However, upon closer examination, the nature of CCEs can be detected earlier, resulting in prompt treatment of the tumor. Although we report only one case, we emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Future description of more cases of these rare cancers is necessary to aid in their diagnosis and treatment.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.3.240
PMCID: PMC3218185  PMID: 22102956
Clear cell; Ependymoma; Oligodendroglioma; Histology; Prognosis
5.  Clinical Features of Acute Subdural Hematomas Caused by Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms 
Objective
Spontaneous acute subdural hematomas (aSDH) secondary to ruptured intracranial aneurysms are rarely reported. This report reviews the clinical features, diagnostic modalities, treatments, and outcomes of this unusual and often fatal condition.
Methods
We performed a database search for all cases of intracranial aneurysms treated at our hospital between 2005 and 2010. Patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms who presented with aSDH on initial computed tomography (CT) were selected for inclusion. The clinical conditions, radiologic findings, treatments, and outcomes were assessed.
Results
A total of 551 patients were treated for ruptured intracranial aneurysms during the review period. We selected 23 patients (4.2%) who presented with spontaneous aSDH on initial CT. Ruptured aneurysms were detected on initial 3D-CT angiography in all cases. All ruptured aneurysms were located in the anterior portion of the circle of Willis. The World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade on admission was V in 17 cases (73.9%). Immediate decompressive craniotomy was performed 22 cases (95.7%). Obliteration of the ruptured aneurysm was achieved in all cases. The Glasgow outcome scales for the cases were good recovery in 5 cases (21.7%), moderate disability to vegetative in 7 cases (30.4%), and death in 11 cases (47.8%).
Conclusion
Spontaneous aSDH caused by a ruptured intracranial aneurysm is rare pattern of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. For early detection of aneurysm, 3D-CT angiography is useful. Early decompression with obliteration of the aneurysm is recommended. Outcomes were correlated with the clinical grade and CT findings on admission.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.1.6
PMCID: PMC3159885  PMID: 21892397
Acute subdural hematoma; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Intracranial aneurysm; CT angiography
6.  Leg Weakness in a Patient with Lumbar Stenosis and Adrenal Insufficiency 
Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a common spinal disease in the elderly. The cardinal symptom of LSS is neurogenic claudication, but not all patients present with such typical symptom. The clinical symptoms are often confused with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, musculo-skeletal disease and other medical conditions in elderly patients. In particular, LSS presenting with rapid progression of leg weakness must be distinguished from other combined diseases. We report a case of rapid progressive leg weakness in a patient with LSS and iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency that was induced by obscure health supplement.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.4.234
PMCID: PMC3098429  PMID: 21607184
Leg weakness; Lumbar spinal stenosis; Adrenal insufficiency
7.  Spontaneous Pneumocephalus Associated with Pneumosinus Dilatans 
The majority of cases of pneumocephalus are secondary to trauma or medical intervention. Spontaneous, non-traumatic pneumocephalus is an uncommon condition. Most cases of spontaneous pneumocephalus require surgery. However, if there is no evidence of infection or cerebrospinal fluid leak, bed rest and follow-up imaging is an alternative treatment. Herein, we report a 31-year-old man with spontaneous pneumocephalus associated with pneumosinus dilatans.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.5.395
PMCID: PMC2883064  PMID: 20539803
Spontaneous pneumocephalus; Hyperpneumatization; Pneumosinus dilatans
8.  Interhemispheric Osteolipoma with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum 
Osteolipoma is an ossified lipoma with distinct components of fat and bone. We present a case of interhemispheric osteolipoma associated with total agenesis of the corpus callosum. A 20-year-old man complained of severe headache, nausea and vomiting. Brain computed tomography showed a low-density mass in an interhemispheric fissure, with high T1 and T2 magnetic resonance signals compatible with fat. The mass measured 4.9 × 2.9 cm in size and showed peripheral calcifications. There was another small piece of same signal mass within the lateral ventricular choroid plexus. The interhemispheric lesion was removed by an interhemispheric approach. Osteolipoma is rare in interhemispheric region, however, it should be a differential diagnosis of lesions with fat intensity mass and calcifications.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.2.148
PMCID: PMC2836453  PMID: 20224717
Agenesis; Corpus callosum; Intracranial; Lipoma; Osteolipoma
9.  Recurrent Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation in a Child : Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are generally considered to be cured following angiographically proven complete resection. However, rare instances of AVM recurrence have been reported in both children and adults with negative findings on postoperative angiography. The authors present the case of a 12-year-old boy with recurrent AVM. The AVM was originally fed by the pericallosal arteries on both sides, and it showed changing patterns of supply at recurrence. The authors concluded that a negative postoperative angiogram is not necessarily indicative of a cure. Repeat angiography and regular follow-up examinations should be performed to exclude the possibility of recurrence, especially in children.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.45.6.401
PMCID: PMC2711243  PMID: 19609429
Arteriovenous malformations; Cerebral angiography; Recurrence
10.  Primary Paraspinal Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor 
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are very rare tumors. We experienced a case of MPNST in the cervical paraspinal space which was not associated with neurofibromatosis. The tumor located in left C6-7 foramen and compressed C7 root. The tumor was removed through the occipital triangle. We report a case of the primary cerivcal MPNST in a patient who did not have neurofibromatosis-1.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.2.91
PMCID: PMC2588335  PMID: 19096700
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor; Cervical paraspinal space; Occipital triangle
11.  Eosinophilic Granuloma Presenting as an Epidural Hematoma and Cyst 
Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare immunologic disorder characterized by histiocyte proliferation in multiple organ systems. Eosinophilic granuloma, a benign bone lesion, represents a focal form of LCH. We experienced a case of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis in a patient who presented with intracranial epidural hematoma and cyst on the midline of the frontal skull. A 10-year-old boy presented with a rapidly growing large scalp mass on the midline frontal area after mild head trauma. The scalp mass was painless and immobile. Plain skull x-ray showed a punched-out bone lesion. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a non-enhancing osteolytic lesion presenting with an epidural hematoma and cyst on the midline of the frontal skull. The lesion of the skull was completely resected and the patient's recovery was uneventful. The acute presentation of a solitary eosinophilic granuloma of skull with an epidural hematoma has been described in only five cases in the literature and we report the first case of LCH presenting as an intracranial epidural hematoma on frontal area.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.6.304
PMCID: PMC2588256  PMID: 19096637
Langerhans' cell histiocytosis; Epidural hematoma; Eosinophilic granuloma; Head trauma
12.  Segmental Deformity Correction after Balloon Kyphoplasty in the Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture 
Objective
Balloon kyphoplasty can effectively relieve the symptomatic pain and correct the segmental deformity of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. While many articles have reported on the effectiveness of the procedure, there has not been any research on the factors affecting the deformity correction. Here, we evaluated both the relationship between postoperative pain relief and restoration of the vertebral height, and segmental kyphosis, as well as the various factors affecting segmental deformity correction after balloon kyphoplasty.
Methods
Between January 2004 and December 2006, 137 patients (158 vertebral levels) underwent balloon kyphoplasty. We analyzed various factors such as the age and sex of the patient, preoperative compression ratio, kyphotic angle of compressed segment, injected PMMA volume, configuration of compression, preoperative bone mineral density (BMD) score, time interval between onset of symptom and the procedure, visual analogue scale (VAS) score for pain rating and surgery-related complications.
Results
The mean postoperative VAS score improvement was 4.93±0.17. The mean postoperative height restoration rate was 17.8±1.57% and the kyphotic angle reduction was 1.94±0.38°. However, there were no significant statistical correlations among VAS score improvement, height restoration rate, and kyphotic angle reduction. Among the various factors, the configuration of the compressed vertebral body (p=0.002) was related to the height restoration rate and the direction of the compression (p=0.006) was related with the kyphotic angle reduction. The preoperative compression ratio (p=0.023, p=0.006) and injected PMMA volume (p<0.001, p=0.035) affected both the height restoration and kyphotic angle reduction. Only the preoperative compression ratio was found to be as an independent affecting factor (95% CI : 1.064-5.068).
Conclusion
The two major benefits of balloon kyphoplasty are immediate pain relief and local deformity correction, but segmental deformity correction achieved by balloon kyphoplasty does not result in additional pain relief. Among the factors that were shown to affect the segmental deformity correction, configuration of the compressed vertebral body, direction of the most compressed area, and preoperative compression ratio were not modifiable. However, careful preoperative consideration about the modifiable factor, the PMMA volume to inject, may contribute to the dynamic correction of the segmental deformity.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2007.42.5.371
PMCID: PMC2588189  PMID: 19096572
Balloon kyphoplasty; Compression fracture; Deformity; Restoration

Results 1-12 (12)