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1.  Clinical Outcome in Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Metastatic Brain Tumors from the Primary Breast Cancer : Prognostic Factors in Local Treatment Failure and Survival 
Objective
Brain metastases in primary breast cancer patients are considerable sources of morbidity and mortality. Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has gained popularity as an up-front therapy in treating such metastases over traditional radiation therapy due to better neurocognitive function preservation. The aim of this study was to clarify the prognostic factors for local tumor control and survival in radiosurgery for brain metastases from primary breast cancer.
Methods
From March 2001 to May 2011, 124 women with metastatic brain lesions originating from a primary breast cancer underwent GKRS at a tertiary medical center in Seoul, Korea. All patients had radiosurgery as a primary treatment or salvage therapy. We retrospectively reviewed their clinical outcomes and radiological responses. The end point of this study was the date of patient's death or the last follow-up examination.
Results
In total, 106 patients (268 lesions) were available for follow-up imaging. The median follow-up time was 7.5 months. The mean treated tumor volume at the time of GKRS was 6273 mm3 (range, 4.5-27745 mm3) and the median dose delivered to the tumor margin was 22 Gy (range, 20-25 Gy). Local recurrence was assessed in 86 patients (216 lesions) and found to have occurred in 36 patients (83 lesions, 38.6%) with a median time of 6 months (range, 4-16 months). A treated tumor volume >5000 mm3 was significantly correlated with poor local tumor control through a multivariate analysis (hazard risk=7.091, p=0.01). Overall survival was 79.9%, 48.3%, and 15.3% at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. The median overall survival was 11 months after GKRS (range, 6 days-113 months). Multivariate analysis showed that the pre-GKRS Karnofsky performance status, leptomeningeal seeding prior to initial GKRS, and multiple metastatic lesions were significant prognostic factors for reduced overall survival (hazard risk=1.94, p=0.001, hazard risk=7.13, p<0.001, and hazard risk=1.46, p=0.046, respectively).
Conclusion
GKRS has shown to be an effective and safe treatment modality for treating brain metastases of primary breast cancer. Most metastatic brain lesions initially respond to GKRS, though, many patients have further CNS progression in subsequent periods. Patients with poor Karnofsky performance status and multiple metastatic lesions are at risk of CNS progression and poor survival, and a more frequent and strict surveillance protocol is suggested in such high-risk groups.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.54.4.329
PMCID: PMC3841276  PMID: 24294457
Breast cancer; Metastases; Gamma knife radiosurgery; Prognosis
2.  Ischemic Complications Occurring in the Contralateral Hemisphere after Surgical Treatment of Adults with Moyamoya Disease 
Objective
Direct revascularization surgery is regarded as the most effective method of treatment of adults with moyamoya disease. These patients, however, have a higher risk of perioperative ischemic complications than do patients with atherosclerotic stroke, and are at risk for ischemic complications in the hemisphere contralateral to the one operated on. We investigated the incidence and risk factors for ischemic stroke in the contralateral hemisphere after surgical treatment of adults with moyamoya disease.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and results of neuroimaging studies on 79 hemispheres of 73 consecutive patients with adult moyamoya disease (mean±SD age, 37.96±11.27 years; range, 18-62 years) who underwent direct bypass surgery over 6 years.
Results
Ischemic complications occurred in 4 of 79 (5.1%) contralateral hemispheres, one with Suzuki stage 3 and three with Suzuki stage 4. Three patients showed posterior cerebral artery (PCA) involvement by moyamoya vessels. Advanced stage of moyamoya disease (Suzuki stages 4/5/6; p=0.001), PCA involvement (p=0.001) and postoperative hypotension (mean arterial blood pressure <80% of preoperative mean arterial blood pressure) on the first (p<0.0001) and second (p=0.003) days after surgery were significantly correlated with postoperative contralateral ischemic complications.
Conclusion
In patients with advanced moyamoya disease and involvement of the PCA, intentional hypotension can result in ischemic stroke in the hemisphere contralateral to the one operated on. Careful control of perioperative blood pressure is crucial for good surgical results.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.492
PMCID: PMC3272508  PMID: 22323934
Cerebral revascularization; Complications; Moyamoya diseases; Perioperative period
3.  Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Brainstem Metastasis 
Objective
Brainstem metastases are rarely operable and generally unresponsive to conventional radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Recently, Gamma Knife Radiosurgery (GKRS) was used as feasible treatment option for brainstem metastasis. The present study evaluated our experience of brainstem metastasis which was treated with GKRS.
Methods
Between November 1992 and June 2010, 32 patients (23 men and 9 women, mean age 56.1 years, range 39-73) were treated with GKRS for brainstem metastases. There were metastatic lesions in pons in 23, the midbrain in 6, and the medulla oblongata in 3 patients, respectively. The primary tumor site was lung in 21, breast in 3, kidney in 2 and other locations in 6 patients. The mean tumor volume was 1,517 mm3 (range, 9-6,000), and the mean marginal dose was 15.9 Gy (range, 6-23). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was obtained every 2-3 months following GKRS. Follow-up MRI was possible in 24 patients at a mean follow-up duration of 12.0 months (range, 1-45). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to evaluate the prognostic factors.
Results
Follow-up MRI showed tumor disappearance in 6, tumor shrinkage in 14, no change in tumor size in 1, and tumor growth in 3 patients, which translated into a local tumor control rate of 87.5% (21 of 24 tumors). The mean progression free survival was 12.2 months (range, 2-45) after GKRS. Nine patients were alive at the completion of the study, and the overall mean survival time after GKRS was 7.7 months (range, 1-22). One patient with metastatic melanoma experienced intratumoral hemorrhage during the follow-up period. Survival was found to be associated with score of more than 70 on Karnofsky performance status and low recursive partitioning analysis class (class 1 or 2), in terms of favorable prognostic factors.
Conclusion
GKRS was found to be safe and effective for management of brainstem metastasis. The integral clinical status of patient seems to be important in determining the overall survival time.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.4.299
PMCID: PMC3243831  PMID: 22200010
Brainstem tumor; Gamma knife radiosurgery; Metastasis; Stereotactic radiosurgery
4.  Surgical Results of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms in the Elderly : Single Center Experience in the Past Ten Years 
Objective
As medical advances have increased life expectancy, it has become imperative to develop specific treatment strategies for intracranial aneurysms in the elderly. We therefore analyzed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms in patients older than 70 years.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and results of neuroimaging modalities on 54 aneurysms of 48 consecutive patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms. (mean±SD age, 72.11±1.96 years; range, 70-78 years) who underwent surgical clipping over 10 years (May 1999 to June 2010).
Results
Of the 54 aneurysms, 22 were located in the internal carotid artery, 19 in the middle cerebral artery, 12 in the anterior cerebral artery, and 1 in the superior cerebellar artery. Six patients had multiple aneurysms. Aneurysm size ranged from 3 mm to 17 mm (mean±SD, 6.82±3.07 mm). Fifty of the 54 aneurysms (92.6%) were completely clipped. Three-month outcomes were excellent in 50 (92.6%) aneurysms and good and poor in 2 each (3.7%), with 1 death (2.0%). Procedure-related complications occurred in 7 aneurysms (13.0%), with 2 (3.7%) resulting in permanent neurological deficits, including death. No postoperative subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred during follow-up. The cumulative rates of stroke- or death-free survival at 5 and 10 years were 100% and 78%, respectively.
Conclusion
Surgical clipping of unruptured intracranial aneurysms in elderly group could get it as a favorable outcome in well selected cases.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.6.329
PMCID: PMC3158474  PMID: 21887389
Unruptured intracranial aneurysm; Surgical clipping; Elderly; Outcome
5.  Direct Carotid Cavernous Fistula of an Adult-Type Persistent Primitive Trigeminal Artery with Multiple Vascular Variations 
We report a case of spontaneous right carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a proximal segment of persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) and combined vascular anomalies such as left duplicated hypoplastic proximal posterior cerebral arteries and a variation of anterior choroidal artery supplying temporal and occipital lobe. A 45-year-old male presented with progressive right exophthalmos, diplopia, and ocular pain. With manual compression of the internal carotid artery, a cerebral angiography revealed a right CCF from a PPTA. Treatment involved the placement of detachable non-fibered and fibered coils, and use of a hyperglide balloon to protect against coil herniation into the internal carotid artery. A final angiograph revealed complete occlusion of PPTA resulted in no contrast filling of CCF.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.4.226
PMCID: PMC3098426  PMID: 21607181
Persistent primitive trigeminal artery; Carotid cavernous fistula; Duplicated posterior cerebral artery
6.  Gamma Knife Radiosurgery after Stereotactic Aspiration for Large Cystic Brain Metastases 
Objective
Several treatment options have proven effective for metastatic brain tumors, including surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery. Tumors with cystic components, however, are difficult to treat using a single method. We retrospectively assessed the outcome and efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for cystic brain metastases after stereotactic aspiration of cystic components to decrease the tumor volume.
Methods
The study population consisted of 24 patients (13 males, 11 females; mean age, 58.3 years) with cystic metastatic brain tumors treated from January 2002 to August 2008. Non-small cell lung cancer was the most common primary origin. After Leksell stereotactic frame was positioned on each patient, magnetic resonance images (MRI)-guided stereotactic cyst aspiration and GKRS were performed (mean prescription dose : 20.2 Gy). After treatment, patients were evaluated by MRI every 3 or 4 months.
Results
After treatment, 13 patients (54.2%) demonstrated tumor control, 5 patients (20.8%) showed local tumor progression, and 6 patients (25.0%) showed remote progression. Mean follow-up duration was 13.1 months. During this period, 10 patients (41.7%) died, but only 1 patient (4.2%) died from brain metastases. The overall median survival after these procedures was 17.8 months.
Conclusion
These results support the usefulness of GKRS after stereotactic cyst aspiration in patients with large cystic brain metastases. This method is especially effective for the patients whose general condition is very poor for general anesthesia and those with metastatic brain tumors located in eloquent areas.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.4.360
PMCID: PMC2773395  PMID: 19893727
Cystic brain metastases; Gamma knife radiosurgery; Stereotactic cyst aspiration
7.  Detachable Coil Embolization for Saccular Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysms 
Objective
Surgical treatment of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms is challenging due to limited surgical accessibility. Endovascular approach has a benefit of avoiding direct injury to the brainstem or lower cranial nerves. Therefore, it has recently been considered an alternative or primary modality for PICA aneurysms. We retrospectively assessed outcomes following detachable coil embolization of saccular PICA aneurysms.
Methods
From February 1997 to December 2007, we performed endovascular procedures to treat 15 patients with 15 PICA aneurysms. Fourteen patients with 14 PICA aneurysms morphology of which was saccular were reviewed retrospectively. Twelve patients had ruptured aneurysms. The aneurysms arose from the PICA origin site (n = 12), the PICA lateral medullary segment (n = 1), or the PICA tonsilomedullary segment (n = 1).
Results
Complete aneurysm occlusion was achieved in 10 patients, residual neck in 3, and residual sac in one. Radiological follow-up was performed in 7 patients with mean duration of 34.7 months (range, 1-97 months) and showed stable or complete occlusion in 6 patients. There were no rebleeding or retreatment after endovascular treatment. Thromboembolism was the only procedure-related complication (n = 4 ; 28.6%). Asymptomatic PICA infarction occurred in two patients and symptomatic PICA infarction in two elderly patients with poor clinical grade. Of these procedural PICA infarction cases, 1 symptomatic PICA infarction patient developed ventriculitis and septic shock leading to death. The clinical outcome was good in 10 patients (71.4%).
Conclusions
In the present study, detachable coil embolization has shown as an efficient modality for PICA saccular aneurysms challenging indications of microsurgery. However, thromboembolic complications should be considered, especially in poor clinical elderly patients with ruptured aneurysms.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.3.221
PMCID: PMC2764020  PMID: 19844622
Posterior inferior cerebellar artery; Endovascular; Microsurgery; Thromboembolism
8.  Clinical and Radiogical Outcomes of Endovascular Detachable Coil Embolization in Paraclinoid Aneurysms : A 10-Year Experience 
Objective
Direct surgical clipping of paraclinoid aneurysms poses technical challenges to even very experienced neurosurgeons, making endovascular treatment an alternative treatment modality in many centers. We have therefore retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of endovascular detachable coil embolization of paraclinoid aneurysms.
Methods
From June 1997 to June 2007, 65 patients underwent endovascular detachable coiling for 67 paraclinoid aneurysms (of which 9 were ruptured and 58 were unruptured) in our institute. Their medical records, radiological images and readings, and operation records were reviewed retrospectively.
Results
After the initial embolization procedure, complete occlusion was achieved in 29 (43.3%) of the aneurysms treated by endovascular detachable coiling. Six aneurysms required retreatment, with two each requiring one, two, or three additional endovascular procedures. Fifty-five (82.1%) aneurysms were measured by three-dimensional time of flight (TOF) magnetic resonance images (MRI) or transfemoral cerebral angiography (TFCA) at a mean follow-up of 29.7 months (range from 4 to 94 months), with 39 aneurysms (70.9%) showing complete occlusion. Thromboembolic events (3.8%) were the most frequent complication. Rupture did not occur during or after any of the procedures. According to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), 98.4% of the patients treated by coil embolization had a score of 4 or 5.
Conclusion
Our results indicate that endovascular detachable coiling is a safe and effective treatment modality in paraclinoid aneurysms.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.45.1.5
PMCID: PMC2640819  PMID: 19242564
Paraclinoid; Aneurysms; Endovascular
9.  Intraventricular Cavernous Malformation Radiologically Mimicking Meningioma 
We report a case of trigonal cavernous malformation (CM) radiologically mimicking meningioma. The computed tomographic (CT) head angiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a partially calcified lesion with slight contrast enhancement located in the area of the left atrium of lateral ventricle. The lesion was completely removed using microsurgery with a parieto-occipital transcortical approach. The resected mass was histologically confirmed as CM. CM should be considered as differential diagnosis in case of the atrial mass lesion due to lack of hemosiderin ring characteristically seen other seated CM.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.5.345
PMCID: PMC2612575  PMID: 19119474
Cavernous malformation; Meningioma; Trigone; Atrium
10.  Multimodal Treatment for Complex Intracranial Aneurysms: Clinical Research 
Objective
For patients with giant or dissecting aneurysm, multimodal treatment consisting extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery plus clip or coil for parent artery occlusion may be necessary. In this study, the safety and efficacy of multimodal treatment in 15 patients with complex aneurysms were evaluated retrospectively.
Methods
From January 1995 to June 2007, the authors treated 15 complex aneurysms that were unable to be clipped or coiled. Among them, nine patitents had unruptured aneurysms and 6 had ruptured aneurysms. Aneurysms were located in the internal cerebral artery (ICA) in 11 patients (4 in the dorsal wall, 4 in the terminal ICA, 1 in the paraclinoid, and 2 in the cavernous ICA), in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in 2, and in the posterior circulation in two patients
Results
Fifteen patients with complex aneurysms were treated with bypass surgery previously. Thirteen patients were treated with external carotid middle cerebral artery (ECA-MCA) anastomosis, and one patient with superficial temporal to posterior cerebral artery (STA-PCA) and another patient with occipital artery to posterior inferior cerebellar artery (OA-PICA) anastomosis. Parent artery occlusion was then performed with a clip in 9 patients, with a coil in 4, with balloon plus coil in one patient. All 15 aneurysms were successfully treated with clip or coil combined with bypass surgery. Follow-up angiograms showed good patency of anastomotic site in 10 out of 11 patients, and perfusion study showed sufficient perfusion in 6 out of 9 patients.
Conclusion
These findings indicate that for patients with complex aneurysms, clip or coil for parent vessel occlusion with additive bypass surgery can successfully exclude the aneurysm from the neurovascular circulatory system.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.5.314
PMCID: PMC2612569  PMID: 19119468
Aneurysm; Clip; Coil; Bypass
11.  Result of Extracranial-Intracranial Bypass Surgery in the Treatment of Complex Intracranial Aneurysms : Outcomes in 15 Cases 
Objective
The standard treatment strategy of intracranial aneurysms includes either endovascular coiling or microsurgical clipping. In certain situations such as in giant or dissecting aneurysms, bypass surgery followed by proximal occlusion or trapping of parent artery is required.
Methods
The authors assessed the result of extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery in the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms in one institute between 2003 and 2007 retrospectively to propose its role as treatment modality. The outcomes of 15 patients with complex aneurysms treated during the last 5 years were reviewed. Six male and 9 female patients, aged 14 to 76 years, presented with symptoms related to hemorrhage in 6 cases, transient ischemic attack (TIA) in 2 unruptured cases, and permanent infarction in one, and compressive symptoms in 3 cases. Aneurysms were mainly in the internal carotid artery (ICA) in 11 cases, middle cerebral artery (MCA) in 2, posterior cerebral artery (PCA) in one and posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) in one case.
Results
The types of aneurysms were 8 cases of large to giant size aneurysms, 5 cases of ICA blood blister-like aneurysms, one dissecting aneurysm, and one pseudoaneurysm related to trauma. High-flow bypass surgery was done in 6 cases with radial artery graft (RAG) in five and saphenous vein graft (SVG) in one. Low-flow bypass was done in nine cases using superficial temporal artery (STA) in eight and occipital artery (OA) in one case. Parent artery occlusion was performed with clipping in 9 patients, with coiling in 4, and with balloon plus coil in 1. Direct aneurysm clip was done in one case. The follow up period ranged from 2 to 48 months (mean 15.0 months). There was no mortality case. The long-term clinical outcome measured by Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) showed good or excellent outcome in 13/15. The overall surgery related morbidity was 20% (3/15) including 2 emergency bypass surgeries due to unexpected parent artery occlusion during direct clipping procedure. The short-term postoperative bypass graft patency rates were 100% but the long-term bypass patency rates were 86.7% (13/15). Nonetheless, there was no bypass surgery related morbidity due to occlusion of the graft.
Conclusion
Revascularization technique is a pivotal armament in managing complex aneurysms and scrupulous prior planning is essential to successful outcomes.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.4.228
PMCID: PMC2588312  PMID: 19096682
Cerebral aneurysm; Extracranial-intracranial bypass; Outcomes
12.  Current Status and Future Prospect of Endovascular Neurosurgery 
Recently, due to the evolution of technology, the field of neurosurgery is receiving spotlight. In particular endovascular neurosurgery has gained a great interest along with the advancement of the modern neurosurgery. The most remarkable advances were made in embolization of the cerebral aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations and intracranial stenosis during the past 10 years. These advances will further change the role of neurosurgeons in treating cerebrovascular disease. Because interventional neuroradiologists have performed most of procedures in the past, neurosurgeons have been deprived of chances to learn endovascular procedure. This article discusses the development of technological aspect of endovascular neurosurgery in chronological order. By understanding the history and current status of the endovascular surgery, the future of neurosurgery will be promising.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.2.69
PMCID: PMC2588227  PMID: 19096608
Endovascular surgery; Embolization; Aneurysm; Arteriovenous malformation; Intracranial stenosis

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