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1.  Emergent Recanalization with Stenting for Acute Stroke due to Athero-Thrombotic Occlusion of the Cervical Internal Carotid Artery : A Single Center Experience 
Objective
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of emergent carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) for acute stroke due to athero-thrombotic occlusion of the cervical internal carotid artery (ICA).
Methods
Review of medical records identified 17 patients who underwent emergent CAS for treatment of athero-thrombotic occlusion of the cervical ICA with acute stroke between 2009 and 2013. Eleven patients (64.7%) presented with concomitant intracranial artery occlusion, which was treated primarily by mechanical thrombectomy after CAS.
Results
Successful revascularization of the cervical ICA with emergent CAS was achieved in all patients. After CAS, intracranial recanalization with Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction ≥2b flow was achieved in four of the 11 patients (36.4%). The overall recanalization rate (cervical ICA and intracranial artery) was 10 of 17 patients (58.8%). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in two patients (11.8%), resulting in death. Ten patients (58.8%) showed improvement (decrease in NIHSS score of ≥4 points) at seven days after recanalization. Nine patients (52.9%) showed a favorable outcome (mRS ≤2) at the last follow-up. A favorable outcome (mRS ≤2) was obtained in four of the six patients with isolated cervical ICA occlusion (4/6, 66.7%) and five of 11 patients with intracranial tandem occlusion (5/11, 45.5%).
Conclusion
Emergent CAS for acute stroke due to athero-thrombotic occusion of the cervical ICA showed a good technical feasibility and favorable clinical outcome.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.6.313
PMCID: PMC4166326  PMID: 25237426
Carotid stent; Stroke; Carotid occlusion; Thrombolysis
2.  Sphenoid Ridge Meningioma Presenting as Acute Cerebral Infarction 
A previously healthy 52-year-old man presented to the emergency room with acute onset left hemiparesis and dysarthria. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance examinations revealed acute cerebral infarction in the right middle cerebral artery territory and a sphenoid ridge meningioma encasing the right carotid artery terminus. Cerebral angiography demonstrated complete occlusion of the right proximal M1 portion. A computed tomography perfusion study showed a wide area of perfusion-diffusion mismatch. Over the ensuing 48 hours, left sided weakness deteriorated despite medical treatment. Emergency extracranial-intracranial bypass was performed using a double-barrel technique, leaving the tumor as it was, and subsequently his neurological function was improved dramatically. We present a rare case of sphenoid ridge meningioma causing acute cerebral infarction as a result of middle cerebral artery compression.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.2.99
PMCID: PMC3958582  PMID: 24653805
Acute cerebral infarction; Meningioma; Middle cerebral artery; Occlusion
3.  Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysms Arising from the Proximal Segment of the Anterior Cerebral Artery 
Objective
Aneurysms arising from the proximal segment of the anterior cerebral artery (A1) are rare and challenging to treat. The aim of this study was to report our experience with endovascular treatment of A1 Aneurysms.
Methods
From August 2007 through May 2012, eleven A1 aneurysms in eleven patients were treated endovascularly. Six aneurysms were unruptured and 5 were ruptured. One patient with an unruptured A1 aneurysm presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Procedural data, clinical and angiographic results were reviewed retrospectively.
Results
All of the aneurysms were successfully treated with coil embolization. Six were treated with a simple technique while the remaining 5 required adjunctive technique : double catheters (n=2), balloon-assisted (n=2), and stent-assisted (n=1). The immediate angiographic control showed a complete occlusion in all cases. Procedure-related complication occurred in only one patient : parent artery occlusion, which was not clinically significant. All patients had excellent clinical outcomes but one patient was discharged with a slight disability. No neurologic deterioration or bleeding was seen during the follow-up period in this cohort of patients. Follow-up angiography (mean, 20 months) was available in ten patients and revealed stable occlusion in all cases.
Conclusion
Endovascular treatment is a feasible and effective therapeutic modality for A1 aneurysms. Tailored microcatheter shaping and/or adjunctive techniques are necessary for successful aneurysm embolization because of the projection and location of A1 aneurysms.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.54.2.75
PMCID: PMC3809447  PMID: 24175019
Endovascular treatment; Intracranial aneurysm; Anterior cerebral artery aneurysm
4.  In-Stent Stenosis of Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization of the Supraclinoid Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm 
The intracranial stent functions primarily to prevent protrusion of coils into the parent vessel during the embolization of wide-necked cerebral aneurysms and might also reduce aneurysm recanalization rate. In spite of these advantages, little is known about the long-term interaction of the stent with the parent vessel wall. We present a rare case of severe in-stent stenosis occurring as a delayed complication of Neuroform stent-assisted coil embolization of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.51.6.370
PMCID: PMC3424179  PMID: 22949968
Cerebral aneurysms; In-stent stenosis; Stent
5.  Retained Microcatheter after Onyx Embolization of Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformation 
Endovascular embolization is being increasingly used to treat intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, we experienced two patients with retained microcatheters after AVM embolization using Onyx.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.51.6.374
PMCID: PMC3424180  PMID: 22949969
Arteriovenous malformation; Onyx; Retained microcatheter
6.  Intramedullary Spinal Cord Metastasis of Choriocarcinoma 
The authors describe a case of choriocarcinoma that metastasized to the cerebral cortex, vertebral body, and intramedullary spinal cord. A 21-year-old woman presented with sudden headache, vomiting and a visual field defect. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance examinations revealed an intracranial hemorrhage in the left temporo-parietal lobe and two enhancing nodules in the left temporal and right frontal lobe. After several days, the size of the hemorrhage increased, and a new hemorrhage was identified in the right frontal lobe. The hematoma and enhancing mass in the left temporo-parietal lobe were surgically removed. Choriocarcinoma was diagnosed after histological examination. At 6 days after the operation, her consciousness had worsened and she was in a state of stupor. The size of the hematoma in the right frontal lobe was enlarged. We performed an emergency operation to remove the hematoma and enhancing mass. Her mental status recovered slowly. Two months thereafter, she complained of paraplegia with sensory loss below the nipples. Whole spine magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-enhancing mass in the thoracic intramedullary spinal cord and L2 vertebral body. Despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the patient died 13 months after the diagnosis.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.51.3.141
PMCID: PMC3358599  PMID: 22639709
Choriocarcinoma; Intracerebral hematoma; Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis; Spinal metastasis
7.  Massive Intracerebral Hemorrhage Caused by a Cavernous Malformation 
We present a rare case of massive intracerebral hemorrhage resulting from a small, superficially-located supratentorial cavernous malformation, or cavernoma. These lesions rarely lead to massive, life-threatening intracerebral hemorrhages. A 17-year-old female presented with a 3-week history of declining mental status. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sizable intracranial hemorrhage, within the right occipital region, associated with a small nodule at the hematoma's posterior margin. An emergency operation removed the entire hematoma and nodule. Histological examination of the nodule was compatible with a diagnosis of cavernous malformation. The patient's post-operative course was uneventful.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.51.1.37
PMCID: PMC3291704  PMID: 22396841
Cavernous malformation; Intracerebral hemorrhage
8.  An Unusual Case of Cerebral Penetrating Injury by a Driven Bone Fragment Secondary to Blunt Head Trauma 
Temple trauma that appears initially localized to the skin might possess intracranial complications. Early diagnosis and management of such complications are important, to avoid neurologic sequelae. Non-penetrating head injuries with intracranial hemorrhage caused by a driven bone fragment are extremely rare. A 53-year-old male was referred to our hospital because of intracerebral hemorrhage. He was a mechanic and one day before admission to a local clinic, tip of metallic rod hit his right temple while cutting the rod. Initial brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated scanty subdural hematoma at right temporal lobe and left falx and intracerebral hematoma at both frontal lobes. Facial CT with 3-D reconstruction images showed a small bony defect at the right sphenoid bone's greater wing and a small bone fragment at the left frontal lobe, crossing the falx. We present the unusual case of a temple trauma patient in whom a sphenoid bone fragment migrated from its origin upward, to the contralateral frontal lobe, producing hematoma along its trajectory.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.6.532
PMCID: PMC3272517  PMID: 22323943
Head injury; Penetrating; Bone fragment
9.  Endovascular Treatment Using Graft-Stent for Pseudoaneurysm of the Cavernous Internal Carotid Artery 
A 57-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of left oculomotor palsy. Digital subtraction angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm of the left cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) measuring 37×32 mm. The pseudoaneurysm was treated with a balloon expandable graft-stent to occlude the aneurysmal neck and preserve the parent artery. A post-procedure angiogram confirmed normal patency of the ICA and complete sealing of the aneurysmal neck with no opacification of the sac. After the procedure, the oculomotor palsy improved gradually, and had completely resolved 3 months after the procedure. A graft-stent can be an effective treatment for a pseudoaneurysm of the cavernous ICA with preservation of the parent artery.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.1.48
PMCID: PMC3159881  PMID: 21892405
Internal carotid artery; Pseudoaneurysm; Graft-stent; Oculomotor palsy
10.  Glue Embolization of Ruptured Anterior Thalamoperforating Artery Aneurysm in Patient with Both Internal Carotid Arteries Occlusion 
Thalamoperforating artery aneurysms are rarely reported in the literature. We report an extremely rare case of ruptured distal anterior thalamoperforating artery aneurysm which was treated by endovascular obliteration in a patient with occlusion of both the internal carotid arteries (ICAs) : A 72-year-old woman presented with severe headache and loss of consciousness. Initial level of consciousness at the time of admission was drowsy and the Glasgow Coma Scale score was 14. Brain computed tomography (CT) scan was performed which revealed intracerebral hemorrhage in right basal ganglia, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intraventricular hemorrhage. The location of the aneurysm was identified as within the globus pallidus on CT angiogram. Conventional cerebral angiogram demonstrated occlusion of both the ICAs just distal to the fetal type of posterior communicating artery and the aneurysm was arising from right anterior thalamoperforating artery (ATPA). A microcatheter was navigated into ATPA and the ATPA proximal to aneurysm was embolized with 20% glue. Post-procedural ICA angiogram demonstrated no contrast filling of the aneurysm sac. The patient was discharged without any neurologic deficit. Endovascular treatment of ATPA aneurysm is probably a more feasible and safe treatment modality than surgical clipping because of the deep seated location of aneurysm and the possibility of brain retraction injury during surgical operation.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.5.287
PMCID: PMC3115150  PMID: 21716902
Anterior thalamoperforating artery; Aneurysm; Glue embolization
11.  Safety and Efficacy of Transluminal Balloon Angioplasty Using a Compliant Balloon for Severe Cerebral Vasospasm after an Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 
Objective
Vasospasm of cerebral vessels remains a major source of morbidity and mortality after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of transluminal balloon angioplasty (TBA) for SAH-induced vasospasm.
Methods
Eleven patients with an angiographically confirmed significant vasospasm (>50% vessel narrowing and clinical deterioration) were studied. A total of 54 vessel segments with significant vasospasm were treated by TBA. Digital subtraction angiography was used to confirm the presence of vasospasm, and TBA was performed to dilate vasospastic arteries. Medical and angiographic reports were reviewed to determine technical efficacy and for procedural complications.
Results
TBA using Hyper-Glide or Hyper-Form balloons (MicroTherapeutics, Irvine, CA) was successfully accomplished in 88.9% vasospastic segments (48 of 54), namely, in the distal internal carotid artery (100%, n=7), the middle cerebral artery (100%), including the M1 (n=10), M2 (n=10), and M3 segments (n=4), in the vertebral artery (100%, n=2), basilar artery (100%, n=1), and in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), including the A1 (66%), A2 (66%), and A3 segments (100%). Vessel diameters significantly increased after TBA. There were no cases of vessel rupture or thromboembolic complications. GCS at one day after TBA showed an improvement in all patients except one.
Conclusion
This study suggests that TBA using Hyper-Glide or Hyper-Form balloons is a safe and effective treatment for subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.3.157
PMCID: PMC3085811  PMID: 21556235
Transluminal balloon angioplasty; Vasospasm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Endovascular procedure
12.  Non-Dura Based Intaspinal Clear Cell Meningioma 
A 34-year-old female patient was presented with leg and hip pain for 6 months as well as voiding difficulty for 1 year. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-demarcated mass lesion at L2-3. The mass was hypo-intense on T1- and T2-weighted images with homogeneous gadolinium enhancement. Surgery was performed with the presumptive diagnosis of intradural extramedullary meningioma. Complete tumor removal was possible due to lack of dural adhesion of the tumor. Histologic diagnosis was clear cell meningioma, a rare and newly included World Health Organization classification of meningioma usually affecting younger patients. During postoperative 2 years, the patient has shown no evidence of recurrence. We report a rare case of cauda equina clear cell meningioma without any dural attachment.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.1.71
PMCID: PMC3070901  PMID: 21494369
Clear cell meningioma; Spinal meningioma; World Health Organization classification; Younger patients; Cauda equina
13.  External Carotid Artery Angioplasty and Stenting Followed by Superficial Temporal Artery to Middle Cerebral Artery Anastomosis 
A 31-year-old man presented with right hemiparesis, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small infarct at left basal ganglia. Digital subtraction angiography showed left cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion and severe stenosis of the ipsilateral external carotid artery (ECA) with collateral cerebral circulation fed by ECAs. Based on the results of a functional evaluation of cerebral blood flow, we performed preventive ECA angioplasty and stenting for advanced ECA stenosis to ensure sufficient blood flow to the superficial temporal artery. Eight weeks later, superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis was performed. His postoperative course was uneventful and no additional transient ischemic attacks have occurred. To our knowledge, this is the first report of preventive angioplasty and stenting for advanced narrowing of an ECA before STA-MCA anastomosis for ipsilateral ICA occlusion.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.5.488
PMCID: PMC2796357  PMID: 20041061
Angioplasty; External carotid artery; Internal carotid artery; Middle cerebral artery
14.  Moyamoya-Like Vasculopathy in Neurosarcoidosis 
A 31-year-old man presented with dull headache and memory disturbance lasting for one week. Computed tomographic scans revealed acute hydrocephalus. The cerebrospinal fluid contained 53 leukocytes/mm3, with a mononuclear preponderance and no erythrocytes. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hydrocephalus and leptomeningeal enhancement. Magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography showed supraclinoid occlusion of the right internal carotid artery, which resembled unilateral moyamoya disease. Neuroendoscopic biopsy of a lesion in the septum pellucidum revealed noncaseating granulomas, which was consistent with sarcoidosis. The patient was successfully managed with intravenous methylprednisolone and ventriculoperitoneal shunting. To our knowledge, this is the first case of moyamoya-like vasculopathy associated with neurosarcoidosis.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.45.1.50
PMCID: PMC2640829  PMID: 19242573
Moyamoya disease; Neurosarcoidosis; Hydrocephalus
15.  Occlusion of the Middle Cerebral Artery Branch Mimicking Aneurysm 
A 26-year-old man was admitted to our department due to intermittent left hemiparesis for 3 months. Magnetic resonance image showed subacute infarction in the right precentral gyrus. Digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance angiography revealed an aneurysmal protrusion at the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation. It was difficult to differentiate the aneurysm from the occlusion of the middle trunk of the MCA trifurcation. Brain single photon emission computerized tomography showed a decrease in perfusion in the right posterior frontal lobe without vascular reserve. Therefore, we planned a superficial temporal artery-MCA anastomosis with an exploration of the right MCA bifurcation. Intraoperatively, the aneurysmal opacification on preoperative angiography proved to be the proximal stump of the occluded middle trunk of the MCA trifurcation. An aneurysmal protrusion at the MCA bifurcation does not always indicate an aneurysm. In diagnosing protruding vascular lesions at the MCA bifurcation, the possibility of a vascular stump should be considered according to their angioanatomical appearance and the history of the patient.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2007.42.5.413
PMCID: PMC2588198  PMID: 19096581
Middle cerebral artery; Aneurysm; Occlusion

Results 1-15 (15)