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1.  Serious Penetrating Craniocerebral Injury Caused by a Nail Gun 
Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies occur rarely due to the substantial mechanical protection offered by the skull. Throughout most of history, the brain, residing in a "closed box" of bone, has not been vulnerable to external aggression. Recently, we encountered a serious penetrating craniocerebral injury caused by a nail gun. Total excision of the offending nail via emergency craniotomy was performed, but the patient's neurologic status was not improved in spite of aggressive rehabilitative treatment. Here, we report on this troublesome case in light of a review of the relevant literature.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.56.6.537
PMCID: PMC4303736  PMID: 25628820
Head; Injury; Penetrating
2.  Giant Cell Tumor of Upper Thoracic Spine 
Giant cell tumor (GCT) of the spine is a rare benign tumor, but can be aggressive and can exhibit a high local recurrence rate. Furthermore, GCT of the upper thoracic spine may pose diagnostic and management difficulties. Here, we report a rare case of GCT of the upper thoracic spine with soft tissue extension to the spinal canal. The patient was managed by decompressive laminectomy and posterolateral fusion followed by an injection of polymethylmethacrylate into the vertebral lesion. The patient recovered clinically and showed radiological improvement after surgical treatment without tumor recurrence at his last follow-up of postoperative 7 years. We present this unusual case of GCT and include a review of the literature.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.3.167
PMCID: PMC4024819  PMID: 24851155
Giant cell tumor; Thoracic; Polymethylmethacrylate
3.  Spontaneous Pneumocephalus Caused by Pneumococcal Meningitis 
Pneumocephalus is a condition characterized by the presence of air in the cranium, and it is mainly caused by trauma or a neurosurgical procedure. In the absence of head trauma or a neurosurgical procedure, meningitis is an extremely rare cause of pneumocephalus. Here, the authors present a rare case of spontaneous pneumocephalus caused by pneumococcal meningitis, in which simple lateral radiography and computed tomography (CT) findings of the skull suggested the diagnosis. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed bacterial meningitis which later revealed streptococcus pneumonia. The patient was treated with antibiotics and responded remarkably well. Repeat CT performed after 2 weeks of treatment showed complete resolution of the intracranial gas. Here, the authors report an unusual case of a pneumocephalus caused by meningitis in the absence of head trauma or a neurosurgical procedure.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.53.4.249
PMCID: PMC3698237  PMID: 23826483
Pneumocephalus; Meningitis
4.  Intracerebral Hemorrhage Following Evacuation of a Chronic Subdural Hematoma 
Burr hole drainage has been widely used to treat chronic subdural hematomas (SDH), and most of them are easily treated by simple trephination and drainage. However, various complications, such as, hematoma recurrence, infection, seizure, cerebral edema, tension pneumocephalus and failure of the brain to expand due to cerebro-cranial disproportion may develop after chronic SDH drainage. Among them, intracerebral hemorrhage after evacuation of a recurrent chronic SDH is very rare. Here, we report a fatal case of delayed intracerebral hemorrhage caused by coagulopathy following evacuation of a chronic SDH. Possible pathogenic mechanisms of this unfavorable complication are discussed and a review of pertinent literature is included.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.53.2.108
PMCID: PMC3611053  PMID: 23560175
Chronic subdural hematoma; Complication; Intracerebral hemorrhage
5.  Bone Cement-Augmented Short Segment Fixation with Percutaneous Screws for Thoracolumbar Burst Fractures Accompanied by Severe Osteoporosis 
Objective
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of bone cement-augmented short segment fixation using percutaneous screws for thoracolumbar burst fractures in a background of severe osteoporosis.
Methods
Sixteen patients with a single-level thoracolumbar burst fracture (T11-L2) accompanying severe osteoporosis treated from January 2008 to November 2009 were prospectively analyzed. Surgical procedures included postural reduction for 3 days and bone cement augmented percutaneous screw fixation at the fracture level and at adjacent levels without bone fusion. Due to the possibility of implant failure, patients underwent implant removal 12 months after screw fixation. Imaging and clinical findings, including involved vertebral levels, local kyphosis, canal encroachment, and complications were analyzed.
Results
Prior to surgery, mean pain score (visual analogue scale) was 8.2 and this decreased to a mean of 2.2 at 12 months after screw fixation. None of the patients complained of pain worsening during the 6 months following implant removal. The percentage of canal compromise at the fractured level improved from a mean of 41.0% to 18.4% at 12 months after surgery. Mean kyphotic angle was improved significantly from 19.8° before surgery to 7.8 at 12 months after screw fixation. Canal compromise and kyphotic angle improvements were maintained at 6 months after implant removal. No significant neurological deterioration or complications occurred after screw removal in any patient.
Conclusion
Bone cement augmented short segment fixation using a percutaneous system can be an alternative to the traditional open technique for the management of selected thoracolumbar burst fractures accompanied by severe osteoporosis.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.4.353
PMCID: PMC3488644  PMID: 23133724
Burst fracture; Fusion; Percutaneous
6.  Treatment of Hydrocephalus Associated with Neurosarcoidosis by Multiple Shunt Placement 
A 31-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to hydrocephalus with neurosarcoidosis. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunting was performed in the right lateral ventricle with intravenous methylprednisolone. Subsequently, after 4 months, additional ventriculo-peritoneal shunting in the left lateral ventricle was performed due to the enlarged left lateral ventricle and slit-like right lateral ventricle. After 6 months, he was re-admitted due to upward gaze palsy, and magnetic resonance image showed an isolated fourth ventricle with both the inlet and outlet of fourth ventricle obstructed by recurrent neurosarcoidosis. Owing to the difficulty of using an endoscope, we performed neuronavigator-guided ventriculo-peritoneal shunting via the left lateral transcerebellar approach for the treatment of the isolated fourth ventricle with intravenous methyl prednisolone. The patient was discharged with improved neurological status.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.3.270
PMCID: PMC3483335  PMID: 23115677
Neurosarcoidosis; Hydrocephalus; Ventriculoperitoneal shunt
7.  Sixth and Twelfth Cranial Nerve Palsies Following Basal Skull Fracture Involving Clivus and Occipital Condyle 
Oblique basal skull fractures resulting from lateral crushing injuries involving both clivus and occipital condyle are rare due to their deep locations. Furthermore, these fractures may present clinically with multiple cranial nerve injuries because neural exit routes are restricted in this intricate region. The authors present an interesting case of basal skull fractures involving the clivus and occipital condyle and presenting with sixth and contralateral twelfth cranial nerve deficits. Clinico-anatomic correlations and the courses of cranial nerve deficits are reiterated. To the authors' knowledge, no other report has been previously issued on concomitant sixth and contralateral twelfth cranial nerve palsies following closed head injury.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.51.5.305
PMCID: PMC3393868  PMID: 22792430
Basal skull fracture; Cranial nerve palsy
8.  Spontaneous Concomitant Intracranial and Spinal Subdural Hematomas in Association with Anticoagulation Therapy 
Simultaneous intracranial and spinal subdural hematomas are extremely rare. In most cases, they are attributed to major or minor trauma and iatrogenic causes, such as those resulting from spinal puncture. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there has been only two reports of spontaneous concomitant intracranial and spinal subdural hematomas in a patient receiving anticoagulant therapy who had an absence of evident trauma history. We report on a case of spontaneous concomitant intracranial and spinal subdural hematomas that occurred in association with anticoagulant therapy and present a review of the relevant literature.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.51.4.237
PMCID: PMC3377884  PMID: 22737307
Cranial; Spinal; Subdural hematoma; Anticoagulant therapy
9.  Acute Spontaneous Subdural Hematoma of Arterial Origin 
Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma (SDH) of arterial origin is very rare. We report a case of acute spontaneous SDH that showed contrast media extravasation from cortical artery on angiograms. A 58-year-old male patient developed sudden onset headache and right hemiparesis. Brain CT scan demonstrated acute SDH at left convexity. The patient was drowsy mentality on admission. He had no history of head trauma. Cerebral angiography was performed and revealed a localized extravasation of the contrast media from distal cortical MCA branch. After angiography, the patient deteriorated to comatose mentality. Decompressive craniectomy for removal of SDH was performed. We verified the arterial origin of the bleeding and coagulated the bleeding focus. The histological diagnosis was aneurysmal artery. He recovered after surgery with mild disability. In a case of acute spontaneous SDH, the possibility of a cortical artery origin should be considered.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.51.2.91
PMCID: PMC3322214  PMID: 22500200
Acute subdural hematoma; Spontaneous; Cortical artery
10.  An Unusual Case of Post-Operative Spondylitis Caused by Mycobacterium Intracellulare in an Immunosuppressed Patient 
There are few reported cases of post-operative spondylitis caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare. A 75-year-old female presented to our hospital with low back pain and paraparesis after a fall. The radiologic examination revealed compression fractures of L1, L3 and L4 and an epidural hematoma compressing the spinal cord. The dark-red epidural hematoma was urgently evacuated. Four weeks post-operatively, neurologic deficits recurred with fever. On magnetic resonance image, an epidural abscess and osteomyelitis were detected in the previous operative site. Five weeks post-operatively, revision was performed with multiple biopsies. The specimen were positive for acid-fast bacilli and traditional anti-tuberculous medications were started. Because the Polymerase Chain Reaction for non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) was positive, the anti-tuberculous medications were changed to anti-NTM drugs. However, the neurologic deficits did not improve and persistent elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were noted. Eight weeks after the revision, Mycobacterium intracellulare was detected in the specimen cultures. Despite supportive care with medication, the patient died due to multiple organ failure.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.5.460
PMCID: PMC3259468  PMID: 22259695
Post-operative spondylitis; Mycobacterium intracellulare
11.  Guillain-Barre Syndrome Following Spinal Fusion for Thoracic Vertebral Fracture 
There have been very few reports in the literature of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) after spinal surgery. We present a unique case of GBS following spinal fusion for thoracic vertebral fracture. The aim of this report is to illustrate the importance of early neurological assessment and determining the exact cause of a new neurological deficit that occurs after an operation.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.5.464
PMCID: PMC3259469  PMID: 22259696
Guillain-Barre syndrome; Spinal surgery; Vertebral fracture
12.  The Effect of Phosphodiesterase-4-Specific Inhibitor in the Rat Model of Spinal Nerve Ligation 
Objective
Peripheral neuropathy is characterized by hyperalgesia, spontaneous burning pain, and allodynia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of rolipram, a phosphodiesterase-4-specific inhibitor, in a segmental spinal nerve ligation model in rats.
Methods
Both the L5 and L6 spinal nerves of the left side of the rats were ligated. Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor (rolipram) and saline (vehicle) were administered intraperitoneally. We measured mechanical allodynia using von Frey filaments and a nerve conduction study.
Results
The mechanical allodynia, which began to manifest on the first day, peaked within 2 days. Multiple intraperitoneal injections of rolipram ameliorated the mechanical allodynia. Furthermore, an intraperitoneal administration of rolipram improved the development of pain behavior and nerve conduction velocity.
Conclusion
This study suggests that the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, rolipram, alleviates mechanical allodynia induced by segmental spinal nerve ligation in rats. This finding may have clinical implications.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.2.109
PMCID: PMC3206271  PMID: 22053229
Peripheral nerve injury; Allodynia; Rolipram
13.  The Role of Bone Cement Augmentation in the Treatment of Chronic Symptomatic Osteoporotic Compression Fracture 
Objective
Bone cement augmentation procedures such as percutaneous vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty have been shown to be effective treatment for acute or subacute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of bone cement augmentation procedures for long standing osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture with late vertebral collapse and persistent back pain.
Methods
Among 278 single level osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that were treated by vertebral augmentation procedures at our institute, 18 consecutive patients were included in this study. Study inclusion was limited to initially, minimal compression fractures, but showing a poor prognosis due to late vertebral collapse, intravertebral vacuum clefts and continuous back pain despite conservative treatment for more than one year. The subjects included three men and 15 women. The mean age was 70.7 with a range from 64 to 85 years of age. After postural reduction for two days, bone cement augmentation procedures following intraoperative pressure reduction were performed. Imaging and clinical findings, including the level of the vertebra involved, vertebral height restoration, injected cement volume, local kyphosis, clinical outcome and complications were analyzed.
Results
The mean follow-up period after bone cement augmentation procedures was 14.3 months (range 12-27 months). The mean injected cement volume was 4.1 mL (range 2.4-5.9 mL). The unipedicular approach was possible in 15 patients. The mean pain score (visual analogue scale) prior to surgery was 7.1, which decreased to 3.1 at 7 days after the procedure. The pain relief was maintained at the final follow up. The kyphotic angle improved significantly from 21.2 ± 4.9° before surgery to 10.4 ± 3.8° after surgery. The fraction of vertebral height increased from 30% to 60% after bone cement augmentation, and the restored vertebral height was maintained at the final follow up. There were no serious complications related to cement leakage.
Conclusion
In the management of even long-standing osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture for over one year, bone cement augmentation procedures following postural reduction were considered safe and effective treatment in cases of non-healing evidence.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.6.490
PMCID: PMC3053542  PMID: 21430974
Long standing; Compression fracture; Osteoporosis; Bone cement
14.  Lumbar Disc Herniation in Tae Kwon Do Athletic Child 
Lumbar disc herniation is extremely uncommon in children below 10 years of age. A 7-year-old boy is reported who presented with low back pain and left leg radiating pain. The pain started seven days prior to presentation and was attributed to performing the jumping kick without any previous warm-up. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a posterolateral disc herniation at the L3-4 level and multiple degenerative changes. The patient received conservative treatment including limitation of sports activities, anti-inflammatory and muscle relaxant medications as well as physical therapy. After three months of the aggressive treatment the child was symptom free. We present here a lumbar disc herniation in one of the youngest patient.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.6.538
PMCID: PMC3053551  PMID: 21430983
Lumbar disc herniation; Child; Tae Kwon Do
15.  Neurologic Complication Following Spinal Epidural Anesthesia in a Patient with Spinal Intradural Extramedullary Tumor 
Paraplegia following spinal epidural anesthesia is extremely rare. Various lesions for neurologic complications have been documented in the literature. We report a 66-year-old female who developed paraplegia after left knee surgery for osteoarthritis under spinal epidural anesthesia. In the recovery room, paraplegia and numbness below T4 vertebra was checked. A magnetic resonance image (MRI) scan showed a spinal thoracic intradural extramedullary (IDEM) tumor. After extirpation of the tumor, the motor weakness improved to the grade of 3/5. If a neurologic deficit following spinal epidural anesthesia does not resolve, a MRI should be performed without delay to accurately diagnose the cause of the deficit and optimal treatment should be rendered for the causative lesion.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.6.544
PMCID: PMC3053553  PMID: 21430985
Spinal epidural anesthesia; Spinal intradural extramedullary tumor

Results 1-15 (15)