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1.  Prognostic Factors of Neurocognitive and Functional Outcomes in Junior and Senior Elderly Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Undergoing Disability Evaluation or Appointed Disability Evaluation 
Objective
This study explored the relationships among demographic (DVs) and clinical variables (CVs), neurocognitive (NOs) and functional outcome (FO) that could be used as prognostic factors for old aged patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) undergoing or appointed disability evaluation (DE) after treatment.
Methods
A total of 162 subjects with TBI above the age of 55 years undergoing DE or appointed to do so after treatments were selected. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to age : a junior elderly group 55 to 64 years old and a senior elderly group over the age of 65. NOs and FO were evaluated using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery and Clinical Dementia Rating scale.
Results
Gender, age, and education level were shown to significantly impact the recovery of NOs after TBI. Other DVs and CVs such as area of residency, occupation, type of injury, or loss of consciousness were not found to significantly affect the recovery of NOs after TBI. Analysis of the relationships among DVs, CVs and NOs demonstrated that gender, age, and education level contributed to the variance of NOs. In FO, loss of consciousness (LOC) was included to prognostic factor.
Conclusion
Gender, age and education level significantly influence the NOs of elderly patients with TBI. LOC may also serve as a meaningful prognostic factor in FO. Unlike younger adult patients with TBI, old aged patients with TBI did not show global faking-bad or malingering attitudes to DE for compensation, but assume that they could faking their performance in a test set available visual feedback.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.1.18
PMCID: PMC3928343  PMID: 24570813
Advanced age; Traumatic brain injury; Prognosis; Gender; Education
2.  Neurocognitive Function Differentiation from the Effect of Psychopathologic Symptoms in the Disability Evaluation of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury 
Objective
We determined whether the relationship between the neuropsychological performance of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their psychopathological characteristics measured by disability evaluation are interrelated. In addition, we assessed which psychopathological variable was most influential on neuropsychological performance via statistical clustering of the same characteristics of mild TBI.
Methods
A total of 219 disability evaluation participants with mild brain injury were selected. All participants were classified into three groups, based on their psychopathological characteristics, via a two-step cluster analysis using validity and clinical scales from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R). The Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (K-WAIS), Korean Memory Assessment Scale (K-MAS) and the Korean Boston Naming Test (K-BNT) were used to evaluate the neurocognitive functions of mild TBI patients.
Results
Over a quarter (26.9%) experienced severe psychopathological symptoms and 43.4% experienced mild or moderate psychopathological symptoms, and all of the mild TBI patients showed a significant relationship between neurocognitive functions and subjective and/or objective psychopathic symptoms, but the degree of this relationship was moderate. Variances of neurocognitive function were explained by neurotic and psychotic symptoms, but the role of these factors were different to each other and participants did not show intelligence and other cognitive domain decrement except for global memory abilities compared to the non-psychopathology group.
Conclusion
Certain patients with mild TBI showed psychopathological symptoms, but these were not directly related to cognitive decrement. Psychopathology and cognitive decrement are discrete aspects in patients with mild TBI. Furthermore, the neurotic symptoms of mild TBI patients made positive complements to decrements or impairments of neurocognitive functions, but the psychotic symptoms had a negative effect on neurocognitive functions.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.54.5.390
PMCID: PMC3873351  PMID: 24379945
Disability evaluation; Mild traumatic brain injury; Neuropsychological performance; Post-concussion syndrome
3.  Incidental Superior Hypophygeal Artery Aneurysm Embedded within Pituitary Adenoma 
Intra-cranial aneurysm can be incidental findings in patients with pituitary adenomas, and are usually located outside the pituitary region. However, the coexistence of intrasellar (not intracranial) aneurysms with pituitary adenomas is extremely rare. We report a patient with an incidental superior hypophygeal aneurysm embedded within a non-functional pituitary adenoma which was treated by transsphenoidal surgery after endovascular coil embolization.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.54.3.250
PMCID: PMC3836936  PMID: 24278658
Pituitary adenoma; Aneurysm; Therapeutic embolization; Surgical procedure
4.  Long-Term Follow-Up Result of Hydroxyurea Chemotherapy for Recurrent Meningiomas 
Objective
Meningiomas represent 18-20% of all intracranial tumors and have a 20-50% 10-year recurrence rate, despite aggressive surgery and irradiation. Hydroxyurea, an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, is known to inhibit meningioma cells by induction of apoptosis. We report the long-term follow-up result of hydroxyurea therapy in the patients with recurrent meningiomas.
Methods
Thirteen patients with recurrent WHO grade I or II meningioma were treated with hydroxyurea (1000 mg/m2/day orally divided twice per day) from June 1998 to February 2012. Nine female and 4 male, ranging in age from 32 to 83 years (median age 61.7 years), were included. Follow-up assessment included physical examination, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Standard neuro-oncological response criteria (Macdonald criteria) were used to evaluate the follow-up MRI scans. The treatment was continued until there was objective disease progression or onset of unmanageable toxicity.
Results
Ten of the 13 patients (76.9%) showed stable disease after treatment, with time to progression ranging from 8 to 128 months (median 72.4 months; 6 patients still accruing time). However, there was no complete response or partial response in any patients. Three patients had progressive disease after 88, 89, 36 months, respectively. There was no severe (Grade III-IV) blood systemic disorders and no episodes of non-hematological side effects.
Conclusion
This study showed that hydroxyurea is a modestly active agent against recurrent meningiomas and can induce long-term stabilization of disease in some patients. We think that hydroxyurea treatment is well tolerated and convenient, and could be considered as an alternative treatment option in patients with recurrent meningiomas prior to reoperation or radiotherapy.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.6.517
PMCID: PMC3550418  PMID: 23346322
Meningioma; Chemotherapy; Hydroxyurea; Recurrence
5.  Neurotization from Two Medial Pectoral Nerves to Musculocutaneous Nerve in a Pediatric Brachial Plexus Injury 
Traumatic brachial plexus injuries can be devastating, causing partial to total denervation of the muscles of the upper extremities. Surgical reconstruction can restore motor and/or sensory function following nerve injuries. Direct nerve-to-nerve transfers can provide a closer nerve source to the target muscle, thereby enhancing the quality and rate of recovery. Restoration of elbow flexion is the primary goal for patients with brachial plexus injuries. A 4-year-old right-hand-dominant male sustained a fracture of the left scapula in a car accident. He was treated conservatively. After the accident, he presented with motor weakness of the left upper extremity. Shoulder abduction was grade 3 and elbow flexor was grade 0. Hand function was intact. Nerve conduction studies and an electromyogram were performed, which revealed left lateral and posterior cord brachial plexopathy with axonotmesis. He was admitted to Rehabilitation Medicine and treated. However, marked neurological dysfunction in the left upper extremity was still observed. Six months after trauma, under general anesthesia with the patient in the supine position, the brachial plexus was explored through infraclavicular and supraclavicular incisions. Each terminal branch was confirmed by electrophysiology. Avulsion of the C5 roots and absence of usable stump proximally were confirmed intraoperatively. Under a microscope, neurotization from the musculocutaneous nerve to two medial pectoral nerves was performed with nylon 8-0. Physical treatment and electrostimulation started 2 weeks postoperatively. At a 3-month postoperative visit, evidence of reinnervation of the elbow flexors was observed. At his last follow-up, 2 years following trauma, the patient had recovered Medical Research Council (MRC) grade 4+ elbow flexors. We propose that neurotization from medial pectoral nerves to musculocutaneous nerve can be used successfully to restore elbow flexion in patients with brachial plexus injuries.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.3.267
PMCID: PMC3483334  PMID: 23115676
Brachial plexus; Neurotization; Pectoral nerve; Musculocutaneous nerve
6.  Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma Metastasized to Both the Skull and the Brain 
Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) with skull and brain metastases is extremely rare. A 53-year-old patient diagnosed as skull metastasis of ASPS visited our clinic complaining of an outgrowing scalp mass in spite of radiation therapy. Past medical history revealed that the patient had been diagnosed and treated for ASPS of the thigh 4 years ago. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hyperintense ovoid mass on the T2-weighted image, an isointense on the T1-weighted image, and a homogeneous enhanced mass with gadolinium. Another small-sized enhanced mass with mild peritumoral swelling was found at the deep white matter of the left frontal lobe. A gross total resection of the skull lesion with cranioplasty was performed for the surgical defect. A histologic examination of the specimens revealed metastatic ASPS involving the skull. Surgery with a total removal of the lesions may be effective for improving a patient's symptoms especially from neurological dysfunction.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.1.55
PMCID: PMC3440505  PMID: 22993680
Alveolar soft part sarcoma; Brain metastasis; Sarcoma; Surgery
7.  Chronic Subdural Hematoma after Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension : A Case Treated with Epidural Blood Patch on C1-2 
Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a recognized cause of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). Subdural hematoma (SDH) is a serious but rare complication of SIH. An autologous epidural blood patch at the CSF-leak site can effectively relieve SIH. We report a case of bilateral SDH with SIH caused by a CSF leak originating at the C1-2 level. A 55-year-old male complained of orthostatic headache without neurological signs. His symptoms did not respond to conservative treatments including bed rest, hydration and analgesics. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a subdural hematoma in the bilateral fronto-parietal region, and computed tomography (CT) myelography showed a CSF leak originating at the C1-2 level. The patient underwent successful treatment with a CT-guided epidural blood patch at the CSF-leak site after trephination for bilateral SDH.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.3.274
PMCID: PMC3218194  PMID: 22102965
Blood patch; Epidural; Intracranial hypotension; Subdural hematoma
8.  Cerebellar Pilocytic Astrocytomas with Spontaneous Intratumoral Hemorrhage in Adult 
Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are benign gliomas predominantly found in the pediatric population. Intracranial hemorrhages are extremely rare in initial presentations of cerebellar PAs. There are no reports in the medical literature of adult cerebellar PA cases presenting with intratumoral hemorrhage. We report 2 cases of adult cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas with intratumoral hemorrhage. The first case is a 37-year-old woman presenting with severe headache, nausea, and vomitting. Computed tomography demonstrated an acute hemorrhage adjacent to the right cerebellar hemisphere and hydrocephalus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a cerebellar vermian tumor with the hemorrhage as a mixed isointense area in the T2-weighted image, and as a mixed hyperintense area in the contrast-enhanced T1-weighted image. The second case is a 53-year-old man presenting with headache for 3 weeks. MRI revealed a cerebellar hemispheric tumor with the hemorrhage as a mixed hyperintense area. It had a cystic mass with a heterogeneous enhanced mural nodule in the gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted image and a fluid-fluid level within the cyst in the T2-weighted image. Both of them underwent radical resections of their respective lesions. Histological examination of the specimens revealed typical astrocytoma, including a hemorrhagic portion. Both patients recovered postoperatively and continue to do well at present. The medical literature on hemorrhagic cerebellar PAs is also reviewed.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.6.363
PMCID: PMC3158481  PMID: 21887396
Pilocytic astrocytoma; Hemorrhage; Cerebellum; Adult
9.  Ulnar Nerve Compression in Guyon's Canal by Ganglion Cyst 
Compression of the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal can result from repeated blunt trauma, fracture of the hamate's hook, and arterial thrombosis or aneurysm. In addition, conditions such as ganglia, rheumatoid arthritis and ulnar artery disease can rapidly compress the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal. A ganglion cyst can acutely protrude or grow, which also might compress the ulnar nerve. So, clinicians should consider a ganglion cyst in Guyon's canal as a possible underlying cause of ulnar nerve compression in patients with a sudden decrease in hand strength. We believe that early decompression with removal of the ganglion is very important to promote complete recovery.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.2.139
PMCID: PMC3079103  PMID: 21519507
Guyon's canal; Ganglion cyst; Compression
10.  Peritumoral Brain Edema in Meningiomas : Correlation of Radiologic and Pathologic Features 
Objective
The primary objective of this study was to perform a retrospective evaluation of the radiological and pathological features influencing the formation of peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) in meningiomas.
Methods
The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathology data for 86 patients with meningiomas, who underwent surgery at our institution between September 2003 and March 2009, were examined. We evaluated predictive factors related to peritumoral edema including gender, tumor volume, shape of tumor margin, presence of arachnoid plane, the signal intensity (SI) of the tumor in T2-weighted image (T2WI), the WHO histological classification (GI, GII/GIII) and the Ki-67 antigen labeling index (LI). The edema-tumor volume ratio was calculated as the edema index (EI) and was used to evaluate peritumoral edema.
Results
Gender (p=0.809) and pathological finding (p=0.084) were not statistically significantly associated with peritumoral edema by univariate analysis. Tumor volume was not correlated with the volume of peritumoral edema. By univariate analysis, three radiological features, and one pathological finding, were associated with PTBE of statistical significance: shape of tumor margin (p=0.001), presence of arachnoid plane (p=0.001), high SI of tumor in T2WI (p=0.001), and Ki-67 antigen LI (p=0.049). These results suggest that irregular tumor margins, hyperintensity in T2WI, absence of arachnoid plane on the MRI, and high Ki-67 LI can be important predictive factors that influence the formation of peritumoral edema in meningiomas. By multivariate analysis, only SI of the tumor in T2WI was statistically significantly associated with peritumoral edema.
Conclusion
Results of this study indicate that irregular tumor margin, hyperintensity in T2WI, absence of arachnoid plane on the MRI, and high Ki-67 LI may be important predictive factors influencing the formation of peritumoral edema in meningiomas.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.1.26
PMCID: PMC3070891  PMID: 21494359
Brain edema; Edema index; Intracranial meningioma; Labeling index
11.  Development of a Cognitive Level Explanation Model in Brain Injury : Comparisons between Disability and Non-Disability Evaluation Groups 
Objective
We investigated whether Disability Evaluation (DE) situations influence patients' neuropsychological test performances and psychopathological characteristics and which variable play a role to establish an explanation model using statistical analysis.
Methods
Patients were 536 (56.6%) brain-injured persons who met inclusion and exclusion criteria, classified into the DE group (DE; n = 300, 56.0%) and the non-DE group (NDE; n = 236, 44.0%) according to the neuropsychological testing's purpose. Next, we classified DE subjects into DE cluster 1 (DEC1; 91, 17.0%), DE cluster 2 (DEC2; 125; 23.3%), and DE cluster 3 (DEC3; 84, 15.7%) via two-step cluster analysis, to specify DE characteristics. All patients completed the K-WAIS, K-MAS, K-BNT, SCL-90-R, and MMPI.
Results
In comparisons between DE and NDE, the DE group showed lower intelligence quotients and more severe psychopathologic symptoms, as evaluated by the SCL-90-R and MMPI, than the NDE group did. When comparing the intelligence among the DE groups and NDE group, DEC1 group performed worst on intelligence and memory and had most severe psychopathologic symptoms than the NDE group did. The DEC2 group showed modest performance increase over the DEC1 and DEC3, similar to the NDE group. Paradoxically, the DEC3 group performed better than the NDE group did on all variables.
Conclusion
The DE group showed minimal "faking bad" patterns. When we divided the DE group into three groups, the DEC1 group showed typical malingering patterns, the DEC2 group showed passive malingering patterns, and the DEC3 group suggested denial of symptoms and resistance to treatment.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.6.506
PMCID: PMC3053545  PMID: 21430977
Disability evaluation; Brain injury; Malingering
12.  Selective Musculocutaneous Neurotomy for Spastic Elbow 
Objective
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and outcome of selective musculocutaneous neurotomy (SMcN) for spastic elbow.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 14 patients with spasticity of their elbows. The patients were selected using clinical and analytical scales, as well as nerve block tests, for assessment. Their mean age was 37.29 years (range, 19-63 years). SMcN was performed for these patients, and the mean follow-up period was 30.71 months (range, 19-54 months).
Results
The modified Ashworth scale (MAS) scores recorded before and after the SMcN showed that the patients' mean preoperative MAS score of 3.28 ± 0.12 was improved to 1.71 ± 0.12, 1.78 ± 0.18, 1.92 ± 0.16 and 1.78 ± 0.18 at postoperative 3, 6, 12 months and last follow-up, respectively. On the basis of a visual analogue score ranging from 0-100, the patients' mean degree of satisfaction score was 65.00 ± 16.52 (range, 30-90).
Conclusion
We believe that SMcN can be a good and effective treatment modality with low morbidity in appropriately selected patients who have localized spastic elbow with good antagonist muscles and without joint contracture.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.3.236
PMCID: PMC2966725  PMID: 21082051
Elbow; Muscle spasticity; Musculocutaneous nerve; Neurotomy; Surgical procedure
13.  A Painful Glomus Tumor on the Pulp of the Distal Phalanx 
A 52-year-old female patient presented with an 8-year history of progressively intense pain, cold sensitivity, and severe tenderness to palpation of the ulnar side of the tip of her right little finger. Subsequent diagnostic evaluation with ultrasonographic imaging revealed the presence of a glomus tumor in the tender area. Glomus tumors are benign, occurring in the vascular hamartomatous tubercles of the glomus body, which is a myoarterial apparatus typically found in the reticular dermis of the skin. Distal glomus tumors are relatively uncommon, and account for approximately 1% of all hand tumors. Most of them are located in the subungual area because of its high concentration of glomus bodies. We report a case of a glomus tumor with a typical triad of symptoms, yet with a rare location : on the pulp of the ulnar aspect of the distal phalanx of the right little finger.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.2.185
PMCID: PMC2941867  PMID: 20856673
Glomus tumor; Finger; Pain
14.  Sacral Nerve Stimulation for Treatment of Intractable Pain Associated with Cauda Equina Syndrome 
Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is an effective treatment for bladder and bowel dysfunction, and also has a role in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. We report two cases of intractable pain associated with cauda equina syndrome (CES) that were treated successfully by SNS. The first patient suffered from intractable pelvic pain with urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence after surgery for a herniated lumbar disc. The second patient underwent surgery for treatment of a burst fracture and developed intractable pelvic area pain, right leg pain, excessive urinary frequency, urinary incontinence, voiding difficulty and constipation one year after surgery. A SNS trial was performed on both patients. Both patients' pain was significantly improved and urinary symptoms were much relieved. Neuromodulation of the sacral nerves is an effective treatment for idiopathic urinary frequency, urgency, and urge incontinence. Sacral neuromodulation has also been used to control various forms of pelvic pain. Although the mechanism of action of neuromodulation remains unexplained, numerous clinical success reports suggest that it is a therapy with efficacy and durability. From the results of our research, we believe that SNS can be a safe and effective option for the treatment of intractable pelvic pain with incomplete CES.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.6.473
PMCID: PMC2899040  PMID: 20617098
Sacral Plexus; Neuromodulator; Pain; Cauda Equina
15.  Long-Term Results of Microsurgical Selective Tibial Neurotomy for Spastic Foot : Comparison of Adult and Child 
Objective
Selective neurotomy is generally a safe, effective, and long-lasting treatment for patients with spastic equinovarus foot deformity. We retrospectively analyzed the results of microsurgical selective tibial neurotomy (STN) for spastic feet in adults and children.
Methods
A neurosurgeon selected 32 patients with 45 spastic feet (adults : 13, children : 32) to undergo microsurgical STN between October 1998 and September 2007. A physician of rehabilitation assessed spasticity pre- and postoperatively, that was based on the Ashworth scale, ankle clonus, and the amplitude of ankle dorsiflexion. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 36.7 months in adults and 42.5 months in children.
Results
Spastic components of the feet were corrected immediately after surgery in both the adult and child groups. The mean Ashworth's grade changed from 3.6 ± 0.40 to 1.6 ± 0.70 in adults and from 3.7 ± 0.69 to 1.4 ± 0.49 in children. Mean ankle clonus decreased markedly, from 1.6 ± 0.79 to 0.3 ± 0.42 in adults and from 1.7 ± 0.65 to 0.3 ± 0.56 in children. The mean amplitude of ankle dorsiflexion was improved, but eight (adults: 4, children: 4) contracted feet needed complementary orthopedic correction for acceptable results.
Conclusion
STN can be effective in the long-term for improving lower limb function and reduction of equinovarus deformity. Our results demonstrate that STN might be an effective procedure for treating localized harmful spastic feet in adults and children.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.4.247
PMCID: PMC2864815  PMID: 20461163
Foot; Spasticity; Surgical procedures; Children; Adults
16.  Median Nerve Stimulation in a Patient with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type II 
A 54-year-old man experienced injury to the second finger of his left hand due to damage from a paintball gun shot 8 years prior, and the metacarpo-phalangeal joint was amputated. He gradually developed mechanical allodynia and burning pain, and there were trophic changes of the thenar muscle and he reported coldness on his left hand and forearm. A neuroma was found on the left second common digital nerve and was removed, but his symptoms continued despite various conservative treatments including a morphine infusion pump on his left arm. We therefore attempted median nerve stimulation to treat the chronic pain. The procedure was performed in two stages. The first procedure involved exposure of the median nerve on the mid-humerus level and placing of the electrode. The trial stimulation lasted for 7 days and the patient's symptoms improved. The second procedure involved implantation of a pulse generator on the left subclavian area. The mechanical allodynia and pain relief score, based on the visual analogue scale, decreased from 9 before surgery to 4 after surgery. The patient's activity improved markedly, but trophic changes and vasomotor symptom recovered only moderately. In conclusion, median nerve stimulation can improve chronic pain from complex regional pain syndrome type II.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.3.273
PMCID: PMC2764030  PMID: 19844632
Complex regional pain syndrome; Median nerve; Peripheral nerve stimulation
17.  Cardiac Troponin I Elevation in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 
Objective
Cardiac dysfunction after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with elevation of serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels. Elevation of cTnI predicts cardiopulmonary and neurological complications, and poor outcome.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical and radiologic records of 114 (male : 30, female : 84) patients who developed aneurysmal SAH between January 2006 and June 2007 and had no history of previous cardiac problems. We evaluated their electrocardiography and cTnI level, which had been measured at admission. A cTnI level above 0.5 µg/L was defined as an indicator of cardiac injury following SAH. We examined various clinical factors for their association with cTnI elevation and analyzed data using chi-square test, t-test and logistic regression test with SPSS version 12.0. The results were considered significant at p < 0.05.
Results
The following parameters shows a correlation with cTnI elevation : higher Hunt-Hess (H-H) grade (p = 0.000), poor Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score (p = 0.000), profound pulmonary complication (p = 0.043), higher heart rate during initial three days following SAH (p = 0.029), ruptured aneurysm on communicating segment of internal carotid artery (p = 0.025), incidence of vasospasm (p = 0.421), and duration of hyperdynamic therapy for vasospasm (p = 0.292). A significant determinants for outcome were cTnI elevation (p = 0.046) and H-H grade (p = 0.000) in a multivariate study.
Conclusion
A cTnI is a good indicator for cardiopulmonary and neurologic complications and outcome following SAH. Consideration of variable clinical factors that related with cTnI elevation may be useful tactics for treatment of SAH and concomitant complications.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.2.99
PMCID: PMC2744033  PMID: 19763210
Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Cardiac troponin I; Complications; Vasospasm
18.  Surgical Results of Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma 
Objective
We retrospectively analyzed the surgical outcomes of 42 patients with growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma to evaluate the clinical manifestations and to determine which preoperative factors that significantly influence the remission.
Methods
Forty-two patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenoma underwent transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) between 1995 and 2007. The patient group included 23 women and 19 men, with a mean age of 40.2 (range 13-61) years, and a mean follow-up duration of 49.4 (range 3-178) months after the operation. For comparable radiological criteria, we classified parasellar growth into five grades according to the Knosp classification. We analyzed the surgical results of the patients according to the most recent stringent criteria for cure.
Results
The overall rate of endocrinological remission in the group of 42 patients after primary TSS was 64% (26 of 42). The remission rate was 67% (8 of 12) for microadenoma and 60% (18 of 30) for macroadenoma. The remission rate was 30% (3 of 10) for the group with cavernous sinus invasion and 72% (23 of 32) for the group with intact cavernous sinus. Cavernous sinus invasion in Knosp grade III and IV was significantly correlated with the remission rate. There was a significant relationship between preoperative mean GH concentration and early postoperative outcome, with most patients in remission having a lower preoperative GH concentration.
Conclusion
TSS is thought to be an effective primary treatment for GH-secreting pituitary adenomas according to the most recent criteria of cure. Because the remission rate in cases with cavernous sinus invasion is very low, early detection of the tumor before it extends into the cavernous sinus and a long-term endocrinological and radiological follow-up are necessary in order to improve the remission rate of acromegaly.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.45.5.271
PMCID: PMC2693785  PMID: 19516943
Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma; Cavernous sinus; Remission induction
19.  Syringomyelia Associated with a Spinal Arachnoid Cyst 
While syringomyelia is not a rare spinal disorder, syringomyelia associated with a spinal arachnoid cyst is very unusual. Here, we report a 62-year-old man who suffered from gait disturbance and numbness of bilateral lower extremities. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the presence of a spinal arachnoid cyst between the 7th cervical and 3rd thoracic vertebral segment and syringomyelia extending between the 6th cervical and 1st thoracic vertebral segment. The cyst had compressed the spinal cord anteriorly. Syringomyelia usually results from lesions that partially obstruct cerebrospinal fluid flow. Therefore, we concluded that the spinal arachnoid cyst was causing the syringomyelia. After simple excision of the arachnoid cyst, the symptoms were relieved. A follow-up MRI demonstrated that the syringomyelia had significantly decreased in size after removal of the arachnoid cyst. This report presents an unusual case of gait disturbance caused by syringomyelia associated with a spinal arachnoid cyst.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.45.5.315
PMCID: PMC2693796  PMID: 19516954
Syringomyelia; Arachnoid cyst; Spinal cord neoplasm
20.  Primary Intracranial Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Brain Stem with a Cerebellopontine Angle Epidermoid Cyst 
Primary intracranial squamous cell carcinoma is extremely rare, with most cases arising from a preexisting benign epidermoid cyst. We report a rare case of primary intracranial squamous cell carcinoma in the brain stem with a cerebellopontine angle (CPA) epidermoid cyst. A 72-year-old female suffered from progressive left hemiparesis, difficulty in swallowing, and right hemifacial numbness. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed a high signal intensity (SI) lesion in the CPA region and an intra-axially ring-enhanced cystic mass in the right brain stem with low SI. Whole-body positron emission tomography showed no evidence of metastatic disease. The histological findings revealed a typical epidermoid cyst in the CPA region and a squamous cell carcinoma in the brain stem. We speculate that the squamous cell carcinoma may have been developed due to a chronic inflammatory response by the adjacent epidermoid cyst. The patient underwent a surgical resection and radiotherapy. After 12 months, she had no evidence of recurrence.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.6.401
PMCID: PMC2615148  PMID: 19137089
Squamous cell carcinoma; Epidermoid cyst; Brain stem; Cerebellopontine angle
21.  Delayed Bilateral Abducens Nerve Palsy after Head Trauma 
Although the incidence of unilateral abducens nerve palsy has been reported to be as high as 1% to 2.7% of head trauma cases, bilateral abducens nerve palsy following trauma is extremely rare. In this report, we present the case of a patient who developed a bilateral abducens nerve palsy and hypoglossal nerve palsy 3 days after suffering head trauma. He had a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 15 points. Computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated clivus epidural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage on the basal cistern. Herein, we discuss the possible mechanisms of these nerve palsies and its management.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.6.396
PMCID: PMC2615146  PMID: 19137087
Abducens nerve palsy; Hypoglossal nerve palsy; Epidural hematoma; Clivus
22.  The Effect of Premorbid Demographic Factors on the Recovery of Neurocognitive Function in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients 
Objective
Premorbid demographic backgrounds of injured individuals are likely to reflect more accurately the status of patients with traumatic brian injury (TBI) than clinical factors. However, the concrete study about the relationship between the demographic factors and neurocognitive function in TBI patients has not been reported. The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of premorbid demographic factors on the recovery of neurocognitive function following TBI.
Methods
From July 1998 to February 2007, 293 patients (male: 228, female: 65) with a history of head injury, who had recovered from the acute phase, were selected from our hospital to include in this study. We analyzed the effect of premorbid demographic factors including age, sex, educational level and occupation on the recovery of neurocognitive function in each TBI subgroup as defined by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. Intelligence and memory are components of neurocognitive function, and the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale (K-WAIS) and the Korean memory assessment scale (K-MAS) were used in this study. The results were considered significant at p<0.05.
Results
The higher level of education was a good prognostic factor for intelligence regardless of GCS score and younger age group showed a better result for memory with an exception of severe TBI group. In the severe TBI group, the meaningful effect of demographic factors was not noted by the cause of influence of severe brain injury.
Conclusion
The demographic factors used in this study may be helpful for predicting the precise prognosis and developing an appropriate rehabilitation program for TBI patients.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.5.295
PMCID: PMC2612566  PMID: 19119465
Traumatic brain injury; Premorbid demographic factors; Prognosis
23.  Analysis of Clip-induced Ischemic Complication of Anterior Choroidal Artery Aneurysms 
Objective
The surgical approach is typically similar to those used for other supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) lesions. However, the surgical clipping of this aneurysm is complicated and as a result, can result in postoperative ischemic complications. We studied to clarify the clip-induced ischemic complication risk of AChA aneurysm and to get the benefits for helping decision making.
Methods
We retrospectively investigated 53 cases (4.0%) of AchA aneurysm treated surgically. We divided the AChA aneurysm to 3 subtype according to the origin of aneurysmal neck; A type originating from the AChA itself, J type from junction of AChA and ICA, and I type from the ICA itself. We evaluated brain CT about 1 week post-operative day to confirm the low density in AChA territory.
Results
Ruptured aneurysm was 26 cases and unruptured aneurysm 27 cases. The aneurysmal subtype of A, J, and I was 13, 17, and 23 cases. Of the 53 cases who performed surgical neck clipping, twelve (22.6%) had postoperative AChA distribution infarcts. Increased infarct after neck clipping had statistic significance in non-I subtype (p=0.005).
Conclusion
It is easy to classify as "easy" surgery. But surgery for AChA aneurysms carries with it a significant risk of postoperative stroke. Don't always stick to clipping only, especially in non-I type of incidental small aneurysm, which has high risk of post-clip ischemic complications.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.3.131
PMCID: PMC2588238  PMID: 19096619
Anterior choroidal artery infarction; Clip; Intracranial aneurysm
24.  Analysis of Failed Spinal Cord Stimulation Trials in the Treatment of Intractable Chronic Pain 
Objective
The purpose of this study is to identify the factors affecting the failure of trials (<50% pain reduction in pain for trial period) to improve success rate of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) trial.
Methods
A retrospective review of the failed trials (44 patients, 36.1%) among the patients (n=122) who underwent SCS trial between January 1990 and December 1998 was conducted. We reviewed the causes of failed trial stimulation, age, sex, etiology of pain, type of electrode, and third party support.
Results
Of the 44 patients, 65.9% showed unacceptable pain relief in spite of sufficient paresthesia on the pain area with trial stimulation. Four of six patients felt insufficient paresthesia with stimulation had the lesions of the spinal cord. Seventy five percent of the patients experienced unpleasant or painful sensation during stimulation had allodynia dominant pain. Third-party involvement, sex, age and electrode type had no influence on the outcome.
Conclusion
We conclude that SCS trial is less effective for patients with neuropathic pain of cord lesions, postherpetic neuropathy or post-amputation state. Further, patients with allodynia dominant pain can feel unpleasant or painful during trial stimulation.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.2.85
PMCID: PMC2588233  PMID: 19096610
Spinal cord stimulation; Cord lesion; Allodynia; Paresthesia; Chronic pain

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