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1.  Clinical Outcome in Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Metastatic Brain Tumors from the Primary Breast Cancer : Prognostic Factors in Local Treatment Failure and Survival 
Objective
Brain metastases in primary breast cancer patients are considerable sources of morbidity and mortality. Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has gained popularity as an up-front therapy in treating such metastases over traditional radiation therapy due to better neurocognitive function preservation. The aim of this study was to clarify the prognostic factors for local tumor control and survival in radiosurgery for brain metastases from primary breast cancer.
Methods
From March 2001 to May 2011, 124 women with metastatic brain lesions originating from a primary breast cancer underwent GKRS at a tertiary medical center in Seoul, Korea. All patients had radiosurgery as a primary treatment or salvage therapy. We retrospectively reviewed their clinical outcomes and radiological responses. The end point of this study was the date of patient's death or the last follow-up examination.
Results
In total, 106 patients (268 lesions) were available for follow-up imaging. The median follow-up time was 7.5 months. The mean treated tumor volume at the time of GKRS was 6273 mm3 (range, 4.5-27745 mm3) and the median dose delivered to the tumor margin was 22 Gy (range, 20-25 Gy). Local recurrence was assessed in 86 patients (216 lesions) and found to have occurred in 36 patients (83 lesions, 38.6%) with a median time of 6 months (range, 4-16 months). A treated tumor volume >5000 mm3 was significantly correlated with poor local tumor control through a multivariate analysis (hazard risk=7.091, p=0.01). Overall survival was 79.9%, 48.3%, and 15.3% at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. The median overall survival was 11 months after GKRS (range, 6 days-113 months). Multivariate analysis showed that the pre-GKRS Karnofsky performance status, leptomeningeal seeding prior to initial GKRS, and multiple metastatic lesions were significant prognostic factors for reduced overall survival (hazard risk=1.94, p=0.001, hazard risk=7.13, p<0.001, and hazard risk=1.46, p=0.046, respectively).
Conclusion
GKRS has shown to be an effective and safe treatment modality for treating brain metastases of primary breast cancer. Most metastatic brain lesions initially respond to GKRS, though, many patients have further CNS progression in subsequent periods. Patients with poor Karnofsky performance status and multiple metastatic lesions are at risk of CNS progression and poor survival, and a more frequent and strict surveillance protocol is suggested in such high-risk groups.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.54.4.329
PMCID: PMC3841276  PMID: 24294457
Breast cancer; Metastases; Gamma knife radiosurgery; Prognosis
2.  Prognostic Factors and Therapeutic Outcomes in 22 Patients with Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma 
Objective
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare primary low-grade astrocytic tumor classified as WHO II. It is generally benign, but disease progression and malignant transformation have been reported. Prognostic factors for PXA and optimal therapies are not well known.
Methods
The study period was January 2000 to March 2012. Data on MR findings, histology, surgical extents and adjuvant therapies were reviewed in twenty-two patients diagnosed with PXA.
Results
The frequent symptoms of PXA included seizures, headaches and neurologic deficits. Tumors were most common in the temporal lobe followed by frontal, parietal and occipital lobes. One patient who died from immediate post-operative complications was excluded from the statistical analysis. Of the remaining 21 patients, 3 (14%) died and 7 (33%) showed disease progression. Atypical tumor location (p<0.001), peritumoral edema (p=0.022) and large tumor size (p=0.048) were correlated with disease progression, however, Ki-67 index and necrosis were not statistically significant. Disease progression occurred in three (21%) of 14 patients who underwent GTR, compared with 4 (57%) of 7 patients who did not undergo GTR, however, it was not statistically significant. Ten patients received adjuvant radiotherapy and the tumors were controlled in 5 of these patients.
Conclusion
The prognosis for PXA is good; in our patients overall survival was 84%, and event-free survival was 59% at 3 years. Atypical tumor location, peritumoral edema and large tumor size are significantly correlated with disease progression. GTR may provide prolonged disease control, and adjuvant radiotherapy may be beneficial, but further study is needed.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.53.5.281
PMCID: PMC3730029  PMID: 23908701
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma; Prognosis; outcome; Radiotherapy
3.  Intracranial Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma : Case Report and Literature Review 
Intracranial extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is extremely rare, with only seven patients previously reported. We present a case report of a 21-year-old woman admitted for weakness in her right extremities and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hydrocephalus and a well-enhanced large mass around her left thalamus. A left parietal craniotomy and a cortisectomy at the superior parietal lobule were performed. Total surgical resection was also performed, and pathology results confirmed an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Postoperative MRI showed no residual tumor, and the patient underwent radiotherapy. After six months of radiotherapy, the patient's headache and weakness had improved to grade IV. This malignant tumor showed high rates of recurrence in previous reports. We here report another occurrence of this highly malignant and rare tumor in a patient treated using total surgical excision and adjuvant radiotherapy.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.3.246
PMCID: PMC3483328  PMID: 23115670
Brain neoplasms; Chondrosarcoma; Choroid plexus
4.  Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Brainstem Metastasis 
Objective
Brainstem metastases are rarely operable and generally unresponsive to conventional radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Recently, Gamma Knife Radiosurgery (GKRS) was used as feasible treatment option for brainstem metastasis. The present study evaluated our experience of brainstem metastasis which was treated with GKRS.
Methods
Between November 1992 and June 2010, 32 patients (23 men and 9 women, mean age 56.1 years, range 39-73) were treated with GKRS for brainstem metastases. There were metastatic lesions in pons in 23, the midbrain in 6, and the medulla oblongata in 3 patients, respectively. The primary tumor site was lung in 21, breast in 3, kidney in 2 and other locations in 6 patients. The mean tumor volume was 1,517 mm3 (range, 9-6,000), and the mean marginal dose was 15.9 Gy (range, 6-23). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was obtained every 2-3 months following GKRS. Follow-up MRI was possible in 24 patients at a mean follow-up duration of 12.0 months (range, 1-45). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to evaluate the prognostic factors.
Results
Follow-up MRI showed tumor disappearance in 6, tumor shrinkage in 14, no change in tumor size in 1, and tumor growth in 3 patients, which translated into a local tumor control rate of 87.5% (21 of 24 tumors). The mean progression free survival was 12.2 months (range, 2-45) after GKRS. Nine patients were alive at the completion of the study, and the overall mean survival time after GKRS was 7.7 months (range, 1-22). One patient with metastatic melanoma experienced intratumoral hemorrhage during the follow-up period. Survival was found to be associated with score of more than 70 on Karnofsky performance status and low recursive partitioning analysis class (class 1 or 2), in terms of favorable prognostic factors.
Conclusion
GKRS was found to be safe and effective for management of brainstem metastasis. The integral clinical status of patient seems to be important in determining the overall survival time.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.4.299
PMCID: PMC3243831  PMID: 22200010
Brainstem tumor; Gamma knife radiosurgery; Metastasis; Stereotactic radiosurgery
5.  Extracranial-Intracranial Bypass Surgery Using a Radial Artery Interposition Graft for Cerebrovascular Diseases 
Objective
To investigate the efficacy of extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery using a radial artery interposition graft (RAIG) for surgical management of cerebrovascular diseases.
Methods
The study involved a retrospective analysis of 13 patients who underwent EC-IC bypass surgery using RAIG at a single neurosurgical institute between 2003 and 2009. The diseases comprised intracranial aneurysm (n=10), carotid artery occlusive disease (n=2), and delayed stenosis in the donor superficial temporal artery (STA) following previous STA-middle cerebral artery bypass surgery (n=1). Patients were followed clinically and radiographically.
Results
Bypass surgery was successful in all patients. At a mean follow-up of 53.4 months, the short-term patency rate was 100%, and the long-term rate was 92.3%. Twelve patients had an excellent clinical outcome of Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) 5, and one case had GOS 3. Procedure-related complications were a temporary dysthesia on the graft harvest hand (n=1) and a hematoma at the graft harvest site (n=1), and these were treated successfully with no permanent sequelae. In one case, spasm occurred which was relieved with the introduction of mechanical dilators.
Conclusion
EC-IC bypass using a RAIG appears to be an effective treatment for a variety of cerebrovascular diseases requiring proximal occlusion or trapping of the parent artery.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.3.185
PMCID: PMC3218175  PMID: 22102946
EC-IC arterial bypass; Radial artery interposition graft; Revascularization
6.  Surgical Results of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms in the Elderly : Single Center Experience in the Past Ten Years 
Objective
As medical advances have increased life expectancy, it has become imperative to develop specific treatment strategies for intracranial aneurysms in the elderly. We therefore analyzed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms in patients older than 70 years.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and results of neuroimaging modalities on 54 aneurysms of 48 consecutive patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms. (mean±SD age, 72.11±1.96 years; range, 70-78 years) who underwent surgical clipping over 10 years (May 1999 to June 2010).
Results
Of the 54 aneurysms, 22 were located in the internal carotid artery, 19 in the middle cerebral artery, 12 in the anterior cerebral artery, and 1 in the superior cerebellar artery. Six patients had multiple aneurysms. Aneurysm size ranged from 3 mm to 17 mm (mean±SD, 6.82±3.07 mm). Fifty of the 54 aneurysms (92.6%) were completely clipped. Three-month outcomes were excellent in 50 (92.6%) aneurysms and good and poor in 2 each (3.7%), with 1 death (2.0%). Procedure-related complications occurred in 7 aneurysms (13.0%), with 2 (3.7%) resulting in permanent neurological deficits, including death. No postoperative subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred during follow-up. The cumulative rates of stroke- or death-free survival at 5 and 10 years were 100% and 78%, respectively.
Conclusion
Surgical clipping of unruptured intracranial aneurysms in elderly group could get it as a favorable outcome in well selected cases.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.6.329
PMCID: PMC3158474  PMID: 21887389
Unruptured intracranial aneurysm; Surgical clipping; Elderly; Outcome
7.  Radiographic Analysis of Instrumented Posterolateral Fusion Mass Using Mixture of Local Autologous Bone and b-TCP (PolyBone®) in a Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery 
Objective
Although iliac crest autograft is the gold standard for lumbar fusion, the morbidity of donor site leads us to find an alternatives to replace autologous bone graft. Ceramic-based synthetic bone grafts such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and b-tricalcium phosphate (b-TCP) provide scaffolds similar to those of autologous bone, are plentiful and inexpensive, and are not associated with donor morbidity. The present report describes the use of Polybone® (Kyungwon Medical, Korea), a beta-tricalcium phosphate, for lumbar posterolateral fusion and assesses clinical and radiological efficacy as a graft material.
Methods
This study retrospectively analyzed data from 32 patients (11 men, 21 women) who underwent posterolateral fusion (PLF) using PolyBone® from January to August, 2008. Back and leg pain were assessed using a Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), and clinical outcome was assessed using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Serial radiological X-ray follow up were done at 1, 3, 6 12 month. A computed tomography (CT) scan was done in 12 month. Radiological fusion was assessed using simple anterior-posterior (AP) X-rays and computed tomography (CT). The changes of radiodensity of fusion mass showed on the X-ray image were analyzed into 4 stages to assess PLF status.
Results
The mean NRS scores for leg pain and back pain decreased over 12 months postoperatively, from 8.0 to 1.0 and from 6.7 to 1.7, respectively. The mean ODI score also decreased from 60.5 to 17.7. X-rays and CT showed that 25 cases had stage IV fusion bridges at 12 months postoperatively (83.3% success). The radiodensity of fusion mass on X-ray AP image significantly changed at 1 and 6 months.
Conclusion
The present results indicate that the use of a mixture of local autologous bone and PolyBone® results in fusion rates comparable to those using autologous bone and has the advantage of reduced morbidity. In addition, the graft radiodensity ratio significantly changed at postoperative 1 and 6 months, possibly reflecting the inflammatory response and stabilization.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.5.267
PMCID: PMC3115146  PMID: 21716898
Postero-Lateral fusion; PolyBone®; Radiodensity
8.  Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of Unilateral Facetectomy and Interbody Fusion Using Expandable Cages for Lumbosacral Foraminal Stenosis 
Objective
Surgical treatment of lumbosacral foraminal stenosis requires an understanding of the anatomy of the lumbosacral area in individual patients. Unilateral facetectomy has been used to completely decompress entrapment of the L5 nerve root, followed in some patients by posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with stand-alone cages.
Methods
We assessed 34 patients with lumbosacral foraminal stenosis who were treated with unilateral facetectomy and PLIF using stand-alone cages in our center from January 2004 to September 2007. All the patients underwent follow-up X-rays, including a dynamic view, at 3, 6, 12, 24 months, and computed tomography (CT) at 24 months postoperatively. Clinical outcomes were analyzed with the mean numeric rating scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Odom's criteria. Radiological outcomes were assessed with change of disc height, defined as the average of anterior, middle, and posterior height in plain X-rays. In addition, lumbosacral fusion was also assessed with dynamic X-ray and CT.
Results
Mean NRS score, which was 9.29 prior to surgery, was 1.5 at 18 months after surgery. The decrease in NRS was statistically significant. Excellent and good groups with regard to Odom's criteria were 31 cases (91%) and three cases (9%) were fair. Pre-operative mean ODI of 28.4 decreased to 14.2 at post-operative 24 months. In 30 patients, a bone bridge on CT scan was identified. The change in disc height was 8.11 mm, 10.02 mm and 9.63 mm preoperatively, immediate postoperatively and at 24 months after surgery, respectively.
Conclusion
In the treatment of lumbosacral foraminal stenosis, unilateral facetectomy and interbody fusion using expandable stand-alone cages may be considered as one treatment option to maintain post-operative alignment and to obtain satisfactory clinical outcomes.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.6.496
PMCID: PMC3053543  PMID: 21430975
Expandable cage; Foraminal stenosis; Lumbosacral spine
9.  Giant Serpentine Aneurysm of the Middle Cerebral Artery 
Giant serpentine aneurysms are rare and have distinct angiographic findings. The rarity, large size, complex anatomy and hemodynamic characteristics of giant serpentine aneurysms make treatment difficult. We report a case of a giant serpentine aneurysm of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) that presented as headache. Treatment involved a superficial temporal artery (STA)-MCA bypass followed by aneurysm resection. The patient was discharged without neurological deficits, and early and late follow-up angiography disclosed successful removal of the aneurysm and a patent bypass graft. We conclude that STA-MCA bypass and aneurysm excision is a successful treatment method for a giant serpentine aneurysm.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.48.2.177
PMCID: PMC2941865  PMID: 20856671
Angiographic feature; Bypass surgery; Giant serpentine aneurysm
10.  Gamma Knife Radiosurgery after Stereotactic Aspiration for Large Cystic Brain Metastases 
Objective
Several treatment options have proven effective for metastatic brain tumors, including surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery. Tumors with cystic components, however, are difficult to treat using a single method. We retrospectively assessed the outcome and efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for cystic brain metastases after stereotactic aspiration of cystic components to decrease the tumor volume.
Methods
The study population consisted of 24 patients (13 males, 11 females; mean age, 58.3 years) with cystic metastatic brain tumors treated from January 2002 to August 2008. Non-small cell lung cancer was the most common primary origin. After Leksell stereotactic frame was positioned on each patient, magnetic resonance images (MRI)-guided stereotactic cyst aspiration and GKRS were performed (mean prescription dose : 20.2 Gy). After treatment, patients were evaluated by MRI every 3 or 4 months.
Results
After treatment, 13 patients (54.2%) demonstrated tumor control, 5 patients (20.8%) showed local tumor progression, and 6 patients (25.0%) showed remote progression. Mean follow-up duration was 13.1 months. During this period, 10 patients (41.7%) died, but only 1 patient (4.2%) died from brain metastases. The overall median survival after these procedures was 17.8 months.
Conclusion
These results support the usefulness of GKRS after stereotactic cyst aspiration in patients with large cystic brain metastases. This method is especially effective for the patients whose general condition is very poor for general anesthesia and those with metastatic brain tumors located in eloquent areas.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.4.360
PMCID: PMC2773395  PMID: 19893727
Cystic brain metastases; Gamma knife radiosurgery; Stereotactic cyst aspiration
11.  Endolymphatic Sac Tumors : Report of Four Cases 
Endolymphatic sac tumor is rare, locally aggressive hypervascular tumor of papillary structure, arising from the endolymphatic duct or sac in the posterior petrous bone. We present four cases with this tumor. Two patients were male and the other two were female. Age of each patient was 15, 52, 58, and 67 years. Three patients presented with progressive hearing loss and sustained vertigo for months to years and another one was referred for the tumor detected in routine medical check-up. Preoperative embolization was performed in 3 patients. Complete excision of the tumor was achieved in all patients using translabyrinthine or retrosigmoid approach. Herein, we describe the clinical and radiographic features, surgical treatment and pathologic findings with a review of the literature.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.4.268
PMCID: PMC2588307  PMID: 19096691
Endolymphatic sac tumor; Petrous bone; Papillary tumor
12.  The Anatomical Location and Course of the Facial Nerve in Vestibular Schwannomas : A Study of 163 Surgically Treated Cases 
Objective
The aim of this study was to identify the anatomical location and course of the facial nerve (FN) and their relationship to the tumor size in surgically treated vestibular schwannomas.
Methods
A retrospective study was conducted on 163 patients who had been treated by the microsurgical resection for a newly diagnosed vestibular schwannoma between 1995 and 2005 (mean age of 46.1 years; 108 females and 55 males). Surgery was carried out via retrosigmoid approach in all patients with the electromyographic monitoring for the FN function. The anatomical location and course of the FN along the tumor surface were verified in each patient during the microsurgery, and were classified into 4 groups : 1) the FN displaced along the ventral and superior surface of the tumor (VS); 2) the ventral and central (VC); 3) the ventral and inferior (VI); and 4) the dorsal (Do).
Results
The FN displacement was identified as the followings : VS in 91 patients (55.8%); VC in 57 (35.0%); VI in 14 (8.6%); and Do in 1 (0.6%). In the subgroup with tumors less than 2 cm in diameter (n=23), the FN was displaced along the ventral and central surface of the tumor in the majority (65.2%), whereas, in the patients with tumors larger than 2cm (n=140), it was displaced along the ventral and superior surface most frequently (59.3%).
Conclusion
The FN can be displaced variably in vestibular schwannomas, and most frequently along the ventral and superior surface of the tumor, especially in large ones.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2007.42.6.450
PMCID: PMC2588177  PMID: 19096588
Vestibular schwannoma; Facial nerve; Microsurgery

Results 1-12 (12)