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1.  Morphometric Study of Hypoglossal Nerve and Facial Nerve on the Submandibular Region in Korean 
Objective
This study was performed to determine the anatomical landmarks and optimal dissection points of the facial nerve (FN) and the hypoglossal nerve (HGN) in the submandibular region to provide guidance for hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis (HFNA).
Methods
Twenty-nine specimens were obtained from 15 formalin-fixed adult cadavers. Distances were measured based on the mastoid process tip (MPT), common carotid artery bifurcation (CCAB), and the digastric muscle posterior belly (DMPB).
Results
The shortest distance from the MPT to the stylomastoid foramen was 14.1±2.9 mm. The distance from the MPT to the FN origin was 8.6±2.8 mm anteriorly and 5.9±2.8 mm superiorly. The distance from the CCAB to the crossing point of the HGN and the internal carotid artery was 18.5±6.7 mm, and that to the crossing point of the HGN and the external carotid artery was 15.1±5.7 mm. The distance from the CCAB to the HGN bifurcation was 26.6±7.5 mm. The distance from the digastric groove to the HGN, which was found under the DMPB, was about 35.8±5.7 mm. The distance from the digastric groove to the HGN, which was found under the DMPB, corresponded to about 65.5% of the whole length of the DMPB.
Conclusion
This study provides useful information regarding the morphometric anatomy of the submandibular region, and the presented morphological data on the nerves and surrounding structures will aid in understanding the anatomical structures more accurately to prevent complications of HFNA.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.51.5.253
PMCID: PMC3393858  PMID: 22792420
Facial nerve; Hypoglossal nerve; Morphometric anatomy
2.  Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms Presenting with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treated by Staged Coil Trapping and Covered Stents Graft 
The treatment of bilateral vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is still challenging. The authors report a rare case of bilateral VADA treated with coil trapping of ruptured VADA and covered stents implantation after multiple unsuccessful stent assisted coiling of the contralateral unruptured VADA. A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of severe headache and sudden stuporous consciousness. Brain CT showed thick SAH and intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography demonstrated bilateral VADA. Based on the SAH pattern and aneurysm configurations, the right VADA was considered ruptured. This was trapped with endovascular coils without difficulty. One month later, the contralateral unruptured VADA was protected using a stent-within-a-stent technique, but marked enlargement of the left VADA was detected by 8-months follow-up angiography. Subsequently two times coil packing for pseudosacs resulted in near complete occlusion of left VADA. However, it continued to grow. Covered stents graft below the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin and a coronary stent implantation across the origin of the PICA resulted in near complete obliteration of the VADA. Covered stent graft can be used as a last therapeutic option for the management of VADA, which requires absolute preservation of VA flow.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.51.3.155
PMCID: PMC3358603  PMID: 22639713
Vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm; SAH; Stent assisted coiling; Trapping; Covered stent graft; Endovascular embolization
3.  Idiopathic Thoracic Epidural Lipomatosis with Chest Pain 
Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is an overgrowth of the normally encapsulated adipose tissue in the epidural space around the spinal cord in the thoracic and lumbar spine causing compression of the neural components. Idiopathic SEL in non-obese patients is exceptional. Idiopathic SEL can result in thoracic myelopathy and lumbar radiculopathy. A thoracic radiculopathy due to idiopathic SEL has not been reported yet. We report a case of idiopathic SEL with intractable chest pain and paresthesia. We suggest that idiopathic SEL should be considered as a cause of chest pain.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.50.2.130
PMCID: PMC3206276  PMID: 22053234
Spinal; Idiopathic; Epidural; Lipomatosis; Thoracic; Chest pain
4.  Posterior Cervical Inclinatory Foraminotomy for Spondylotic Radiculopathy Preliminary 
Posterior cervical foraminotomy is an attractive therapeutic option in selected cases of cervical radiculopathy that maintains cervical range of motion and minimize adjacent-segment degeneration. The focus of this procedure is to preserve as much of the facet as possible with decompression. Posterior cervical inclinatory foraminotomy (PCIF) is a new technique developed to offer excellent results by inclinatory decompression with minimal facet resection. The highlight of our PCIF technique is the use of inclinatory drilling out for preserving more of facet joint. The operative indications are radiculopathy from cervical foraminal stenosis (single or multilevel) with persistent or recurrent root symptoms. The PCIFs were performed between April 2007 and December 2009 on 26 male and 8 female patients with a total of 55 spinal levels. Complete and partial improvement in radiculopathic pain were seen in 26 patients (76%), and 8 patients (24%), respectively, with preserving more of facet joint. We believe that PCIF allows for preserving more of the facet joint and capsule when decompressing cervical foraminal stenosis due to spondylosis. We suggest that our PCIF technique can be an effective alternative surgical approach in the management of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.5.308
PMCID: PMC3115157  PMID: 21716632
Cervical; Posterior; Inclinatory; Foraminotomy; Cervical Spondylosis; Radiculopathy
5.  Morphometric Study of the Nerve Roots Around the Lateral Mass for Posterior Foraminotomy 
Objective
Morphometric data on dorsal cervical anatomy were examined in an effort to protect the nerve root near the lateral mass during posterior foraminotomy.
Methods
Using 25 adult formalin-fixed cadaveric cervical spines, measurements were taken at the lateral mass from C3 to C7 via a total laminectomy and a medial one-half facetectomy. The morphometric relationship between the nerve roots and structures of the lateral mass was investigated. Results from both genders were compared.
Results
Following the total laminectomy, from C3 to C7, the mean of the vertical distance from the medial point of the facet (MPF) of the lateral mass to the axilla of the root origin was 3.2-4.7 mm. The whole length of the exposed root had a mean of 4.2-5.8 mm. Following a medial one-half facetectomy, from C3 to C7, the mean of the vertical distance to the axilla of the root origin was 2.1-3.4 mm, based on the MPF. Mean vertical distances from the MPF to the medial point of the root that crossed the inferior margin of the intervertebral disc were 1.2-2.7 mm. The mean distance of the exposed root was 8.2-9.0 mm, and the mean angle between the dura and the nerve root was significantly different between males and females, at 53.4-68.4°.
Conclusion
These data will aid in reducing root injuries during posterior cervical foraminotomy.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.5.358
PMCID: PMC2883056  PMID: 20539795
Posterior foraminotomy; Spinal nerve roots; Laminectomy; Facetectomy; Cadaveric study
6.  Morphometric Study of the Korean Adult Pituitary Glands and the Diaphragma Sellae 
Objective
To investigate the morphometric characteristics of the pituitary gland and diaphragma sellae in Korean adults.
Methods
Using the 33 formaline fixed adult cadavers (23 male, 10 female), the measurements were taken at the diaphragma sellae and pituitary gland. The authors investigated the relationship between dura and structures surrounding pituitary gland, morphometric aspects of pituitary gland and stalk, and morphometric aspect of central opening of diaphragma sellae.
Results
The boundary between the lateral surface of pituitary gland and the medial wall of cavernous sinus was formed by the thin dural layer and pituitary capsule. The pituitary capsule adherent tightly to the pituitary gland was observed to continue from the diaphragma sellae. Mean width, length, and height of the pituitary gland were 14.3 ± 2.1, 7.9 ± 1.3, and 6.0 ± 0.9 mm in anterior lobes, and 8.7 ± 1.7, 2.9 ± 1.1, and 5.8 ± 1.0 mm in posterior lobes, respectively. Although all dimensions of anterior lobe in female were slightly larger than those in male, statistical significance was noted in only longitudinal dimension. The ratio of posterior lobe to the whole length of pituitary gland was about 27%. The mean thickness of pituitary stalk was 2 mm. The diaphragmal opening was 5 mm or more in 26 (78.8%) of 33 specimen. The opening was round in 60.6% of the specimen, and elliptical oriented in an anterior-posterior or transverse direction in 39.4%.
Conclusion
These results provide the safe anatomical knowledge during the transsphenoidal surgery and may be helpful to access the possibility of the development of empty sella syndrome.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.1.42
PMCID: PMC2817514  PMID: 20157377
Pituitary gland; Diaphragma sellae; Cadaver
7.  The Changes in Range of Motion after a Lumbar Spinal Arthroplasty with Charité™ in the Human Cadaveric Spine under Physiologic Compressive Follower Preload : A Comparative Study between Load Control Protocol and Hybrid Protocol 
Objective
To compare two testing protocols for evaluating range of motion (ROM) changes in the preloaded cadaveric spines implanted with a mobile core type Charité™ lumbar artificial disc.
Methods
Using five human cadaveric lumbosacral spines (L2-S2), baseline ROMs were measured with a bending moment of 8 Nm for all motion modes (flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation) in intact spine. The ROM was tracked using a video-based motion-capturing system. After the Charité™ disc was implanted at the L4-L5 level, the measurement was repeated using two different methods : 1) loading up to 8 Nm with the compressive follower preload as in testing the intact spine (Load control protocol), 2) loading in displacement control until the total ROM of L2-S2 matches that when the intact spine was loaded under load control (Hybrid protocol). The comparison between the data of each protocol was performed.
Results
The ROMs of the L4-L5 arthroplasty level were increased in all test modalities (p < 0.05 in bending and rotation) under both load and hybrid protocols. At the adjacent segments, the ROMs were increased in all modes except flexion under load control protocol. Under hybrid protocol, the adjacent segments demonstrated decreased ROMs in all modalities except extension at the inferior segment. Statistical significance between load and hybrid protocols was observed during bending and rotation at the operative and adjacent levels (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
In hybrid protocol, the Charité™ disc provided a relatively better restoration of ROM, than in the load control protocol, reproducing clinical observations in terms of motion following surgery.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.2.144
PMCID: PMC2744024  PMID: 19763217
Range of motion; Lumbar spinal arthroplasty; Charité™; Follower preload; Load control protocol; Hybrid protocol
8.  A Morphometric Aspect of the Brachial Plexus in the Periclavicular Region 
Objective
The purpose of this study was to determine the normal morphometric landmarks of the uniting and dividing points of the brachial plexus (BP) in the periclavicular region to provide useful guidance in surgery of BP injuries.
Methods
A total of 20 brachial plexuses were obtained from 10 adult, formalin-fixed cadavers. Distances were measured on the basis of the Chassaignac tubercle (CT), and the most lateral margin of the BP (LMBP) crossing the superior and inferior edge of the clavicle.
Results
LMBP was located within 25 mm medially from the midpoint in all subjects. In the supraclavicular region, the upper trunk uniting at 21 ± 7 mm from the CT, separating into divisions at 42 ± 5 mm from the CT, and dividing at 19 ± 4 mm from the LMBP crossing the superior edge of the clavicle. In the infraclavicular region, the distance from the inferior edge of the clavicle to the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) origin was 49 ± 1 mm, to the median nerve origin 57 ± 7 mm, and the ulnar nerve origin 48 ± 6 mm. From the lateral margin of the pectoralis minor to the MCN origin the distance averaged 3.3 ± 10 mm. Mean diameter of the MCN was 4.3 ± 1.1 mm (range, 2.5-6.0) in males (n = 6), and 3.1 ± 1.5 mm (range, 1.6-4.0) in females (n = 4).
Conclusion
We hope these data will aid in understanding the anatomy of the BP and in planning surgical treatment in BP injuries.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.2.130
PMCID: PMC2744022  PMID: 19763215
Brachial plexus; Musculocutaneous nerve; Clavicle; Pectoralis muscles
9.  Clinical Factors for the Development of Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus after Decompressive Craniectomy 
Objective
Earlier reports have revealed that the incidence of posttraumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) is higher among patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy (DC). The aim of this study was to determine the influencing factors for the development of PTH after DC.
Methods
A total of 693 head trauma patients admitted in our hospital between March 2004 and May 2007 were reviewed. Among thee, we analyzed 55 patients with severe traumatic brain injury who underwent DC. We excluded patients who had confounding variables. The 33 patients were finally enrolled in the study and data were collected retrospectively for these patients. The patients were divided into two groups: non-hydrocephalus group (Group I) and hydrocephalus group (Group II). Related factors assessed were individual Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), age, sex, radiological findings, type of operation, re-operation and outcome.
Results
Of the 693 patients with head trauma, 28 (4.0%) developed PTH. Fifty-five patients underwent DC and 13 (23.6%) developed PTH. Eleven of the 33 study patients (30.3%) who had no confounding factors were diagnosed with PTH. Significant differences in the type of craniectomy and re-operation were found between Group I and II.
Conclusion
It is suggested that the size of DC and repeated operation may promote posttraumatic hydrocephalus in severe head trauma patients who underwent DC.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.5.227
PMCID: PMC2588218  PMID: 19096601
Hydrocephalus; Craniotomy; Craniocerebral trauma

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