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1.  Usefulness of Dexmedetomidine during Intracerebral Aneurysm Coiling 
Objective
General anesthesia is often preferred for endovascular coiling of intracranial aneurysm at most centers. But in the authors' hospital, it is performed under monitored anesthesia care (MAC) using dexmedetomidine. To determine the feasibility and safety of this approach, the authors reviewed our initial experience.
Methods
Retrospective data was analyzed from July 2012 to November 2012. We performed coil embolization in 28 cases using this method. Among them, for statistical significance, we analyzed 12 cases in which the procedure time exceeded an hour. Vital signs were analyzed every 10 minutes. Depth of sedation was measured according to the Ramsay sedation scale and frequency of the repeated roadmap image(s) caused by movement of the patient's head during the procedure.
Results
All procedures were completed without occurrence of procedure related complications. Under MAC using dexmedetomidine, vital signs of the patients were stable, no statistical significance regarding hemodynamic and respiratory parameters was observed between time points (p>0.05). Adequate sedation was achieved. Mean Ramsay sedation scale was 3.67±1.61 (2 to 6). Repeated roadmap image(s) due to patient's factor occurred in only one case. The mean dosage of drug for adequate sedation for the procedure was 0.65±0.12 mcg/kg/hr without loading doses.
Conclusion
To the best of my knowledge, this is the first report published in English using the method of monitored anesthesia with dexmedetomidine for intracranial aneurysm coiling. Monitored anesthesia care using dexmedetomidine without loading dose for embolization of intracranial aneurysms appeared to be a safe and effective alternative to general anesthesia.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.4.185
PMCID: PMC4094741  PMID: 25024820
Dexmedetomidine; Aneurysm; Coiling
2.  Effect of Discontinuation of Anticoagulation in Patients with Intracranial Hemorrhage at High Thromboembolic Risk 
Objective
There was no abundance of data on the use of anticoagulant in patients with previous high risk of thromboembolic conditions under a newly developed intracranial hemorrhage in Korean society. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of discontinuance and suggest the proper time period for discontinuance of anticoagulant among these patients.
Methods
We reviewed the medical records of 19 patients who took anticoagulant because of thromboembolic problems and were admitted to our department with newly developed anticoagulation associated intracranial hemorrhage (AAICH), and stopped taking medicine due to concern of rebleeding from January 2008 to December 2012. Analysis of the incidence of thromboembolic complications and proper withdrawal time of anticoagulant was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method.
Results
Our patients showed high risk for thromboembolic complication. The CHA2DS2-VASc score ranged from two to five. Thromboembolic complication occurred in eight (42.1%) out of 19 patients without restarting anticoagulant since the initial hemorrhage. Among them, three patients (37.5%) died from direct thromboembolic complications. Mean time to outbreak of thromboembolic complication was 21.38±14.89 days (range, 8-56 days). The probability of thromboembolic complications at 7, 14, and 30 days since cessation of anticoagulation was 0.00, 10.53, and 38.49%, respectively.
Conclusion
Short term discontinuance of anticoagulant within seven days in patients with AAICH who are at high embolic risk (CHA2DS2-VASc score >2) appears to be relatively safe in Korean people. However, prolonged cessation (more than seven days) may result in increased incidence of catastrophic thromboembolic complications.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.2.69
PMCID: PMC3958575  PMID: 24653798
Anticoagulation; Intracerebral hemorrhage; Thromboembolic complication
3.  Mortality and Real Cause of Death from the Nonlesional Intracerebral Hemorrhage 
Objective
The case fatality rate of nonlesional intracerebral hemorrhage (n-ICH) was high and not changed. Knowing the causes is important to their prevention; however, the reasons have not been studied. The aims of this study were to determine the cause of death, to improve the clinical outcomes.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed consecutive cases of nonlesional intracerebral hemorrhage in a prospective stroke registry from January 2010 to December 2010.
Results
Among 174 patients (61.83±13.36, 28-90 years), 29 patients (16.7%) died during hospitalization. Most common cause of death was initial neurological damage (41.4%, 12/29). Seventeen patients who survived the initial damage may then develop various potentially fatal complications. Except for death due to the initial neurological sequelae, death associated with immobilization (such as pneumonia or thromboembolic complication) was the most common in eight cases (8/17, 47.1%). However, death due to early rebleeding was not common and occurred in only 2 cases (2/17, 11.8%). Age, initial Glasgow Coma Scale, and diabetes mellitus were statistically significant factors influencing mortality (p<0.05).
Conclusion
Mortality of n-ICH is still high. Initial neurological damage is the most important factor; however, non-neurological medical complications are a large part of case fatality. Most cases of death of patients who survived from the first bleeding were due to complications of immobilization. These findings have implications for clinical practice and planning of clinical trials. In addition, future conduct of a randomized study will be necessary in order to evaluate the benefits of early mobilization for prevention of immobilization related complications.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.1.1
PMCID: PMC3928341  PMID: 24570810
Intracerebral hemorrhage; Cause of death
4.  Fusiform Aneurysm on the Basilar Artery Trunk Treated with Intra-Aneurysmal Embolization with Parent Vessel Occlusion after Complete Preoperative Occlusion Test 
Fusiform aneurysms on the basilar artery (BA) trunk are rare. The microsurgical management of these aneurysms is difficult because of their deep location, dense collection of vital cranial nerves, and perforating arteries to the brain stem. Endovascular treatment is relatively easier and safer compared with microsurgical treatment. Selective occlusion of the aneurysmal sac with preservation of the parent artery is the endovascular treatment of choice. But, some cases, particularly giant or fusiform aneurysms, are unsuitable for selective sac occlusion. Therefore, endovascular coiling of the aneurysm with parent vessel occlusion is an alternative treatment option. In this situation, it is important to determine whether a patient can tolerate parent vessel occlusion without developing neurological deficits. We report a rare case of fusiform aneurysms in the BA trunk. An 18-year-old female suffered a headache for 2 weeks. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance image revealed a fusiform aneurysm of the lower basilar artery trunk. Digital subtraction angiography revealed a 7.1×11.0 mm-sized fusiform aneurysm located between vertebrovasilar junction and the anterior inferior cerebellar arteries. We had good clinical result using endovascular coiling of unruptured fusiform aneurysm on the lower BA trunk with parent vessel occlusion after confirming the tolerance of the patient by balloon test occlusion with induced hypotension and accompanied by neurophysiologic monitoring, transcranial Doppler and single photon emission computed tomography. In this study, we discuss the importance of preoperative meticulous studies for avoidance of delayed neurological deficit in the patient with fusiform aneurysm on lower basilar trunk.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2013.53.4.235
PMCID: PMC3698234  PMID: 23826480
Cerebral aneurysm; Fusiform aneurysm; Balloon test occlusion; Provocative test; Embolization
5.  Long-Term Follow-Up Result of Hydroxyurea Chemotherapy for Recurrent Meningiomas 
Objective
Meningiomas represent 18-20% of all intracranial tumors and have a 20-50% 10-year recurrence rate, despite aggressive surgery and irradiation. Hydroxyurea, an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, is known to inhibit meningioma cells by induction of apoptosis. We report the long-term follow-up result of hydroxyurea therapy in the patients with recurrent meningiomas.
Methods
Thirteen patients with recurrent WHO grade I or II meningioma were treated with hydroxyurea (1000 mg/m2/day orally divided twice per day) from June 1998 to February 2012. Nine female and 4 male, ranging in age from 32 to 83 years (median age 61.7 years), were included. Follow-up assessment included physical examination, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Standard neuro-oncological response criteria (Macdonald criteria) were used to evaluate the follow-up MRI scans. The treatment was continued until there was objective disease progression or onset of unmanageable toxicity.
Results
Ten of the 13 patients (76.9%) showed stable disease after treatment, with time to progression ranging from 8 to 128 months (median 72.4 months; 6 patients still accruing time). However, there was no complete response or partial response in any patients. Three patients had progressive disease after 88, 89, 36 months, respectively. There was no severe (Grade III-IV) blood systemic disorders and no episodes of non-hematological side effects.
Conclusion
This study showed that hydroxyurea is a modestly active agent against recurrent meningiomas and can induce long-term stabilization of disease in some patients. We think that hydroxyurea treatment is well tolerated and convenient, and could be considered as an alternative treatment option in patients with recurrent meningiomas prior to reoperation or radiotherapy.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.6.517
PMCID: PMC3550418  PMID: 23346322
Meningioma; Chemotherapy; Hydroxyurea; Recurrence
6.  Cerebellar Pilocytic Astrocytomas with Spontaneous Intratumoral Hemorrhage in Adult 
Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are benign gliomas predominantly found in the pediatric population. Intracranial hemorrhages are extremely rare in initial presentations of cerebellar PAs. There are no reports in the medical literature of adult cerebellar PA cases presenting with intratumoral hemorrhage. We report 2 cases of adult cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas with intratumoral hemorrhage. The first case is a 37-year-old woman presenting with severe headache, nausea, and vomitting. Computed tomography demonstrated an acute hemorrhage adjacent to the right cerebellar hemisphere and hydrocephalus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a cerebellar vermian tumor with the hemorrhage as a mixed isointense area in the T2-weighted image, and as a mixed hyperintense area in the contrast-enhanced T1-weighted image. The second case is a 53-year-old man presenting with headache for 3 weeks. MRI revealed a cerebellar hemispheric tumor with the hemorrhage as a mixed hyperintense area. It had a cystic mass with a heterogeneous enhanced mural nodule in the gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted image and a fluid-fluid level within the cyst in the T2-weighted image. Both of them underwent radical resections of their respective lesions. Histological examination of the specimens revealed typical astrocytoma, including a hemorrhagic portion. Both patients recovered postoperatively and continue to do well at present. The medical literature on hemorrhagic cerebellar PAs is also reviewed.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.6.363
PMCID: PMC3158481  PMID: 21887396
Pilocytic astrocytoma; Hemorrhage; Cerebellum; Adult
7.  Ulnar Nerve Compression in Guyon's Canal by Ganglion Cyst 
Compression of the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal can result from repeated blunt trauma, fracture of the hamate's hook, and arterial thrombosis or aneurysm. In addition, conditions such as ganglia, rheumatoid arthritis and ulnar artery disease can rapidly compress the ulnar nerve in Guyon's canal. A ganglion cyst can acutely protrude or grow, which also might compress the ulnar nerve. So, clinicians should consider a ganglion cyst in Guyon's canal as a possible underlying cause of ulnar nerve compression in patients with a sudden decrease in hand strength. We believe that early decompression with removal of the ganglion is very important to promote complete recovery.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.2.139
PMCID: PMC3079103  PMID: 21519507
Guyon's canal; Ganglion cyst; Compression
8.  Peritumoral Brain Edema in Meningiomas : Correlation of Radiologic and Pathologic Features 
Objective
The primary objective of this study was to perform a retrospective evaluation of the radiological and pathological features influencing the formation of peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) in meningiomas.
Methods
The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathology data for 86 patients with meningiomas, who underwent surgery at our institution between September 2003 and March 2009, were examined. We evaluated predictive factors related to peritumoral edema including gender, tumor volume, shape of tumor margin, presence of arachnoid plane, the signal intensity (SI) of the tumor in T2-weighted image (T2WI), the WHO histological classification (GI, GII/GIII) and the Ki-67 antigen labeling index (LI). The edema-tumor volume ratio was calculated as the edema index (EI) and was used to evaluate peritumoral edema.
Results
Gender (p=0.809) and pathological finding (p=0.084) were not statistically significantly associated with peritumoral edema by univariate analysis. Tumor volume was not correlated with the volume of peritumoral edema. By univariate analysis, three radiological features, and one pathological finding, were associated with PTBE of statistical significance: shape of tumor margin (p=0.001), presence of arachnoid plane (p=0.001), high SI of tumor in T2WI (p=0.001), and Ki-67 antigen LI (p=0.049). These results suggest that irregular tumor margins, hyperintensity in T2WI, absence of arachnoid plane on the MRI, and high Ki-67 LI can be important predictive factors that influence the formation of peritumoral edema in meningiomas. By multivariate analysis, only SI of the tumor in T2WI was statistically significantly associated with peritumoral edema.
Conclusion
Results of this study indicate that irregular tumor margin, hyperintensity in T2WI, absence of arachnoid plane on the MRI, and high Ki-67 LI may be important predictive factors influencing the formation of peritumoral edema in meningiomas.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2011.49.1.26
PMCID: PMC3070891  PMID: 21494359
Brain edema; Edema index; Intracranial meningioma; Labeling index
9.  Cardiac Troponin I Elevation in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 
Objective
Cardiac dysfunction after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with elevation of serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels. Elevation of cTnI predicts cardiopulmonary and neurological complications, and poor outcome.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical and radiologic records of 114 (male : 30, female : 84) patients who developed aneurysmal SAH between January 2006 and June 2007 and had no history of previous cardiac problems. We evaluated their electrocardiography and cTnI level, which had been measured at admission. A cTnI level above 0.5 µg/L was defined as an indicator of cardiac injury following SAH. We examined various clinical factors for their association with cTnI elevation and analyzed data using chi-square test, t-test and logistic regression test with SPSS version 12.0. The results were considered significant at p < 0.05.
Results
The following parameters shows a correlation with cTnI elevation : higher Hunt-Hess (H-H) grade (p = 0.000), poor Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score (p = 0.000), profound pulmonary complication (p = 0.043), higher heart rate during initial three days following SAH (p = 0.029), ruptured aneurysm on communicating segment of internal carotid artery (p = 0.025), incidence of vasospasm (p = 0.421), and duration of hyperdynamic therapy for vasospasm (p = 0.292). A significant determinants for outcome were cTnI elevation (p = 0.046) and H-H grade (p = 0.000) in a multivariate study.
Conclusion
A cTnI is a good indicator for cardiopulmonary and neurologic complications and outcome following SAH. Consideration of variable clinical factors that related with cTnI elevation may be useful tactics for treatment of SAH and concomitant complications.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2009.46.2.99
PMCID: PMC2744033  PMID: 19763210
Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Cardiac troponin I; Complications; Vasospasm
10.  The Effect of Premorbid Demographic Factors on the Recovery of Neurocognitive Function in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients 
Objective
Premorbid demographic backgrounds of injured individuals are likely to reflect more accurately the status of patients with traumatic brian injury (TBI) than clinical factors. However, the concrete study about the relationship between the demographic factors and neurocognitive function in TBI patients has not been reported. The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of premorbid demographic factors on the recovery of neurocognitive function following TBI.
Methods
From July 1998 to February 2007, 293 patients (male: 228, female: 65) with a history of head injury, who had recovered from the acute phase, were selected from our hospital to include in this study. We analyzed the effect of premorbid demographic factors including age, sex, educational level and occupation on the recovery of neurocognitive function in each TBI subgroup as defined by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. Intelligence and memory are components of neurocognitive function, and the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale (K-WAIS) and the Korean memory assessment scale (K-MAS) were used in this study. The results were considered significant at p<0.05.
Results
The higher level of education was a good prognostic factor for intelligence regardless of GCS score and younger age group showed a better result for memory with an exception of severe TBI group. In the severe TBI group, the meaningful effect of demographic factors was not noted by the cause of influence of severe brain injury.
Conclusion
The demographic factors used in this study may be helpful for predicting the precise prognosis and developing an appropriate rehabilitation program for TBI patients.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.5.295
PMCID: PMC2612566  PMID: 19119465
Traumatic brain injury; Premorbid demographic factors; Prognosis
11.  Long Term Results of Microsurgical Dorsal Root Entry Zonotomy for Upper Extremity Spasticity 
Objective
The purpose of the present study is to assess the long-term results of microsurgical dorsal root entry zonotomy (MDT) for the treatment of medically intractable upper-extremity spasticity.
Methods
The records of nine adult patients who underwent MDT by one operating neurosurgeon from March 1999 to June 2004 were retrospectively reviewed by another investigator who had no role in the management of these patients. In all patients, MDT was performed on all roots of the upper limb (from C5 to T1) for spasticity of the upper extremity. The degree of spasticity was measured by the Modified Ashworth Scale (grade 0-4). Severity of the pain level was determined using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS, score 0-10). Also, patient satisfaction of the post-operative outcome was assessed.
Results
Comparing the preoperative and postoperative spasticity using the Modified Ashworth Scale, we observed improvement in all patients, particularly in five of the nine patients (55.6%) who improved by three grades over an average of 66.4 months (range, 40-96). Regarding patient satisfaction, seven patients (77.8%) had affirmative results. None of the patients experienced severe, life-threatening, postoperative complications. We observed a decrease in the intensity of painful spasms to less than three scores as measured by NRS in all four patients with associated pain.
Conclusion
This study shows that MDT provides significant, long-term reduction of harmful spasticity and associated pain in the upper limbs.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.4.182
PMCID: PMC2588261  PMID: 19096640
Muscle spasticity; Upper extremity; Spinal cord; DREZ operation; Long-term effect
12.  Analysis of Clip-induced Ischemic Complication of Anterior Choroidal Artery Aneurysms 
Objective
The surgical approach is typically similar to those used for other supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) lesions. However, the surgical clipping of this aneurysm is complicated and as a result, can result in postoperative ischemic complications. We studied to clarify the clip-induced ischemic complication risk of AChA aneurysm and to get the benefits for helping decision making.
Methods
We retrospectively investigated 53 cases (4.0%) of AchA aneurysm treated surgically. We divided the AChA aneurysm to 3 subtype according to the origin of aneurysmal neck; A type originating from the AChA itself, J type from junction of AChA and ICA, and I type from the ICA itself. We evaluated brain CT about 1 week post-operative day to confirm the low density in AChA territory.
Results
Ruptured aneurysm was 26 cases and unruptured aneurysm 27 cases. The aneurysmal subtype of A, J, and I was 13, 17, and 23 cases. Of the 53 cases who performed surgical neck clipping, twelve (22.6%) had postoperative AChA distribution infarcts. Increased infarct after neck clipping had statistic significance in non-I subtype (p=0.005).
Conclusion
It is easy to classify as "easy" surgery. But surgery for AChA aneurysms carries with it a significant risk of postoperative stroke. Don't always stick to clipping only, especially in non-I type of incidental small aneurysm, which has high risk of post-clip ischemic complications.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.3.131
PMCID: PMC2588238  PMID: 19096619
Anterior choroidal artery infarction; Clip; Intracranial aneurysm
13.  Cubital Tunnel Syndrome, Associated With Synovial Chondromatosis 
A 62-year-old female patient suffered from numbness and resting pain in the right ring and little fingers for 3 years. We confirmed cubital tunnel syndrome with electrodiagnostic study and performed the operation. We found seven firm consistent nodules, compressing the overlying the ulnar nerve, proximal to the medial epicondyle in the operation field. Histological finding showed synovial chondromatosis. We report a rare case of a patient with cubital tunnel syndrome caused by synovial chondromatosis.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.2.109
PMCID: PMC2588235  PMID: 19096614
Cubital tunnel syndrome; Synovial chondromatosis
14.  Analysis of Failed Spinal Cord Stimulation Trials in the Treatment of Intractable Chronic Pain 
Objective
The purpose of this study is to identify the factors affecting the failure of trials (<50% pain reduction in pain for trial period) to improve success rate of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) trial.
Methods
A retrospective review of the failed trials (44 patients, 36.1%) among the patients (n=122) who underwent SCS trial between January 1990 and December 1998 was conducted. We reviewed the causes of failed trial stimulation, age, sex, etiology of pain, type of electrode, and third party support.
Results
Of the 44 patients, 65.9% showed unacceptable pain relief in spite of sufficient paresthesia on the pain area with trial stimulation. Four of six patients felt insufficient paresthesia with stimulation had the lesions of the spinal cord. Seventy five percent of the patients experienced unpleasant or painful sensation during stimulation had allodynia dominant pain. Third-party involvement, sex, age and electrode type had no influence on the outcome.
Conclusion
We conclude that SCS trial is less effective for patients with neuropathic pain of cord lesions, postherpetic neuropathy or post-amputation state. Further, patients with allodynia dominant pain can feel unpleasant or painful during trial stimulation.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.2.85
PMCID: PMC2588233  PMID: 19096610
Spinal cord stimulation; Cord lesion; Allodynia; Paresthesia; Chronic pain
15.  Arachnoid Cyst with Spontaneous Intracystic Hemorrhage and Chronic Subdural Hematoma 
We report a case of arachnoid cyst in which subdural hematoma and intracystic hemorrhage developed spontaneously. Usually, arachnoid cysts are asymptomatic, but can become symptomatic because of cyst enlargement or hemorrhage, often after mild head trauma. Although they are sometimes combined with subdural hematoma, intracystic hemorrhage has rarely been observed. Our patient had a simultaneous subdural hematoma and intracystic hemorrhage without evidence of head trauma.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.1.54
PMCID: PMC2588155  PMID: 19096549
Arachnoid cyst; Spontaneous intracystic hemorrhage; Subdural hematoma

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