To evaluate the morphometry of the anterior thalamoperforating arteries (ATPA).
A microanatomical study was performed in 79 specimens from 42 formalin-fixed adult cadaver brains. The origins of the ATPAs were divided into anterior, middle, and posterior segments according to the crowding pattern. The morphometry of the ATPAs, including the premammillary artery (PMA), were examined under a surgical microscope.
The anterior and middle segments of the ATPAs arose at mean intervals of 1.75±1.62 mm and 5.86±2.05 mm from the internal carotid artery (ICA), and the interval between these segments was a mean of 3.17±1.64 mm. The posterior segment arose at a mean interval of 2.43±1.46 mm from the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), and the interval between the middle and posterior segments was a mean of 3.45±1.39 mm. The mean numbers of perforators were 2.66±1.19, 3.03±1.84, and 1.67±0.98 in the anterior, middle, and posterior segments, respectively. The PMA originated from the middle segment in 66% of cases. A perforator-free zone was located >2 mm from the ICA in 30.4% and >2 mm from the PCA in 67.1% of cases.
Most perforators arose from the anterior and middle segments, within the anterior two-thirds of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA). The safest perforator-free zone was located closest to the PCA. These anatomical findings may be helpful to verify safety when treating lesions around the PCoA and in the interpeduncular fossa.
Anterior thalamoperforating artery; Premammillary artery; Perforator-free zone
A 66-year-old woman presented with intermittent paraparesis and generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Cerebral angiography demonstrated dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) involving superior sagittal sinus (SSS), which was associated with SSS occlusion on the posterior one third. The dural AVF was fed by bilateral middle meningeal arteries (MMAs), superficial temporal arteries (STAs) and occipital arteries with marked retrograde cortical venous reflux. Transfemoral arterial Onyx embolization was performed through right MMA and STA, but it was not successful, which resulted in partial obliteration of dural AVF because of tortuous MMA preventing the microcatheter from reaching the fistula closely enough. Second procedure was performed through left MMA accessed by direct MMA puncture following small decortications of cranium overlying the MMA using diamond drill one week later. Microcatheter could be located far distally to the fistula through 5 F sheath placed into the MMA and complete obliteration of dural AVF was achieved using 3.9 cc of Onyx.
Dural arteriovenous fistula; Superior sagittal sinus; Transcranial; Middle meningeal artery; Onyx embolization
We assessed the life-time prevalence (LTP) of chronic low back pain (LBP) in young Korean males. We also evaluated the relationship between lumbar spinal lesions and their health related quality-of-life (HRQOL).
A cross-sectional, self-reported survey was conducted in Korean males (aged 19-year-old) who underwent physical examinations for the conscript. We examined 3331 examinees in November 2014. We included 2411 subjects, who accepted to participate this study without any comorbidities. We interviewed using simple binary questions for their LBP experience and chronicity. HRQOL was assessed by Short-Form Health-Survey-36 (SF-36) in chronic LBP and healthy control groups. Radiological assessment was performed in chronic LBP group to determine whether there were any pathological causes of their symptoms.
The LTP of chronic LBP was 13.4%. Most (71.7%) of them didn't have any lumbar spinal lesions (i.e., non-specific chronic LBP). The SF-36 subscale and summary scores were significantly lower in subjects with chronic LBP. Between specific and non-specific chronic LBP group, all physical and mental subscale scores were significantly lower in specific chronic LBP group, except mental health (MH) subscale score. In MH subscale and mental component summary score, statistical significant differences didn't appear between two groups (p=0.154, 0.126).
In Korean males 19 years of age, the LTP of chronic LBP was 13.4%, and more than two-thirds were non-specific chronic LBP. Chronic LBP had a significant impact on HRQOL. The presence of lumbar spinal pathoanatomical lesions affected mainly on the physical aspect of HRQOL. It influenced little on the mental health.
Chronic low back pain; Public health; Quality of life; Health surveys
Age is a strong predictor of mortality in traumatic brain injuries. A surgical decision making is difficult especially for the elderly patients with severe head injuries. We studied so-called 'withholding a life-saving surgery' over a two year period at a university hospital.
We collected data from 227 elderly patients. In 35 patients with Glasgow Coma Score 3-8, 28 patients had lesions that required operation. A life-saving surgery was withheld in 15 patients either by doctors and/or the families (Group A). Surgery was performed in 13 patients (Group B). We retrospectively examined the medical records and radiological findings of these 28 patients. We calculated the predicted probability of 6 month mortality (IPM) and 6 month unfavorable outcome (IPU) to compare the result of decision by the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in TBI (IMPACT) calculator.
Types of the mass lesion did not affect on the surgical decision making. None of the motor score 1 underwent surgery, while all patients with reactive pupils underwent surgery. Causes of injury or episodes of hypoxia/hypotension might have affected on the decision making, however, their role was not distinct. All patients in the group A died. In the group B, the outcome was unfavorable in 11 of 13 patients. Patients with high IPM or IPU were more common in group A than group B. Wrong decisions brought futile cares.
Ethical training and developing decision-making skills are necessary including shared decision making.
Prognosis; Decision making; Patient participation; Craniocerebral trauma
We report a case of bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) in a 75-year-old man after exercise using a vibrating belt machine on the head. He suffered from headache and intermittent left side numbness for ten days. He denied any head injuries except eccentric exercise using a vibrating belt on his own head for 20 days. An MRI revealed bilateral CSDH. The hematoma was isodense on the CT scan. We made burr-holes on the both sides under local anesthesia. We identified the neomembrane and dark red subdural fluid on both sides. In the postoperative CT scan, we found an arachnoid cyst on the left temporal pole. Although the arachnoid cyst itself is asymptomatic, trivial injury such as vibrating the head may cause a CSDH.
Chronic subdural hematoma; Craniocerebral trauma; Injuries; Vibration
Density of the chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is variable. It often appears to be mixed density. Multiple densities of cSDH may result from multiple episodes of trauma. We investigated the frequency of mixed density and the causes of head injuries representing each density.
We could collect 242 cases of chronic SDH. The cSDHs were classified into four groups; hypodensity, homogeneous isodensity, layered type, and mixed type on the basis of CT scans.
The density of cSDH was isodense in 115 patients, hypodense in 31 patients, mixed in 79 cases, and layered in 17 cases. The cSDH was on the left side in 115 patients, on the right side in 70 patients, and bilateral in 40 patients. The history of trauma was identifiable in 122 patients. The etiology could be identified in 67.7% of the hypodense hematomas, while it was obscure in 59.5% of the mixed hematomas.
Mixed density of cSDH results from multiple episodes of trauma, usually in the aged. It is hard to remember all the trivial traumas for the patients with the mixed density cSDHs. Although there were membranes within the mixed density hematomas, burr-holes were usually enough to drain the hematomas.
Chronic subdural hematoma; Computed tomography; Craniocerebral trauma; Diagnosis
The objective of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics between the vertebral body and the regions of the cervical and thoracic spinal cords where each rootlets branch out.
Sixteen adult cadavers (12 males and 4 females) with a mean age of 57.9 (range of 33 to 70 years old) were used in this study. The anatomical relationship between the exit points of the nerve roots from the posterior root entry zone at each spinal cord segment and their corresponding relevant vertebral bodies were also analyzed.
Vertical span of the posterior root entry zone between the upper and lower rootlet originating from each spinal segment ranged from 10-12 mm. The lengths of the rootlets from their point of origin at the spinal cord to their entrance into the intervertebral foramen were 5.9 mm at the third cervical nerve root and increased to 14.5 mm at the eighth cervical nerve root. At the lower segments of the nerve roots (T3 to T12), the posterior root entry zone of the relevant nerve roots had a corresponding anatomical relationship with the vertebral body that is two segments above. The posterior root entry zones of the sixth (94%) and seventh (81%) cervical nerve roots were located at a vertebral body a segment above from relevant
Through these investigations, a more accurate diagnosis, the establishment of a better therapeutic plan, and a decrease in surgical complications can be expected when pathologic lesions occur in the spinal cord or vertebral body.
Spinal; Cord; Nerve root; Cervical spine; Thoracic spine; Cadaveric study
Patients with asymptomatic chronic subdural hematoma (SDH) are prone to fall or slip. Acute trauma on these patients may develop acute subdural bleeding over the chronic SDH. We recently experienced 9 patients with acute-on-chronic SDH. We report the clinical and radiological features of this lesion.
We retrospectively examined the computed tomographic (CT) scans of 107 consecutive patients who diagnosed as chronic SDH from January 2008 to December 2010. All cases of CSDH were diagnosed on CT with or without MRI scan.
Acute-on-chronic SDH is not rare, being 8% of chronic SDH. The most common cause of trauma was a slip in drunken state. Alcoholism with multiple episodes of trauma was one of the prominent histories. Acute-on-chronic SDH appeared as a hyperdense layer of clot with irregular blurred margin or lumps in liquefied hematoma. Single or two burr holes was usually effective to remove the hematoma.
Repeated trauma may cause acute bleeding over the chronic SDH. It will be helpful to understand the role of repeated trauma as a mechanism of hematoma enlargement.
Chronic subdural hematoma; Computed tomography; Craniocerebral trauma; Diagnosis
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is known to have a significant recurrence rate. There are different criteria defining the recurrence of CSDH. We evaluated the postoperative course of CSDH and tried to propose the reasonable criteria of recurrence.
We retrospectively examined the medical records and pre- and postoperative CT scans of 149 consecutive patients who underwent surgery from January 2005 to December 2009. Diagnosis was confirmed by CT scanning or MRI. The postoperative courses were either resolved or recurrent. The resolved CSDH was one of the three types; early resolution, delayed resolution, or late resolution. The recurrent CSDH was one of the four types; recurrence without resolution, early recurrence after resolution, late recurrence after resolution, or recurrent-and-resolved type.
The CSDH was resolved within 30 days after surgery in 58 (39%) patients, between 1 to 3 months in 62 (42%), and after 3 months in 11 (7%) patients. The CSDH was recurred in 18 (12%) patients. Late resolution or recurrence was more common in the aged. The recurrent hematoma was seen on the same side in 11 patients, on the different side in 7 patients. Recurrence was significantly more common in the thick hematomas.
For a working criteria of the recurrence of CSDH, we propose the early recurrence as return of symptoms or reaccumulation of the hematoma after a surgery within 3 months regardless of the location, amount or repeated operations. The late recurrence can be defined as reappearance or enlargement of a liquefied hematoma within the cranial cavity surrounded by the membranes or persistent CSDH beyond 3 months after surgery.
Chronic subdural hematoma; Craniocerebral trauma; Diagnosis; Recurrence; Risk Factors
Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma (EDH) due to dural metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma is very rare. A 53-year-old male patient with hepatocellular carcinoma, who was admitted to the department of oncology, was referred to department of neurosurgery because of sudden mental deterioration to semicoma with papillary anisocoria and decerebrate rigidity after transarterial chemoembolization for hepatoma. Brain computed tomography (CT) revealed large amount of acute EDH with severe midline shifting. An emergent craniotomy and evacuation of EDH was performed. Active bleeding from middle cranial fossa floor was identified. There showed osteolytic change on the middle fossa floor with friable mass-like lesion spreading on the overlying dura suggesting metastasis. Pathological examination revealed anaplastic cells with sinusoidal arrangement which probably led to spontaneous hemorrhage and formation of EDH. As a rare cause of spontaneous EDH, dural metastasis from malignancy should be considered.
Spontaneous epidural hematoma; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Dural metastasis
Chronic subdural hematomas (CSDH) are more common on the left hemisphere than on the right. We verified this left predilection of CSDH and tried to explain the reason for this discrepancy.
We investigated the laterality of CSDH in 182 patients who were treated from January 2005 to December 2009. We examined the symmetry of the cranium and the location of the lesion.
CSDH was more common on the left-side. The cranium was symmetric in 63 patients, asymmetric in 119 patients. The asymmetric crania were flat on the right-side in 77 patients, on the left-side in 42 patients. The density of the CSDHs was hypodense in 29 patients, isodense 132 patients, and the others in 21 patients. Bilateral hematomas were more common in the hypodense group. In the right flat crania, the hematoma was more commonly located on the opposite side of the flat side. While in the left flat crania, the hematoma was more common on the same side.
CSDHs occurred more frequently on the left side. The anatomical asymmetry of the cranium influences the left predilection of CSDH.
Chronic subdural hematoma; Computed tomography; Craniocerebral trauma; Diagnosis; Laterality
To investigate the morphometric characteristics of the pituitary gland and diaphragma sellae in Korean adults.
Using the 33 formaline fixed adult cadavers (23 male, 10 female), the measurements were taken at the diaphragma sellae and pituitary gland. The authors investigated the relationship between dura and structures surrounding pituitary gland, morphometric aspects of pituitary gland and stalk, and morphometric aspect of central opening of diaphragma sellae.
The boundary between the lateral surface of pituitary gland and the medial wall of cavernous sinus was formed by the thin dural layer and pituitary capsule. The pituitary capsule adherent tightly to the pituitary gland was observed to continue from the diaphragma sellae. Mean width, length, and height of the pituitary gland were 14.3 ± 2.1, 7.9 ± 1.3, and 6.0 ± 0.9 mm in anterior lobes, and 8.7 ± 1.7, 2.9 ± 1.1, and 5.8 ± 1.0 mm in posterior lobes, respectively. Although all dimensions of anterior lobe in female were slightly larger than those in male, statistical significance was noted in only longitudinal dimension. The ratio of posterior lobe to the whole length of pituitary gland was about 27%. The mean thickness of pituitary stalk was 2 mm. The diaphragmal opening was 5 mm or more in 26 (78.8%) of 33 specimen. The opening was round in 60.6% of the specimen, and elliptical oriented in an anterior-posterior or transverse direction in 39.4%.
These results provide the safe anatomical knowledge during the transsphenoidal surgery and may be helpful to access the possibility of the development of empty sella syndrome.
Pituitary gland; Diaphragma sellae; Cadaver
The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological characteristics of the thalamoperforating arteries that arise from the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery.
Thalamoperforating arteries located in the interpeduncular fossa were dissected in 26 formalin-fixed human cadaver brains. We investigated the origin site of thalamoperforating arteries from the P1 segment, number and diameter, and variations in their origin.
Thalamoperforating arteries arose from the superior, posterior or posterosuperior surfaces of the P1 segment at the mean 1.93 mm (range, 0.41-4.71 mm) distance from the basilar apex and entered the brain through the posterior perforated substance. The average number was 3.6 (range 1-8) and mean diameter was 0.70 mm (range 0.24-1.18 mm). Thalamoperforating arteries could be classified into five different types according to their origin at the P1 segment : Type I (bilateral multiple), 38.5%; Type II (unilateral single, unilateral multiple), 26.9%; Type III (bilateral single), 19.2%; Type IV (unilateral single), 11.5%; Type V (unilateral multiple), 3.8%. In 15.4% of all specimens, thalamoperforating arteries arose from the only one side of P1 segment and were not noted in the other side. In such cases, the branches arising from the one side of P1 segment supplied the opposite side.
Variations in the origin of the thalamoperforating arteries should be keep in mind to perform the surgical clipping, endovascular treatment or operation involving the interpeduncular fossa. In particular, unilateral single branch seems to be very risky and significant for surgical technique or endovascular treatment.
Morphology; Cadaver; Thalamoperforating artery; Posterior cerebral artery
The purpose of this study was to determine the normal morphometric landmarks of the uniting and dividing points of the brachial plexus (BP) in the periclavicular region to provide useful guidance in surgery of BP injuries.
A total of 20 brachial plexuses were obtained from 10 adult, formalin-fixed cadavers. Distances were measured on the basis of the Chassaignac tubercle (CT), and the most lateral margin of the BP (LMBP) crossing the superior and inferior edge of the clavicle.
LMBP was located within 25 mm medially from the midpoint in all subjects. In the supraclavicular region, the upper trunk uniting at 21 ± 7 mm from the CT, separating into divisions at 42 ± 5 mm from the CT, and dividing at 19 ± 4 mm from the LMBP crossing the superior edge of the clavicle. In the infraclavicular region, the distance from the inferior edge of the clavicle to the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) origin was 49 ± 1 mm, to the median nerve origin 57 ± 7 mm, and the ulnar nerve origin 48 ± 6 mm. From the lateral margin of the pectoralis minor to the MCN origin the distance averaged 3.3 ± 10 mm. Mean diameter of the MCN was 4.3 ± 1.1 mm (range, 2.5-6.0) in males (n = 6), and 3.1 ± 1.5 mm (range, 1.6-4.0) in females (n = 4).
We hope these data will aid in understanding the anatomy of the BP and in planning surgical treatment in BP injuries.
Brachial plexus; Musculocutaneous nerve; Clavicle; Pectoralis muscles
Pain has long been regarded as a subjective symptom. Recently, however, some regard a type of intractable chronic pain as a disease. Furthermore, chronic persistent pain becomes a cause of permanent impairment (PI). In 6th edition, the American Medical Association (AMA) Guides has rated the pain as a PI. In Korea, pain has been already been rated as a PI. Here, we examined the present status and the prospect of disability evaluation for the pain in Korea.
Pain can be rated as a PI by the Workmen's Compensation Insurance Act (WCIA) and Patriots and Veterans Welfare Corporation Act (PVWCA) in Korea. We examined the definition, diagnostic criteria and grades of the pain related disability (PRD) in these two acts. We also examined legal judgments, which were made in 2005 for patients with severe pain. We also compared the acts and the judgments to the criteria of the 6th AMA Guides.
The PRD can be rated as one of the 4 grades according to the WCIA. The provisions of the law do not limit the pain only for the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). The PRD can be rated as one of the 3 grades by the PVWCA. If there were objective signs such as osteoporosis, joint contracture and muscle atrophy corresponding to the CRPS, the grade is rated as 6. When the pain always interferes with one's job except easy work, the grade is rated as high as 5. In Korea, judicial precedents dealt the pain as a permanent disability in 2005.
Although there were no objective criteria for evaluation of the PRD, pain has been already rated as a PI by the laws or judicial precedents, in Korea. Thus, we should regulate the Korean criteria of PRD like the AMA 6th edition. We also should develop the objective tools for evaluation of the PRD near in future.
Pain; Disability evaluation; Treatment outcome; Craniocerebral trauma
The serum S100 protein has been known to reflect the severity of neuronal damage. The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic value of the serum S100 protein by Elecsys S100 immunoassay in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and to establish reference value for this new method.
Serum S100 protein value was measured at admission, day 3 and 7 after bleeding in 42 consecutive patients (SAH : 20, ICH : 22) and 74 healthy controls, prospectively. Admission Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, Hunt & Hess grade and Fisher grade for SAH, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage, ICH volume, and outcome at discharge were evaluated. Degrees of serum S100 elevation and their effect on outcomes were compared between two groups.
Median S100 levels in SAH and ICH groups were elevated at admission (0.092 versus 0.283 µg/L) and at day 3 (0.110 versus 0.099 µg/L) compared to healthy controls (0.05 µg/L; p<0001). At day 7, however, these levels were normalized in both groups. Time course of S100 level in SAH patient was relatively steady at least during the first 3 days, whereas in ICH patient it showed abrupt S100 surge on admission and then decreased rapidly during the next 7 days, suggesting severe brain damage at the time of bleeding. In ICH patient, S100 level on admission correlated well with GCS score (r=-0.859; p=0.0001) and ICH volume (r=0.663; p=0.001). A baseline S100 level more than 0.199 µg/L predicted poor outcome with 92% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Logistic regression analyses showed Ln (S100) on admission as the only independent predictor of poor outcome (odd ratio 36.1; 95% CI, 1.98 to 656.3).
Brain damage in ICH patient seems to develop immediately after bleeding, whereas in SAH patients it seems to be sustained for few days. Degree of brain damage is more severe in ICH compared to SAH group based on the S100 level. S100 level is considered an independent predictor of poor outcome in patient with spontaneous ICH, but not in SAH. Further study with large population is required to confirm this result.
S100 protein; Prognosis; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Elecsys S100 immunoassay; Intracerebral hemorrhage
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the surgical outcome and to compare the surgical results between transsylvian and transcortical approaches in patients with putaminal hematomas.
Retrospective review of charts and CT scan images was conducted in 45 patients (20 transsylvian and 25 transcortical approaches) who underwent open surgical evacuation of putaminal hematomas. Mean Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score and hematoma volume were 7.5±3.2 and 78.1±29.3 cc, respectively. The factors affecting the functional mortality were investigated using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In addition, surgical results between transsylvian and transcortical approaches were compared.
None of the patients had a good recovery after the surgery. Overall functional survival rate and mortality were 37.7% and 31%, respectively. The only risk factor for functional mortality was GCS motor score after controlling age, history of hypertension, side of hematoma, hematoma amount, midline shift, presence of intraventricular hemorrhage and surgical approach (p=0.005). Even though a transcortical approach was shorter in operative time (4.4 versus 5.1 hour) and showed a higher mortality rate (40% versus 20%) and lower functional survival (45% versus 35%) compared to the transsylvian approach, the differences were not statistically significant between the two groups.
In patients who have large amounts of hematoma and require open surgical evacuation, the only significant risk factor for functional survival is the preoperative GCS score. Cortical incision methods such as transsylvian and transcortical approaches have no influence on the surgical outcome. To decompress the swollen brain rapidly, transcortical approach seems to be more suitable than transsylvian approach.
Putaminal hemorrhage; Craniotomy; Glasgow coma scale; Mortality
Even though intracerebral hematoma (ICH) due to ruptured cerebral aneurysm has been treated by aneurysm clipping at the same time of removal of ICH through craniotomy, such management strategy is controversial in an aged patients with poor clinical grade. In this regards, stereotactic aspiration of hematoma following coil embolization can be an alternative treatment modality. Thus, the authors report a case of an aged patient who underwent stereotactic aspiration of ICH following coil embolization for the ruptured aneurysm with a brief review of literature.
Aneurysm; Coil embolization; Stereotactic aspiration; Intracerebral hematoma