Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst (SEAC) is a rare disease and uncommon cause of compressive myelopathy. The etiology remains still unclear. We experienced 2 cases of SEACs and reviewed the cases and previous literatures. A 59-year-old man complained of both leg radiating pain and paresthesia for 4 years. His MRI showed an extradural cyst from T12 to L3 and we performed cyst fenestration and repaired the dural defect with tailored laminectomy. Another 51-year-old female patient visited our clinical with left buttock pain and paresthesia for 3 years. A large extradural cyst was found at T1-L2 level on MRI and a communication between the cyst and subarachnoid space was illustrated by CT-myelography. We performed cyst fenestration with primary repair of dural defect. Both patients' symptoms gradually subsided and follow up images taken 1-2 months postoperatively showed nearly disappeared cysts. There has been no documented recurrence in these two cases so far. Tailored laminotomy with cyst fenestration can be a safe and effective alternative choice in treating SEACs compared to traditional complete resection of cyst wall with multi-level laminectomy.
Arachnoid cyst; Cerebrospinal fluid; Thoracolumbar spine
Intracerebral schwannomas are rare and there have been none reported in Korea. We present the case of a 25-year-old man with newly developed right-side weakness and recent seizure aggravation. His seizures started approximately 9 years prior to admission. At that time, a 1 cm diameter intra-axial enhancing mass at the left precentral gyrus was found on magnetic resonance image (MRI). After 9 years of observation and treatment with antiepileptic medication, an MRI taken due to symptom aggravation revealed peri-tumoral cyst formation with tumor enlargement. The tumor was surgically removed. Subsequently, right-side weakness diminished and there was good seizure control. Pathologic diagnosis was schwannoma. Schwannoma is a very rare tumor and there are no pathognomonic findings on radiologic images; thus, it is challenging to make a correct diagnosis. However, considering the natural course and excellent prognosis after surgical treatment of this kind of intra-axial mass with benign features, early surgery for diagnosis and proper treatment is highly recommended.
Intracerebral schwannoma; Supratentorial; Precentral gyrus; Treatment; Seizure
A 55-year-old female patient presented with lower back pain and neurogenic intermittent claudication and underwent L3-L4 posterolateral fusion. To prepare the bone fusion bed, the transverse process of L3 and L4 was decorticated with a drill. On the 9th post-operative day, the patient complained of a sudden onset of severe abdominal pain and distension. Abdominal computed tomography revealed retroperitoneal hematoma in the right psoas muscle and iatrogenic right L3 transverse process fracture. Lumbar spinal angiography showed the delayed hematoma due to rupture of the 2nd lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm and coil embolization was done at the ruptured lumbar artery pseudoaneusyrm. Since then, the patient's postoperative progress proceeded normally with recovery of the hemodynamic parameters.
Lumbar artery; Spinal fusion; Posterolateral fusion
We report a very rare case of cervical compressive myelopathy by an anomalous bilateral vertebral artery (VA) entering the spinal canal at the C1 level and compressing the spinal cord. A 70-year-old woman had been suffering from progressive gait disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that a bilateral VA at the V4 segment had abnormal courses and caused compression to the high cervical cord. VA repositioning was performed by anchoring a suture between the artery and around the arachnoid membrane and dentate ligament, and then, microvascular decompression using a Teflon sponge was done between the VA and the spinal cord. The weakness in the patient improved in the lower extremity after the operation. Anomalous VA could be one of the rare causes of cervical compressive myelopathy. Additionally, an anchoring suture and microvascular decompression around the VA could be a sufficient and safe method to indirectly decompress the spinal canal.
Vertebral artery anomaly; Cervical myelopathy; Microvascular decompression
To present a rare case of a cystic giant schwannoma of the sacrum mimicking aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). A 54-year-old man visited our institute complaining left leg weakness and sensory change for several years. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large multilocular cystic mass with canal invasion and bone erosion confined to left S1 body. The lesion showed multiple septal enhancement without definite solid component. Initially the tumor was considered as ABC. The patient underwent grossly-total tumor resection with lumbosacral reconstruction via posterior approach. The tumor was proved to be a cystic schwannoma. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was relieved from preoperative symptoms. We present a rare case of pure cystic giant schwannoma confined to sacrum mimicking ABC. The surgical treatment is challenging due to the complex anatomy of the sacrum. Schwannoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of osteolytic sacral cysts.
Giant schwannoma; Sacrum; Cystic degeneration; Aneurysmal bone cyst
Chronic hypoventilation due to injury to the brain stem respiratory center or high cervical cord (above the C3 level) can result in dependence to prolonged mechanical ventilation with tracheostomy, frequent nosocomial pneumonia, and prolonged hospitalization. Diaphragm pacing through electrical stimulation of the phrenic nerve is an established treatment for central hypoventilation syndrome. We performed chronic phrenic nerve stimulation for diaphragm pacing with the spinal cord stimulator for pain control in a quadriplegic patient with central apnea due to complete spinal cord injury at the level of C2 from cervical epidural hematoma. After diaphragmatic pacing, the patient who was completely dependent on the mechanical ventilator could ambulate up to three hours every day without aid of mechanical ventilation during the 12 months of follow-up. Diaphragm pacing through unilateral phrenic nerve stimulation with spinal cord stimulator was feasible in an apneic patient with complete quadriplegia who was completely dependent on mechanical ventilation. Diaphragm pacing with the spinal cord stimulator is feasible and effective for the treatment of the central hypoventilation syndrome.
Apnea; Central hypoventilation; Diaphragm pacing; Spinal cord stimulator; Spinal cord injury
Split cord malformations (SCMs) usually present in childhood, and are rarely reported in adults. And also, a cervicothoracic SCM associated with tethered cord syndrome has very rarely been reported in the literature. We report a case of SCM associated with tethered cord and spina bifida in an adult. This report describes the case of a 34-year-old woman who presented for evaluation of neck pain, back pain, and intermittent paraparesis of several months duration. The MRI and CT showed a SCM at the cervicothoracic level and a fibrous septum at the thoracic level. She underwent surgery for the SCM and tethered cord syndrome, and was followed for 7 years. Patient presented complete recovery in the follow-up. The authors discuss this unusual lesion and describe the anatomical relationship of the level of cord duplication and fibrous septum.
Split cord malformation; Adult; Tethered cord syndrome
Rapidly developed de novo aneurysm is very rare. We present a rapidly developed and ruptured de novo anterior communicating aneurysm 8 days after the rupture of another aneurysm. This de novo aneurysm was not apparent in the initial 3-dimensional computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography. We reviewed the literature and discussed possible mechanisms for the development of this de novo aneurysm.
De novo aneurysm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Aneurysm formation; Computed tomography angiography; Digital subtraction angiography
Spontaneous bilateral cerebellar infarction in the territory of the superior cerebellar arteries is extremely rare. Occasionally there have been reports of bilateral cerebellar infarction due to vertebrobasilar atherosclerotic occlusion or stenosis, whereas no report of bilateral cerebellar infarction due to complicated hemodynamic changes. In this report, we present a patient with bilateral cerebral infarctions related to stenoses of bilateral internal carotid arteries, in whom vertebrobasilar system was supplied by multiple collaterals from both posterior communicating arteries and right external carotid artery. We performed stent-angioplasty of bilateral internal cerebral arterial stenosis, and then acute infarction developed on bilateral superior cerebellar artery territories. The authors assumed that the infarction occurred due to hemodynamic change between internal carotid artery and external carotid artery after stent-angioplasty for stenosis of right internal carotid artery.
Bilateral cerebellar infarct; Stent-angioplasty; Hemodynamic change
Bow hunter's syndrome (BHS) is rare cause of vertebrobasilar insufficiency that arises from mechanical compression of the vertebral artery by head rotation. There is no standardized diagnostic regimen or treatment of BHS. Recently, we experienced 2 cases resisted continues medication and treated by surgical approach. In both cases, there were no complications after surgery and there were improvements in clinical symptoms. Thus, we describe our cases with surgical decompression with a review of the relevant medical literature.
Bow hunter's syndrome; Rotational vertebral artery stroke; Vertebrobasilar insufficiency; Decompression; Surgical treatment
A Solitary Fibrous Tumor (Sft) Is A Rare Neoplasm Originated From The Pleura, But They Can Occur In A Variety Of Extrathoracic Regions. Although Many Cases Of Primary Sft Have Been Reported, There Are Extremely Rare Repots To Date Of A Malignant Sft In The Spine Or Skull. A 54-year-woman Visited Our Hospital Due To Low Back Pain And Both Leg Radiating Pain. Several Imaging Studies Including Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Computed Tomography Revealed Expansive Enhanced Lesions In The Occipital Bone, T8, S1-2, And Ilium, With Neural Tissue Compression. We Performed Surgical Resection Of The Tumor In Each Site, And Postoperative Radiosurgery And Chemotherapy Were Performed. However, After Six Months, Tumors Were Recurred And Metastasized In Multiple Regions Including Whole Spine And Lung. The Authors Report Here The First Case Of Patient With Malignant Sft Of Tandem Lesions In The Various Bony Structures, Including Skull, Thoracic Spine, And Sacral Spine, With A Rapid Recurrence And Metastasis. Although Malignant Sft Is Extremely Rare, It Should Be Considered In The Differential Diagnosis And Carful Follow-up Is Needed.
Solitary fibrous tumors; Metastasis; Skull; Spine
Intra-cranial aneurysm can be incidental findings in patients with pituitary adenomas, and are usually located outside the pituitary region. However, the coexistence of intrasellar (not intracranial) aneurysms with pituitary adenomas is extremely rare. We report a patient with an incidental superior hypophygeal aneurysm embedded within a non-functional pituitary adenoma which was treated by transsphenoidal surgery after endovascular coil embolization.
Pituitary adenoma; Aneurysm; Therapeutic embolization; Surgical procedure
Spinal intradural hemangiopericytoma is a very rare tumor and can be characterized by massive bleeding during surgeries, frequent recurrence, and metastasis. However, definite radiologic differential points of hemangiopericytoma are not known. We describe an unexpected hemangiopericytoma case with large bleeding and management of the tumor. A 21-year-old man visited complaining of progressive neck pain and tingling sensation in both hands. Magnetic resonance imaging of his spine revealed C1-2 ventral intradural mass. When the dura was opened, the intradural tumor was placed behind spinal accessary nerves. The tumor was partially exposed only after some accessary nerves had been cut. When internal debulking was performing, unexpected bleeding was noted and it was difficult to control because of narrow surgical field and hypervascularity. Intraoperative spinal angiography and embolization were performed. The tumor was completely removed after embolization. Pathological diagnosis was consistent with hemangiopericytoma. When surgeons meet a flesh-red tumor that bleeds unexpectedly during surgery, hemangiopericytoma may be considered. When feeder control is hard due to reciprocal location of spinal cord, the tumor, and feeders, intraoperative angiography and embolization may be a possible option.
Hemangiopericytoma; Intradural; Spine; Surgery; Angiography
A 61-year-old woman with a very rare case of totally ossified large thoracic spinal metaplastic meningioma, showing progressing myelopathy is presented. Computed tomographic images showed a large totally ossfied intradural round mass occupying the spinal canal on T9-10 level. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large T9-10 intradural extramedullary mass that was hypointense to spinal cord on T1- and T2-weighted sequences, partial enhancement was apparent after Gadolinium administration. The spinal cord was severely compressed and displaced toward the right at the level of T9-10. Surgical removal of the tumor was successfully accomplished via the posterior midline approach and the histological diagnosis verified an ossified metaplastic meningioma. The clinical neurological symptoms of patient were improved postoperatively. In this article we discuss the surgical and pathological aspects of rare case of spinal totally ossified metaplastic meningioma.
Ossified spinal tumor; Metaplastic meningioma; Grossly total resection
We report a long-term survival case of a primary malignant intracerebral nerve sheath tumor (MINST) occurring in the right frontal lobe of a 13-year old boy. After the gross total resection (GTR), we have performed radiation therapy but it recurred 50 months after the surgery, so the second GTR was performed. Later, second tumor recurrence was found 4 months after the second surgery. Subsequently the third GTR, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were carried out. At present, the patient has been remaining alive for 77 months without evidence of tumor recurrence. According to the previous reports, the primary MINST is very rare : there are only 8 cases reported. It is also a fast-growing, invasive tumor with poor outcome. This is the first case that had no recurrence for 50 months after the surgery among the reported cases that had been followed up for more than 5 years. It is supposed that a period of recurrence free survival after GTR and low mitotic activity are associated with the patient's prognosis. A GTR followed by adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy will be recommended to patients of MINST.
Malignant intracerebral nerve sheath tumor; Gross total resection; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy
We report a case of bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) in a 75-year-old man after exercise using a vibrating belt machine on the head. He suffered from headache and intermittent left side numbness for ten days. He denied any head injuries except eccentric exercise using a vibrating belt on his own head for 20 days. An MRI revealed bilateral CSDH. The hematoma was isodense on the CT scan. We made burr-holes on the both sides under local anesthesia. We identified the neomembrane and dark red subdural fluid on both sides. In the postoperative CT scan, we found an arachnoid cyst on the left temporal pole. Although the arachnoid cyst itself is asymptomatic, trivial injury such as vibrating the head may cause a CSDH.
Chronic subdural hematoma; Craniocerebral trauma; Injuries; Vibration
Occipital neuralgia is a rare pain syndrome characterized by periodic lancinating pain involving the occipital nerve complex. We present a unique case of entrapment of the greater occipital nerve (GON) within the semispinalis capitis, which was thought to be the cause of occipital neuralgia. A 66-year-old woman with refractory left occipital neuralgia revealed an abnormally low-loop of the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery on the magnetic resonance imaging, suggesting possible vascular compression of the upper cervical roots. During exploration, however, the GON was found to be entrapped at the perforation site of the semispinalis capitis. There was no other compression of the GON or of C1 and C2 dorsal roots in their intracranial course. Postoperatively, the patient experienced almost complete relief of typical neuralgic pain. Although occipital neuralgia has been reported to occur by stretching of the GON by inferior oblique muscle or C1-C2 arthrosis, peripheral compression in the transmuscular course of the GON in the semispinalis capitis as a cause of refractory occipital neuralgia has not been reported and this should be considered when assessing surgical options for refractory occipital neuralgia.
Entrapment; Greater occipital nerve; Occipital neuralgia; Semispinalis capitis
Here, we report a rare case of an anaplastic astrocytoma masquerading as a hypertensive basal ganglia hemorrhage. A 69-year-old woman who had been under medical management for hypertension during the past 3 years suddenly developed right hemiparesis with dysarthria. Brain computed tomography (CT) scans with contrast and CT angiograms revealed an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the left basal ganglia, without an underlying lesion. She was treated conservatively, but underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation 3 months after the initial attack due to deteriorated mental status and chronic hydrocephalus. Three months later, her mental status deteriorated further. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium demonstrated an irregular enhanced mass in which the previous hemorrhage occurred. The final histological diagnosis which made by stereotactic biopsy was an anaplastic astrocytoma. In the present case, the diagnosis of a high grade glioma was delayed due to tumor bleeding mimicking hypertensive ICH. Thus, a careful review of neuroradiological images including MRI with a suspicion of tumor bleeding is needed even in the patients with past medical history of hypertension.
Basal ganglia; Intracerebral hemorrhage; Tumor bleeding; Brain tumor; Hypertension; Anaplastic astrocytoma
Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is commonly used procedure for spinal fusion. However, there are no reports describing anterior cage dislodgement after surgery. This report is a rare case of anterior dislodgement of fusion cage after TLIF for the treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis with lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV). A 51-year-old man underwent TLIF at L4-5 with posterior instrumentation for the treatment of grade 1 isthmic spondylolisthesis with LSTV. At 7 weeks postoperatively, imaging studies demonstrated that banana-shaped cage migrated anteriorly and anterolisthesis recurred at the index level with pseudoarthrosis. The cage was removed and exchanged by new cage through anterior approach, and screws were replaced with larger size ones and cement augmentation was added. At postoperative 2 days of revision surgery, computed tomography (CT) showed fracture on lateral pedicle and body wall of L5 vertebra. He underwent surgery again for paraspinal decompression at L4-5 and extension of instrumentation to S1 vertebra. His back and leg pains improved significantly after final revision surgery and symptom relief was maintained during follow-up period. At 6 months follow-up, CT images showed solid fusion at L4-5 level. Careful cage selection for TLIF must be done for treatment of spondylolisthesis accompanied with deformed LSTV, especially when reduction will be attempted. Banana-shaped cage should be positioned anteriorly, but anterior dislodgement of cage and reduction failure may occur in case of a highly unstable spine. Revision surgery for the treatment of an anteriorly dislodged cage may be effectively performed using an anterior approach.
Cage; Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion; Spondylolisthesis; Lumbosacral spine; Transitional vertebra
The small pituitary mass was incidentally found in 40-years-old women with renal cell carcinoma. The endocrinological and ophthalmological evaluation revealed no deficit and the short-term follow-up was recommended. In 6 months later, the visual disturbance was reported and the size of mass was increased. The tumor was removed totally via the trans-sphenoid approach. The post-operative endocrinological insufficiency was not noticed. During one year of follow-up period, there was no evidence of recurrence without adjuvant radiotherapy. The clinical features of pituitary metastasis from renal cell carcinoma were similar to those of pituitary adenoma. The possibility of pituitary metastasis should be kept in mind in patients with sellar mass and renal cell carcinoma.
Pituitary; Metastasis; Renal cell carcinoma
A 65-year-old male presented with pain in his right medial calf. An imaging study revealed no acute lesions, and a diagnosis of saphenous neuralgia was made by a nerve conduction study. He received temporary pain relief with saphenous nerve blocks twice in a one-week interval. Pulsed radiofrequency neuromodulation reduced pain to 10% of the maximal pain intensity. At 6 months after the procedure, the pain intensity was not aggravated even without medication. Pulsed radiofrequency neuromodulation of the saphenous nerve may offer an effective and minimally invasive treatment for patients with saphenous neuralgia who are refractory to conservative management.
Neuromodulation; Pulsed radiofrequency; Saphenous neuralgia
Presented here is a 36-year-old male with arterial hypertension who developed brainstem edema and intracranial hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance scan revealed diffuse brainstem hyperintensity in T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery images, with an increase in apparent diffusion coefficient values. After a reduction in blood pressure, rapid resolution of the brainstem edema was observed on follow-up. The patient's condition was thus interpreted as hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy. While many consider this a vasogenic phenomenon, induced by sudden, severe hypertension, the precise mechanism remains unclear. Prompt recognition and aggressive antihypertensive treatment in such patients are essential to prevent permanent or life-threatening neurologic injury.
Brain stem; Edema; Encephalopathy; Hypertension
A 49-year-old female with a history of several neurosurgical and otolaryngologic procedures for occipital meningioma and cerebrospinal fluid leaks was diagnosed with pneumocephalus after a one hour flight on a domestic jet airliner. Despite multiple operations, the air appeared to enter the cranium through a weak portion of the skull base due to the low atmospheric pressure in the cabin. The intracranial air was absorbed with conservative management. The patient was recommended not to fly before a definite diagnostic work up and a sealing procedure for the cerebrospinal fluid leak site had been performed. Recent advances in aviation technology have enabled many people to travel by air, including individuals with medical conditions. Low cabin pressure is not dangerous to healthy individuals; however, practicing consultant neurosurgeons should understand the cabin environment and prepare high risk patients for safe air travel.
Air travel; Cerebrospinal fluid leak; Pneumocephalus
We present a case of acute hydrocephalus secondary to cervical spinal cord injury in a patient with diffuse ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). A 75-year-old male patient visited the emergency department with tetraparesis and spinal shock. Imaging studies showed cervical spinal cord injury with hemorrhage and diffuse OPLL from C1 to C4. We performed decompressive laminectomy and occipitocervical fusion. Two days after surgery, his mental status had deteriorated to drowsiness with dilatation of the right pupil. Findings on brain computed tomography revealed acute hydrocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the cerebellomedullary cistern, therefore, extraventricular drainage was performed immediately. Acute hydrocephalus as a complication of cervical spine trauma is rare, however, it should be considered if the patient shows deterioration of neurologic symptoms.
Hydrocephalus; Spinal cord injuries; Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine
Intracranial calcifications are relatively common computed tomographic findings in the field of neurosurgery, and cysticercosis, tuberculosis, HIV, and cryptococcus are acquired intracranial infections typically associated with calcifications. However, intracranial calcification caused by a bacterial brain abscess is rare. Here, we present a rare case of intracranial calcification caused by a bacterial brain abscess, from which staphylococcus hominis was isolated. To the best of our knowledge, no previous report has been published on intracranial calcification caused by bacterial brain abscess after decompressive craniectomy for traumatic brain injury. In this article, the pathophysiological mechanism of this uncommon entity is discussed and relevant literature reviewed.
Brain abscess; Calcification